bims-mimbat Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in brown adipose tissue
Issue of 2022‒06‒26
eleven papers selected by
José Carlos de Lima-Júnior
University of California San Francisco

  1. Nat Commun. 2022 Jun 23. 13(1): 3585
      Mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers import ADP into the mitochondrial matrix and export ATP to the cytosol to fuel cellular processes. Structures of the inhibited cytoplasmic- and matrix-open states have confirmed an alternating access transport mechanism, but the molecular details of substrate binding remain unresolved. Here, we evaluate the role of the solvent-exposed residues of the translocation pathway in the process of substrate binding. We identify the main binding site, comprising three positively charged and a set of aliphatic and aromatic residues, which bind ADP and ATP in both states. Additionally, there are two pairs of asparagine/arginine residues on opposite sides of this site that are involved in substrate binding in a state-dependent manner. Thus, the substrates are directed through a series of binding poses, inducing the conformational changes of the carrier that lead to their translocation. The properties of this site explain the electrogenic and reversible nature of adenine nucleotide transport.
  2. J Physiol Sci. 2022 Jun 20. 72(1): 13
      Brown adipocytes expend energy via heat production and are a potential target for the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Piezo1 is a Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel activated by mechanical stimuli. Piezo1 is reported to be involved in mechano-sensation in non-sensory tissues. However, the expression and roles of Piezo1 in brown adipocytes have not been well clarified. Here, we generated a brown adipocyte line derived from UCP1-mRFP1 transgenic mice and showed that Piezo1 is expressed in pre-adipocytes. Application of Yoda-1, a Piezo1 agonist, suppressed brown adipocyte differentiation, and this suppression was significantly attenuated by treatment with a Piezo1 antagonist and by Piezo1 knockdown. Furthermore, the suppression of brown adipocyte differentiation by Yoda-1 was abolished by co-treatment with a calcineurin inhibitor. Thus, these results suggest that activation of Piezo1 suppresses brown adipocyte differentiation via the calcineurin pathway.
    Keywords:  Brown adipocyte; Calcineurin pathway; Differentiation; Piezo channel
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 12. pii: 6563. [Epub ahead of print]23(12):
      Decidual protein induced by progesterone (DEPP) was originally identified as a modulator in the process of decidualization in the endometrium. Here, we define that DEPP is involved in adipose tissue thermogenesis, which contributes to metabolic regulation. Knockdown of DEPP suppressed adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, induced expression of brown adipose tissue (BAT) markers in primary brown adipocyte and induced mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) differentiation to brown adipocytes. Moreover, DEPP deficiency in mice induced white adipocyte browning and enhanced BAT activity. Cold exposure stimulated more browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and maintained higher body temperature in DEPP knockout mice compared to that in wild-type control mice. DEPP deficiency also protected mice against high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that DEPP competitively binds SIRT1, inhibiting the interaction between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Collectively, these findings suggest that DEPP plays a crucial role in orchestrating thermogenesis through regulating adipocyte programs and thus might be a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders.
    Keywords:  brown adipose tissue; decidual protein induced by progesterone; diabetes; insulin sensitivity; obesity; thermogenesis; white adipose tissue
  4. Front Genet. 2022 ;13 913030
      Active thermogenic adipocytes avidly consume energy substrates like fatty acids and glucose to maintain body temperature upon cold exposure. Despite strong evidence for the involvement of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in controlling systemic energy homeostasis upon nutrient excess, it is unclear how the activity of brown adipocytes is regulated in times of nutrient scarcity. Therefore, this study aimed to scrutinize factors that modulate BAT activity to balance thermogenic and energetic needs upon simultaneous fasting and cold stress. For an unbiased view, we performed transcriptomic and miRNA sequencing analyses of BAT from acutely fasted (24 h) mice under mild cold exposure. Combining these data with in-depth bioinformatic analyses and in vitro gain-of-function experiments, we define a previously undescribed axis of p53 inducing miR-92a-1-5p transcription that is highly upregulated by fasting in thermogenic adipocytes. p53, a fasting-responsive transcription factor, was previously shown to control genes involved in the thermogenic program and miR-92a-1-5p was found to negatively correlate with human BAT activity. Here, we identify fructose transporter Slc2a5 as one direct downstream target of this axis and show that fructose can be taken up by and metabolized in brown adipocytes. In sum, this study delineates a fasting-induced pathway involving p53 that transactivates miR-92a-1-5p, which in turn decreases Slc2a5 expression, and suggests fructose as an energy substrate in thermogenic adipocytes.
    Keywords:  brown adipose tissue; fasting; fructose; metabolism; miRNA; p53
  5. J Biol Chem. 2022 Jun 21. pii: S0021-9258(22)00601-9. [Epub ahead of print] 102159
      Lysosomal storage diseases result in various developmental and physiological complications, including cachexia. To study the causes for the negative energy balance associated with cachexia, we assessed the impact of sulfamidase deficiency and heparan sulfate storage on energy homeostasis and metabolism in a mouse model of Type IIIa mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IIIa, Sanfilippo A syndrome). At 12 weeks of age, MPS IIIa mice exhibited fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia compared to wild-type mice, with a reduction of white and brown adipose tissue depots. Partitioning of dietary [3H]triolein showed a marked increase in intestinal uptake and secretion, whereas hepatic production and clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins did not differ from wild-type controls. Uptake of dietary triolein was also elevated in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and notable increases in beige adipose tissue occurred, resulting in hyperthermia, hyperphagia, hyperdipsia, and increased energy expenditure. Furthermore, fasted MPS IIIa mice remained hyperthermic when subjected to low temperature, but became cachexic and profoundly hypothermic when treated with a lipolytic inhibitor. We demonstrated the reliance on increased lipid fueling of BAT was driven by a reduced ability to generate energy from stored lipids within the depot. These alterations arose from impaired autophagosome-lysosome fusion, resulting in increased mitochondria content in beige and BAT. Finally, we show the increased mitochondria content in BAT and postprandial dyslipidemia was partially reversed upon a 5-week treatment with recombinant sulfamidase. We hypothesize that increased BAT activity and persistent increases in energy demand in MPS IIIa mice contribute to the negative energy balance observed in MPS IIIa patients.
    Keywords:  Mucopolysaccharidoses; autophagy; dyslipidemia; hyperthermia; mitochondria; sulfamidase
  6. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 17. pii: 6764. [Epub ahead of print]23(12):
      Brown/beige adipocyte thermogenesis is a process that is important for energy balance. The thermogenesis of brown/beige adipocytes occurs in the mitochondria, which is modulated by the dynamic balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission. Mitophagy is also involved in mitochondrial dynamics. The sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) complex protein, SAMM50, plays a key role in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control through regulating mitophagy. However, the roles of SAMM50 in the thermogenesis of beige adipocytes remain unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct functional analyses of SAMM50. The expression of mitochondrial fusion genes was repressed by SAMM50 knockdown but was not altered by SAMM50 overexpression. These results agreed with the distribution of the fluorescence-stained mitochondria and an mtDNA copy number. In contrast, the expression of mitochondrial fission genes showed an opposite outcome. As a result, suppression by the SAMM50 shRNA inhibited the expression of thermogenic genes (UCP1, PPARGC1A, DIO2, ELOVL3, CIDEA, and CIDEC) and mitochondrial-related genes (CYCS, COX7A1, TFAM, CPT1B, and CPT2). Conversely, SAMM50 overexpression promoted the expression of the thermogenic genes and mitochondrial genes. Thus, SAMM50 links the balance between the mitochondrial dynamics and thermogenesis of beige adipocytes.
    Keywords:  SAMM50; UCP1; adipose-derived stem cells; mitochondrial dynamics; obesity; thermogenic adipocytes
  7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Jun 28. 119(26): e2205626119
      β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling plays predominant roles in modulating energy expenditure by triggering lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue, thereby conferring obesity resistance. Obesity is associated with diminished β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) expression and decreased β-adrenergic responses, but the molecular mechanism coupling nutrient overload to catecholamine resistance remains poorly defined. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are dioxygenases that alter the methylation status of DNA by oxidizing 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and further oxidized derivatives. Here, we show that TET proteins are pivotal epigenetic suppressors of β3-AR expression in adipocytes, thereby attenuating the responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation. Deletion of all three Tet genes in adipocytes led to increased β3-AR expression and thereby enhanced the downstream β-adrenergic responses, including lipolysis, thermogenic gene induction, oxidative metabolism, and fat browning in vitro and in vivo. In mouse adipose tissues, Tet expression was elevated after mice ate a high-fat diet. Mice with adipose-specific ablation of all TET proteins maintained higher levels of β3-AR in both white and brown adipose tissues and remained sensitive to β-AR stimuli under high-fat diet challenge, leading to augmented energy expenditure and decreased fat accumulation. Consequently, they exhibited improved cold tolerance and were substantially protected from diet-induced obesity, inflammation, and metabolic complications, including insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Mechanistically, TET proteins directly repressed β3-AR transcription, mainly in an enzymatic activity-independent manner, and involved the recruitment of histone deacetylases to increase deacetylation of its promoter. Thus, the TET-histone deacetylase-β3-AR axis could be targeted to treat obesity and related metabolic diseases.
    Keywords:  HDACs; TET proteins; catecholamine resistance; obesity; β3-AR
  8. Cytokine. 2022 Jun 20. pii: S1043-4666(22)00145-4. [Epub ahead of print]157 155936
      Brown/beige adipocytes, which are derived from skeletal muscle/smooth muscle-lineage cells, consume excess energy as heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Previous studies have shown that forced expression of PR/SET domain (PRDM)-16 or early B-cell factor (EBF)-2 induced UCP1-positive adipocytes in C2C12 myogenic cells. Here, we explored the culture conditions to induce Ucp1 expression in C2C12 cells without introducing exogenous genes. Treatment with rosiglitazone (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist), GW501516 (a PPARδ agonist), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 for 8 days efficiently increased Ucp1 expression in response to treatment with forskolin, an activator of the protein kinase A pathway. BMP7 dose-dependently increased forskolin-induced Ucp1 expression in the presence of rosiglitazone and GW501516; however, GW501516 was not required for Ucp1 induction. Additionally, the structurally related proteins, BMP6 and BMP9, efficiently increased forskolin-induced Ucp1 expression in rosiglitazone-treated cells. UCP1 protein was localized in cells with lipid droplets, but adipocytes were not always positive for UCP1. Continuous treatment with BMP7 was needed for the efficient induction of Ucp1 by forskolin treatment. Significant expression of Prdm16 was not detected, irrespective of the treatment, and treatment with rosiglitazone, GW501516, and BMP7 did not affect the expression levels of Ebf2. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (Fgfr)-3 expression levels were increased by BMP9 in rosiglitazone-treated cells, and molecules that upregulate Fgfr3 transcription partly overlapped with those that stimulate Ucp1 transcription. The present results provide basic information on the practical differentiation of myogenic cells to brown adipocytes.
    Keywords:  Adipocyte; BMP; Myogenic cell; UCP1
  9. Curr Biol. 2022 Jun 20. pii: S0960-9822(22)00765-5. [Epub ahead of print]32(12): R618-R623
      Mitochondria are central to cellular metabolism. They provide intermediate metabolites that are used in biosynthetic pathways and they process diet-derived nutrients into the energy-rich compound ATP. Mitochondrial ATP biosynthesis is a marvel of thermodynamic efficiency. Via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and fatty acid β-oxidation, mitochondria extract electrons from dietary carbon compounds and pass them to nucleotides that ultimately deliver them to the respiratory chain complexes located in invaginations in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) known as cristae. The respiratory chain complexes donate electrons in stepwise redox reactions to molecular oxygen and, with the exception of complex II, use the liberated energy to pump protons across the proton-impermeable IMM, generating a proton electrochemical gradient. This gradient is then utilized by the ATP synthase, which, in a rotary mechanism, catalyzes the formation of the high-energy γ-phosphate chemical bond between ADP and inorganic phosphate. The conversion of the chemical energy of carbon compounds into a physical, vectorial form of energy (the electrochemical gradient) maximizes the yield of the ATP biosynthetic process and is perhaps one of the foundations of life as we know it.
  10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Jun 28. 119(26): e2123247119
      Mitochondria, a highly metabolically active organelle, have been shown to play an essential role in regulating innate immune function. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) is an essential process regulating mitochondrial metabolism by targeting key enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). Accumulative evidence suggests MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling may bridge the metabolic reprogramming and regulation of immune cell function. However, the mechanism by which MCU regulates inflammation and its related disease remains elusive. Here we report a critical role of MCU in promoting phagocytosis-dependent activation of NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome by inhibiting phagolysosomal membrane repair. Myeloid deletion of MCU (McuΔmye) resulted in an attenuated phagolysosomal rupture, leading to decreased caspase-1 cleavage and interleukin (IL)-1β release, in response to silica or alum challenge. In contrast, other inflammasome agonists such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nigericin, poly(dA:dT), and flagellin induced normal IL-1β release in McuΔmye macrophages. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in McuΔmye macrophages was caused by improved phagolysosomal membrane repair mediated by ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-III complex. Furthermore, McuΔmye mice showed a pronounced decrease in immune cell recruitment and IL-1β production in alum-induced peritonitis, a typical IL-1-dependent inflammation model. In sum, our results identify a function of MCU in promoting phagocytosis-dependent NLRP3 inflammatory response via an ESCRT-mediated phagolysosomal membrane repair mechanism.
    Keywords:  ESCRT; MCU; inflammasome; phagosome
  11. Free Radic Biol Med. 2022 Jun 16. pii: S0891-5849(22)00452-X. [Epub ahead of print]188 92-102
      The rates of formation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide at different electron-donating sites in isolated mitochondria are critically dependent on the substrates that are added, through their effects on the reduction level of each site and the components of the protonmotive force. However, in intact cells the acute effects of added substrates on different sites of cytosolic and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production are unclear. Here we tested the effects of substrate addition on cytosolic and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide release from intact AML12 liver cells. In 30-min starved cells replete with endogenous substrates, addition of glucose, fructose, palmitate, alanine, leucine or glutamine had no effect on the rate or origin of cellular hydrogen peroxide release. However, following 150-min starvation of the cells to deplete endogenous glycogen (and other substrates), cellular hydrogen peroxide production, particularly from NADPH oxidases (NOXs), was decreased, GSH/GSSH ratio increased, and antioxidant gene expression was unchanged. Addition of glucose or glutamine (but not the other substrates) increased hydrogen peroxide release. There were similar relative increases from each of the three major sites of production: mitochondrial sites IQ and IIIQo, and cytosolic NOXs. Glucose supplementation also restored ATP production and mitochondrial NAD reduction level, suggesting that the increased rates of hydrogen peroxide release from the mitochondrial sites were driven by increases in the protonmotive force and the degree of reduction of the electron transport chain. Long-term (24 h) glucose or glutamine deprivation also diminished hydrogen peroxide release rate, ATP production rate and (for glucose deprivation) NAD reduction level. We conclude that the rates of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production from mitochondrial sites in liver cells are insensitive to extra added substrates when endogenous substrates are not depleted, but these rates are decreased when endogenous substrates are lowered by 150 min of starvation, and can be enhanced by restoring glucose or glutamine supply through improvements in mitochondrial energetic state.
    Keywords:  Liver; Mitochondria; NOX; ROS; Site III(Qo); Site IQ