bims-mimbat Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in brown adipose tissue
Issue of 2022‒12‒11
eighteen papers selected by
José Carlos de Lima-Júnior
Washington University

  1. Dev Cell. 2022 Dec 05. pii: S1534-5807(22)00788-2. [Epub ahead of print]57(23): 2623-2637.e8
      De novo beige adipocyte biogenesis involves the proliferation of progenitor cells in white adipose tissue (WAT); however, what regulates this process remains unclear. Here, we report that in mouse models but also in human tissues, WAT lipolysis-derived linoleic acid triggers beige progenitor cell proliferation following cold acclimation, β3-adrenoceptor activation, and burn injury. A subset of adipocyte progenitors, as marked by cell surface markers PDGFRα or Sca1 and CD81, harbored cristae-rich mitochondria and actively imported linoleic acid via a fatty acid transporter CD36. Linoleic acid not only was oxidized as fuel in the mitochondria but also was utilized for the synthesis of arachidonic acid-derived signaling entities such as prostaglandin D2. Oral supplementation of linoleic acid was sufficient to stimulate beige progenitor cell proliferation, even under thermoneutral conditions, in a CD36-dependent manner. Together, this study provides mechanistic insights into how diverse pathophysiological stimuli, such as cold and burn injury, promote de novo beige fat biogenesis.
    Keywords:  adipose tissue development; beige adipocytes; bioenergetics; brown adipose tissue; lipolysis; metabolic disease; progenitor cells; white adipose tissue
  2. Nature. 2022 Dec 07.
      Multilocular adipocytes are a hallmark of thermogenic adipose tissue1,2, but the factors that enforce this cellular phenotype are largely unknown. Here, we show that an adipocyte-selective product of the Clstn3 locus (CLSTN3β) present in only placental mammals facilitates the efficient use of stored triglyceride by limiting lipid droplet (LD) expansion. CLSTN3β is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that localizes to ER-LD contact sites through a conserved hairpin-like domain. Mice lacking CLSTN3β have abnormal LD morphology and altered substrate use in brown adipose tissue, and are more susceptible to cold-induced hypothermia despite having no defect in adrenergic signalling. Conversely, forced expression of CLSTN3β is sufficient to enforce a multilocular LD phenotype in cultured cells and adipose tissue. CLSTN3β associates with cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector proteins and impairs their ability to transfer lipid between LDs, thereby restricting LD fusion and expansion. Functionally, increased LD surface area in CLSTN3β-expressing adipocytes promotes engagement of the lipolytic machinery and facilitates fatty acid oxidation. In human fat, CLSTN3B is a selective marker of multilocular adipocytes. These findings define a molecular mechanism that regulates LD form and function to facilitate lipid utilization in thermogenic adipocytes.
  3. Mitochondrion. 2022 Nov 30. pii: S1567-7249(22)00104-0. [Epub ahead of print]68 87-104
      Respiratory Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is composed of 45 subunits, seven mitochondrially-encoded and 38 imported. Mutations in the nuclearly-encoded subunits have been regularly discovered in humans in recent years, and many lead to cardiomyopathy, Leigh Syndrome, and early death. From the literature, we have identified mutations at 17 different sites and constructed 31 mutants in a bacterial model system. Many of these mutations, found in NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS8, and NDUFV1, map to subunit interfaces, and we hypothesized that they would disrupt assembly of Complex I. The mutations were constructed in the homologous E. coli genes, nuoG, nuoCD, nuoI and nuoF, respectively, and expressed from a plasmid containing all Complex I genes. Membrane vesicles were prepared and rates of deamino-NADH oxidase activity measured, which indicated a range of reduced activity. Some mutants were also analyzed using recently developed assays of assembly, time-delayed expression, and co-immunoprecipitation, which showed that assembly was disrupted. With compound heterozygotes, we determined which mutation was more deleterious. Construction of alanine mutations allowed us to distinguish between phenotypes that were caused by loss of the original amino acid or introduction of the mutant residue.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Cardiomyopathy; Complex I; Mitochondria; Mutations; NADH dehydrogenase
  4. Cell Metab. 2022 Dec 06. pii: S1550-4131(22)00499-5. [Epub ahead of print]34(12): 1901-1903
      Mitochondrial genetic diseases are a very diverse group of conditions. A recent report by Mootha and colleagues in NEJM describes the underlying genetic defect and clinical findings in monozygotic twins with uncoupling of ATP production.
  5. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 1017381
      Thyroid hormones (THs) play a major role regulating energy balance and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, as well as body temperature, as shown in hyperthyroid patients. However, the current landscape of preclinical thyroid hormone models is complex. For example, while rats become catabolic after TH administration, mice gain weight; so, these differences in species need to be analyzed in detail and specially whether temperature could be a factor. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of environmental temperature on those actions. Rats were subcutaneously treated with L-thyroxine (T4) or stereotaxically within the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) with triiodothyronine (T3) and housed at 23°C, 4°C or 30°C; energy balance, BAT thermogenesis and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the VMH were analyzed. Our data showed that the effect of both systemic T4 of central T3 on energy balance and BAT thermogenesis was dependent upon environmental temperature. This evidence is of interest in the design of experimental settings highlighting the species-specific metabolic actions of THs, and in understanding its physiological role in the adaptation to temperature.
    Keywords:  AMPK; brown adipose tissue; hypothalamus; temperature; thermogenesis; thyroid hormones
  6. J Physiol. 2022 Dec 04.
    Keywords:  UCP1; brown adipose tissue; fat oxidation; mitochondria; obesity; rat
  7. Sci Rep. 2022 Dec 07. 12(1): 21161
      The mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) uniporter (MCU) channel is responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ influx. Its expression was found to be upregulated in endothelial cells (ECs) under cardiovascular disease conditions. Since the role of MCU in regulating cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis in ECs exposed to shear stress (SS) is unknown, we studied mitochondrial Ca2+ dynamics (that is known to decode cytosolic Ca2+ signaling) in sheared ECs. To understand cause-and-effect, we ectopically expressed MCU in ECs. A higher percentage of MCU-transduced ECs exhibited mitochondrial Ca2+ transients/oscillations, and at higher frequency, under SS compared to sheared control ECs. Transients/oscillations correlated with mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) flashes and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) flickers, and depended on activation of the mechanosensitive Piezo1 channel and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). A positive feedback loop composed of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake/mROS flashes/ΔΨm flickers and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, in association with Piezo1 and eNOS, provided insights into the mechanism by which SS, under conditions of high MCU activity, may shape vascular EC energetics and function.
  8. Elife. 2022 Dec 05. pii: e83299. [Epub ahead of print]11
      How cellular metabolic state impacts cellular programs is a fundamental, unresolved question. Here we investigated how glycolytic flux impacts embryonic development, using presomitic mesoderm (PSM) patterning as the experimental model. First, we identified fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) as an in vivo sentinel metabolite that mirrors glycolytic flux within PSM cells of post-implantation mouse embryos. We found that medium-supplementation with FBP, but not with other glycolytic metabolites, such as fructose 6-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate, impaired mesoderm segmentation. To genetically manipulate glycolytic flux and FBP levels, we generated a mouse model enabling the conditional overexpression of dominant active, cytoplasmic PFKFB3 (cytoPFKFB3). Overexpression of cytoPFKFB3 indeed led to increased glycolytic flux/FBP levels and caused an impairment of mesoderm segmentation, paralleled by the downregulation of Wnt-signaling, reminiscent of the effects seen upon FBP-supplementation. To probe for mechanisms underlying glycolytic flux-signaling, we performed subcellular proteome analysis and revealed that cytoPFKFB3 overexpression altered subcellular localization of certain proteins, including glycolytic enzymes, in PSM cells. Specifically, we revealed that FBP supplementation caused depletion of Pfkl and Aldoa from the nuclear-soluble fraction. Combined, we propose that FBP functions as a flux-signaling metabolite connecting glycolysis and PSM patterning, potentially through modulating subcellular protein localization.
    Keywords:  developmental biology; mouse
  9. J Exp Biol. 2022 Dec 08. pii: jeb.244923. [Epub ahead of print]
      Most insects can acclimate to changes in their thermal environment and counteract temperature effects on neuromuscular function. At the critical thermal minimum a spreading depolarization (SD) event silences central neurons, but the temperature at which this event occurs can be altered through acclimation. SD is triggered by an inability to maintain ion homeostasis in the extracellular space in the brain and is characterized by a rapid surge in extracellular K+ concentration, implicating ion pump and channel function. Here, we focused on the role of the Na+/K+-ATPase specifically in lowering the SD temperature in cold-acclimated D. melanogaster. After first confirming cold acclimation altered SD onset, we investigated the dependency of the SD event on Na+/K+-ATPase activity by injecting an inhibitor, ouabain, into the head of the flies to induce SD over a range of temperatures. Latency to SD followed the pattern of a thermal performance curve, but cold acclimation resulted in a left-shift of the curve to an extent similar to its effect on the SD temperature. With Na+/K+-ATPase activity assays and immunoblots, we found that cold-acclimated flies have ion pumps that are less sensitive to temperature, but do not differ in their overall abundance in the brain. Combined, these findings suggest a key role for plasticity in Na+/K+-ATPase thermal sensitivity in maintaining central nervous system function in the cold, and more broadly highlight that a single ion pump can be an important determinant of whether insects can respond to their environment to remain active at low temperatures.
    Keywords:  Chill coma; Critical thermal minimum; Enzyme kinetics; Glia; Ionoregulation; Sodium pump
  10. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2022 Dec 06. pii: S0005-2728(22)00419-4. [Epub ahead of print] 148949
      Dysfunction of the aging heart is a major cause of death in the human population. Amongst other tasks, mitochondria are pivotal to supply the working heart with ATP. The mitochondrial inner membrane (IMM) ultrastructure is tailored to meet these demands and to provide nano-compartments for specific tasks. Thus, function and morphology are closely coupled. Senescent cardiomyocytes from the mouse heart display alterations of the inner mitochondrial membrane. To study the relation between inner mitochondrial membrane architecture, dynamics and function is hardly possible in living organisms. Here, we present two cardiomyocyte senescence cell models that allow in cellular studies of mitochondrial performance. We show that doxorubicin treatment transforms human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in an aged phenotype. The treated cardiomyocytes display double-strand breaks in the nDNA, have β-galactosidase activity, possess enlarged nuclei, and show p21 upregulation. Most importantly, they also display a compromised inner mitochondrial structure. This prompted us to test whether the dynamics of the inner membrane was also altered. We found that the exchange of IMM components after organelle fusion was faster in doxorubicin-treated cells than in control cells, with no change in mitochondrial fusion dynamics at the meso-scale. Such altered IMM morphology and dynamics may have important implications for local OXPHOS protein organization, exchange of damaged components, and eventually the mitochondrial bioenergetics function of the aged cardiomyocyte.
    Keywords:  Cardiomyocytes; Cristae structure; Doxorubicin; Inner mitochondrial membrane dynamics; Mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics; Senescence
  11. Free Radic Biol Med. 2022 Nov 30. pii: S0891-5849(22)01013-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      There is a dearth of evidence-based reports linking the generation of free radicals and associated redox modifications with other major physiological changes of the sleep-wake cycle. To address this shortcoming, we examine and hypothesize that circadian/ultradian interaction of the redoxome, bioenergetics, and thermal signaling strongly regulate the differential activities of the sleep-wake cycle. Post-translational modifications of proteins by reversible cysteine oxoforms, S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation, are shown to play a major role regulating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, protein synthesis, respiration, and metabolomics. Protein synthesis and nuclear DNA repair are maximized during the wake state, whereas the redoxome is restored and mitochondrial protection is maximized during sleep. Hence, our analysis of redox/bioenergetics/temperature cycling indicates that the wake phase is more restorative and protective to the nucleus, whereas sleep is more restorative and protective to mitochondria. The redox/bioenergetics/temperature regulatory hypothesis adds to the understanding of mitochondrial respiratory uncoupling, substrate or futile cycling control, sudden infant death syndrome, torpor and hibernation and space radiation effects. Similarly, the hypothesis clarifies how the oscillatory redox/bioenergetics/temperature-regulated sleep-wake states, when perturbed by mitochondrial interactome disturbances, contribute to aging and the pathogenesis of diseases of the metabolism and cerebral nervous system.
    Keywords:  Circadian; Mitochondria; Nuclear; Oxidative stress; Redoxome; S-glutathionylation; S-nitrosylation; Sleep; Substrate cycles; Uncoupling
  12. Nat Commun. 2022 Dec 07. 13(1): 7536
      The role of non-neuronal glial cells in the regulation of adipose sympathetic nerve activity and adipocyte functions such as white adipose tissue lipid lipolysis is poorly understood. Here, we combine chemo/optogenetic manipulations of medio-basal hypothalamic astrocytes, real-time fiber photometry monitoring of white adipose tissue norepinephrine (NE) contents and nerve activities, electrophysiological recordings of local sympathetic inputs to inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), and adipose tissue lipid lipolytic assays to define the functional roles of hypothalamic astrocytes in the regulation of iWAT sympathetic outflow and lipolysis. Our results show that astrocyte stimulation elevates iWAT NE contents, excites sympathetic neural inputs and promotes lipolysis. Mechanistically, we find that sympathetic paravertebral ganglia (PG) partake in those astrocyte effects. We also find that astrocyte stimulation excites pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH), and chemogenetic inhibition of POMC neurons blunts the effects induced by astrocyte stimulation. While we cannot exclude potential roles played by other cell populations such as microglia, our findings in this study reveal a central astrocyte-peripheral adipocyte axis modulating sympathetic drive to adipose tissues and adipocyte functions, one that might serve as a target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of obesity.
  13. Diabetes. 2022 Dec 06. pii: db220552. [Epub ahead of print]
      The imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure leads to the prevalence of obesity world-widely. Strategy to simultaneously limit energy intake and promote energy expenditure will serve as a powerful mean for new obesity treatment. Here, we identified Rhamnose as a non-nutritive sweetener to promote adipose thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Rhamnose promotes cAMP production and PKA activation through dopamine receptor D1 in adipose tissue. As a result, Rhamnose administration promotes UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and ameliorates obesity in mice. Thus, we have demonstrated a Rhamnose-dopamine receptor D1-PKA axis critical for thermogenesis and Rhamnose may serve as a new therapeutic molecular diet against obesity.
  14. EMBO J. 2022 Dec 09. e111065
      Phospholipid extrusion by ABC subfamily A (ABCA) exporters is central to cellular physiology, although the specifics of the underlying substrate interactions and transport mechanisms remain poorly resolved at the molecular level. Here we report cryo-EM structures of lipid-embedded human ABCA7 in an open state and in a nucleotide-bound, closed state at resolutions between 3.6 and 4.0 Å. The former reveals an ordered patch of bilayer lipids traversing the transmembrane domain (TMD), while the latter reveals a lipid-free, closed TMD with a small extracellular opening. These structures offer a structural framework for both substrate entry and exit from the ABCA7 TMD and highlight conserved rigid-body motions that underlie the associated conformational transitions. Combined with functional analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, our data also shed light on lipid partitioning into the ABCA7 TMD and localized membrane perturbations that underlie ABCA7 function and have broader implications for other ABCA family transporters.
    Keywords:  ABCA7; Alzheimer's disease; cryo-EM; exporter; flippase
  15. Biophys J. 2022 Dec 03. pii: S0006-3495(22)03890-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      The type 2a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) plays a central role in the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis of cardiac myocytes, pumping Ca2+ from the cytoplasm into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lumen to maintain relaxation (diastole) and prepare for contraction (systole). Diminished SERCA2a function has been reported in several pathological conditions, including heart failure. Therefore, development of new drugs that improve SERCA2a Ca2+ transport is of great clinical significance. In this study, we characterized the effect of a recently identified N-aryl-N-alkyl-thiophene-2-carboxamide (or compound 1) on SERCA2a Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+ transport activities in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, and on Ca2+ regulation in a HEK293 cell expression system and in mouse ventricular myocytes. We found that compound 1 enhances SERCA2a Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+ transport in SR vesicles. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between SERCA2a and phospholamban (PLB) indicated that compound 1 interacts with the SERCA-PLB complex. Measurement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ dynamics in HEK293 cells expressing human SERCA2a showed that compound 1 increases ER Ca2+ load by enhancing SERCA2a-mediated Ca2+ transport. Analysis of cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics in mouse ventricular myocytes revealed that compound 1 increases the action potential-induced Ca2+ transients and SR Ca2+ load, with negligible effects on L-type Ca2+ channels and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. However, during adrenergic receptor activation, compound 1 did not further increase Ca2+ transients and SR Ca2+ load, but it decreased the propensity toward Ca2+ waves. Suggestive of concurrent desirable effects of compound 1 on RyR2, [3H]-ryanodine binding to cardiac SR vesicles shows a small decrease in nM Ca2+ and a small increase in μM Ca2+. Accordingly, compound 1 slightly decreased Ca2+ sparks in permeabilized myocytes. Thus, this novel compound shows promising characteristics to improve intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes that exhibit reduced SERCA2a Ca2+ uptake, as found in failing hearts.
    Keywords:  Ca(2+) ATPase; Ca(2+) pump; Ca(2+) signaling; heart; sarcoplasmic reticulum
  16. Cell Rep. 2022 Dec 06. pii: S2211-1247(22)01657-6. [Epub ahead of print]41(10): 111774
      Mitochondrial damage causes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release to activate the type I interferon (IFN-I) response via the cGAS-STING pathway. mtDNA-induced inflammation promotes autoimmune- and aging-related degenerative disorders. However, the global picture of inflammation-inducing mitochondrial damages remains obscure. Here, we have performed a mitochondria-targeted CRISPR knockout screen for regulators of the IFN-I response. Strikingly, our screen reveals dozens of hits enriched with key regulators of cristae architecture, including phospholipid cardiolipin and protein complexes such as OPA1, mitochondrial contact site and cristae organization (MICOS), sorting and assembly machinery (SAM), mitochondrial intermembrane space bridging (MIB), prohibitin (PHB), and the F1Fo-ATP synthase. Disrupting these cristae organizers consistently induces mtDNA release and the STING-dependent IFN-I response. Furthermore, knocking out MTX2, a subunit of the SAM complex whose null mutations cause progeria in humans, induces a robust STING-dependent IFN-I response in mouse liver. Taken together, beyond revealing the central role of cristae architecture to prevent mtDNA release and inflammation, our results mechanistically link mitochondrial cristae disorganization and inflammation, two emerging hallmarks of aging and aging-related degenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  CP: Cell biology; CP: Molecular biology; MICOS; Metaxin2; OPA1; SAM; cGAS-STING; cristae architecture; inflammation; mtDNA release; type I interferon response
  17. Nat Commun. 2022 Dec 03. 13(1): 7467
      Piezo1 is a bona fide mechanosensitive ion channel ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. The distribution of Piezo1 within a cell is essential for various biological processes including cytokinesis, cell migration, and wound healing. However, the underlying principles that guide the subcellular distribution of Piezo1 remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane curvature serves as a key regulator of the spatial distribution of Piezo1 in the plasma membrane of living cells. Piezo1 depletes from highly curved membrane protrusions such as filopodia and enriches to nanoscale membrane invaginations. Quantification of the curvature-dependent sorting of Piezo1 directly reveals the in situ nano-geometry of the Piezo1-membrane complex. Piezo1 density on filopodia increases upon activation, independent of calcium, suggesting flattening of the channel upon opening. Consequently, the expression of Piezo1 inhibits filopodia formation, an effect that diminishes with channel activation.