bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒12‒19
eleven papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021 ;8 771298
      Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proven to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The phenomenon of intercellular mitochondrial transfer has been discovered in the cardiovascular system. Studies have shown that cell-to-cell mitochondrial transfer plays an essential role in regulating cardiovascular system development and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis under physiological conditions. In pathological conditions, damaged cells transfer dysfunctional mitochondria toward recipient cells to ask for help and take up exogenous functional mitochondria to alleviate injury. In this review, we summarized the mechanism of mitochondrial transfer in the cardiovascular system and outlined the fate and functional role of donor mitochondria. We also discussed the advantage and challenges of mitochondrial transfer strategies, including cell-based mitochondrial transplantation, extracellular vesicle-based mitochondrial transplantation, and naked mitochondrial transplantation, for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. We hope this review will provide perspectives on mitochondrial-targeted therapeutics in cardiovascular diseases.
    Keywords:  cardiovascular disease; extracellular vesicles; mitochondria; mitochondrial transfer; mitochondrial transplantation; tunneling nanotubes
  2. Eur J Cell Biol. 2021 Nov 14. pii: S0171-9335(21)00036-4. [Epub ahead of print]101(1): 151185
      The PINK1/Parkin pathway plays an important role in maintaining a healthy pool of mitochondria. Activation of this pathway can lead to apoptosis, mitophagy, or mitochondrial-derived vesicle formation, depending on the nature of mitochondrial damage. The signaling by which PINK/Parkin activation leads to these different mitochondrial outcomes remains understudied. Here we present evidence that cannabidiol (CBD) activates the PINK1-Parkin pathway in a unique manner. CBD stimulates PINK1-dependent Parkin mitochondrial recruitment similarly to other well-studied Parkin activators but with a distinctive shift in the temporal dynamics and mitochondrial fates. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A exclusively diminished the CBD-induced PINK1/Parkin activation and its associated mitochondrial effects. Unexpectedly, CBD treatment also induced elevated production of mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDV), a potential quality control mechanism that may help repair partial damaged mitochondria. Our results suggest that CBD may engage the PINK1-Parkin pathway to produce MDV and repair mitochondrial lesions via mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. This work uncovered a novel link between CBD and PINK1/Parkin-dependent MDV production in mitochondrial health regulation.
    Keywords:  Cannabidiol; Mitochondrial quality control; Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDV); Mitophagy; PINK; Parkin
  3. J Cell Sci. 2021 Dec 15. pii: jcs258944. [Epub ahead of print]134(24):
      The dynamic nature of mitochondria, which can fuse, divide and move throughout the cell, allows these critical organelles to adapt their function in response to cellular demands, and is also important for regulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). While it is established that impairments in mitochondrial fusion and fission impact the mitochondrial genome and can lead to mtDNA depletion, abnormal nucleoid organization or accumulation of deletions, it is not entirely clear how or why remodeling mitochondrial network morphology affects mtDNA. Here, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of how mitochondrial dynamics contribute to the regulation of mtDNA and discuss links to human disease.
    Keywords:  Fission; Fusion; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitophagy; mtDNA
  4. Acta Biochim Pol. 2021 Dec 15.
      Research on the health of mammals invariably shows how dynamic immunology is and how the role of many elements and immune processes of the macroorganism, developed in the process of evolution in protecting against threats, including infections, is changing. Among these elements conditioning the homeostasis of the macroorganism are mitochondria, PRR receptors (pattern recognition receptors) and the phenomenon of autophagy. In the context of physiological and pathological states in the body, mitochondria perform various functions. The primary function of these organelles is to produce energy in the cell, but on the other hand, they are heavily involved in various cellular processes, including ROS production and calcium homeostasis. They are largely involved in the activation of immune mechanisms during infectious and non-infectious conditions through mtDNA and the mitochondrial MAVS protein. Mitochondrial involvement has been also determined in PRR-related mechanisms as mtDNA has the ability to directly stimulate TLRs. On the other hand, mitochondria are also associated with apoptotic cell death and autophagy.
  5. FEBS J. 2021 Dec 16.
      Electron transport chain (ETC) dysfunction is a common feature of mitochondrial diseases and induces severe cellular stresses, including mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm ) reduction, mitochondrial matrix acidification, metabolic derangements and proteostatic stresses. Extensive studies of ETC dysfunction in yeast, C. elegans, cultured cells and mouse models have revealed multiple mitochondrial stress response pathways. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the triggers, sensors, signaling mechanisms, and the functional outcomes of mitochondrial stress responses in different species. We highlight Δψm reduction as a major trigger of stress responses in different species, but the responses are species-specific and the outcomes are context-dependent. ETC dysfunction elicits a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt ) to repair damaged mitochondria in C. elegans, and activates a global adaptive program to maintain Δψm in yeast. Yeast and C. elegans responses are remarkably similar at the downstream responses, although they are activated by different signaling mechanisms. UPRmt generally protects ETC-defective worms, but its constitutive activation is toxic for wildtype worms and worms carrying mutant mtDNA. In contrast to lower organisms, ETC dysfunction in mammals mainly activates a mitochondrial integrated stress response (ISRmt ) to reprogram metabolism and a PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway to degrade damaged mitochondria. Accumulating in vivo results suggest that the ATF4 branch of ISRmt exacerbates metabolic derangements to accelerate mitochondrial disease progression. The in vivo roles of mitophagy in mitochondrial diseases are also context-dependent. These results thus reveal the common and unique aspects of mitochondrial stress responses in different species and highlight their multifaceted roles in mitochondrial diseases.
    Keywords:  ISRmt; Mitochondrial stress response; UPRmt; mitochondrial membrane potential; mitophagy
  6. FASEB J. 2022 Jan;36(1): e22062
      Mitochondrial dysfunction or loss of homeostasis is a central hallmark of many human diseases. Mitochondrial homeostasis is mediated by multiple quality control mechanisms including mitophagy, a form of selective autophagy that recycles terminally ill or dysfunctional mitochondria in order to preserve mitochondrial integrity. Our prior studies have shown that members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family localize to the mitochondria and may play important roles in mediating mitochondrial health in the corneal epithelium, an integral tissue that is required for the maintenance of optical transparency and vision. Importantly, the IGF-binding protein-3, IGFBP-3, is secreted by corneal epithelial cells in response to stress and functions to mediate intracellular receptor trafficking in this cell type. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role for IGFBP-3 in mitochondrial homeostasis through regulation of the short isoform (s)BNIP3L/NIX mitophagy receptor in corneal epithelial cells and extend this finding to non-ocular epithelial cells. We further show that IGFBP-3-mediated control of mitochondrial homeostasis is associated with alterations in lamellar cristae morphology and mitochondrial dynamics. Interestingly, both loss and gain of function of IGFBP-3 drive an increase in mitochondrial respiration. This increase in respiration is associated with nuclear accumulation of IGFBP-3. Taken together, these findings support a novel role for IGFBP-3 as a key mediator of mitochondrial health in mucosal epithelia through the regulation of mitophagy and mitochondrial morphology.
    Keywords:  autophagy; insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor; mTOR; metabolism; mitochondria
  7. Cell Calcium. 2021 Dec 10. pii: S0143-4160(21)00171-8. [Epub ahead of print]101 102517
      OPA1 and MICU1 are both involved in the regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and the stabilization of the cristae junction, which separates the inner mitochondrial membrane into the interboundary membrane and the cristae membrane. In this mini-review, we focus on the synergetic control of OPA1 and MICU1 on the cristae junction that serves as a fundamental regulator of multiple mitochondrial functions. In particular, we point to the critical role of an adaptive cristae junction permeability in mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling, spatial H+ gradients and mitochondrial membrane potential, metabolic activity, and apoptosis. These characteristics bear on a distinct localization of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery, the FoF1-ATPase, and mitochondrial Ca2+uniporter (MCU) within sections of the inner mitochondrial membrane isolated by the cristae junction and regulated by proteins like OPA1 and MICU1. We specifically focus on the impact of MICU1-regulated cristae junction on the activity and distribution of MCU within the complex ultrastructure of mitochondria.
  8. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Dec 11. pii: S0891-5849(21)01107-2. [Epub ahead of print]178 369-379
      Mitochondria participate in essential cellular functions, including energy production, metabolism, redox homeostasis regulation, intracellular Ca2+ handling, apoptosis, and cell fate determination. Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis under pathological conditions results in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and energy insufficiency, which further disturb mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis in a deleterious loop. Mitochondrial redox status has therefore become a potential target for therapy against cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we highlight recent progress in determining the roles of mitochondrial processes in regulating mitochondrial redox status, including mitochondrial dynamics (fusion-fission pathways), mitochondrial cristae remodeling, mitophagy, biogenesis, and mitochondrion-organelle interactions (endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrion interactions, nucleus-mitochondrion communication, and lipid droplet-mitochondrion interactions). The strategies that activate vagal system include direct vagal activation (electrical vagal stimulation and administration of vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine) and pharmacological modulation (choline and cholinesterase inhibitors). The vagal system plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, moderating mitochondrial fusion and fission, strengthening mitochondrial cristae stabilization, regulating mitochondrion-organelle interactions, and inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. Therefore, enhancement of vagal activity can maintain mitochondrial homeostasis and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases.
    Keywords:  Cardiovascular diseases; Mitochondrial homeostasis; Mitochondrial redox status; Mitochondrion–organelle interactions; Vagal activity
  9. Mitochondrion. 2021 Dec 10. pii: S1567-7249(21)00169-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Sigmar1 is a widely expressed molecular chaperone protein in mammalian cell systems. Accumulating research demonstrated the cardioprotective roles of pharmacologic Sigmar1 activation by ligands in preclinical rodent models of cardiac injury. Extensive biochemical and immuno-electron microscopic research demonstrated Sigmar1's sub-cellular localization largely depends on cell and organ types. Despite comprehensive studies, Sigmar1's direct molecular role in cardiomyocytes remains elusive. In the present study, we determined Sigmar1's subcellular localization, transmembrane topology, and function using complementary microscopy, biochemical, and functional assays in cardiomyocytes. Quantum dots in transmission electron microscopy showed Sigmar1 labeled quantum dots on the mitochondrial membranes, lysosomes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial interface. Subcellular fractionation of heart cell lysates confirmed Sigmar1's localization in purified mitochondria fraction and lysosome fraction. Immunocytochemistry confirmed Sigmar1 colocalization with mitochondrial proteins in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Sigmar1's mitochondrial localization was further confirmed by Sigmar1 colocalization with Mito-Tracker in isolated mouse heart mitochondria. A series of biochemical experiments, including alkaline extraction and proteinase K treatment of purified heart mitochondria, demonstrated Sigmar1 as an integral mitochondrial membrane protein. Sigmar1's structural requirement for mitochondrial localization was determined by expressing FLAG-tagged Sigmar1 fragments in cells. Full-length Sigmar1 and Sigmar1's C terminal-deletion fragments were able to localize to the mitochondrial membrane, whereas N- terminal deletion fragment was unable to incorporate into the mitochondria. Finally, functional assays using extracellular flux analyzer and high-resolution respirometry showed Sigmar1 siRNA knockdown significantly altered mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes. Overall, we found that Sigmar1 localizes to mitochondrial membranes and is indispensable for maintaining mitochondrial respiratory homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.
    Keywords:  Sigma-1 receptor; mitochondria; subcellular localization
  10. Essays Biochem. 2021 Dec 13. pii: EBC20210036. [Epub ahead of print]
      PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) impacts cell health and human pathology through diverse pathways. The strict processing of full-length PINK1 on the outer mitochondrial membrane populates a cytoplasmic pool of cleaved PINK1 (cPINK1) that is constitutively degraded. However, despite rapid proteasomal clearance, cPINK1 still appears to exert quality control influence over the neuronal protein homeostasis network, including protein synthesis and degradation machineries. The cytoplasmic concentration and activity of this molecule is therefore a powerful sensor that coordinates aspects of mitochondrial and cellular health. In addition, full-length PINK1 is retained on the mitochondrial membrane following depolarisation, where it is a powerful inducer of multiple mitophagic pathways. This function is executed primarily through the phosphorylation of several ubiquitin ligases, including its most widely studied substrate Parkin. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins by mitochondrial PINK1 acts as a pro-cellular survival signal when faced with apoptotic stimuli. Through these varied roles PINK1 directly influences functions central to cell dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Neurodegneration; PTEN induced putative kinase 1; Parkinsons disease
  11. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2021 Dec 14. pii: S0022-2828(21)00233-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Autophagy mediates cellular quality control mechanisms and energy homeostasis through lysosomal degradation. Autophagy is typically viewed as an adaptive process that allows cells to survive against stress, such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia. However, autophagy also mediates cell death during development and in response to stress. Cell death accompanied by autophagy activation and accumulation of autophagosomes has been classified as type II programmed cell death. Compared to the wealth of knowledge regarding the adaptive role of autophagy, however, the molecular mechanisms through which autophagy induces cell death and its functional significance are poorly understood. Autophagy is activated excessively under some conditions, causing uncontrolled degradation of cellular materials and cell death. An imbalance between autophagosome formation and lysosomal degradation causes a massive accumulation of autophagosomes, which subsequently causes cellular dysfunction and death. Dysregulation of autophagy induces a unique form of cell death, termed autosis, with defined morphological and biochemical features distinct from other forms of programmed cell death, such as apoptosis and necrosis. In the heart, dysregulated autophagy induces death of cardiomyocytes and actively mediates cardiac injury and dysfunction in some conditions, including reperfusion injury, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and lysosomal storage disorders. The goal in this review is to introduce the concept of autophagic cell death and discuss its functional significance in various cardiac conditions.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Autosis; Cardiac glycosides; Cardiomyocytes; Cell death