bims-midtic Biomed News
on Mitochondrial dynamics and trafficking in cells
Issue of 2024‒03‒31
twenty papers selected by
Omkar Joshi, Turku Bioscience

  1. FEBS J. 2024 Mar 28.
      Intercellular communication is pivotal in mediating the transfer of mitochondria from donor to recipient cells. This process orchestrates various biological functions, including tissue repair, cell proliferation, differentiation and cancer invasion. Typically, dysfunctional and depolarized mitochondria are eliminated through intracellular or extracellular pathways. Nevertheless, increasing evidence suggests that intercellular transfer of damaged mitochondria is associated with the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. This review investigates the prevalent triggers of mitochondrial damage and the underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial transfer, and elucidates the role of directional mitochondrial transfer in both physiological and pathological contexts. Additionally, we propose potential previously unknown mechanisms mediating mitochondrial transfer and explore their prospective roles in disease prevention and therapy.
    Keywords:  cell communication; disease; extracellular vesicles; mitochondria; mitochondrial quality control; mitochondrial transfer
  2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Apr 02. 121(14): e2217019121
      Mitochondria constantly fuse and divide for mitochondrial inheritance and functions. Here, we identified a distinct type of naturally occurring fission, tail-autotomy fission, wherein a tail-like thin tubule protrudes from the mitochondrial body and disconnects, resembling autotomy. Next, utilizing an optogenetic mitochondria-specific mechanostimulator, we revealed that mechanical tensile force drives tail-autotomy fission. This force-induced fission involves DRP1/MFF and endoplasmic reticulum tubule wrapping. It redistributes mitochondrial DNA, producing mitochondrial fragments with or without mitochondrial DNA for different fates. Moreover, tensile force can decouple outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, pulling out matrix-excluded tubule segments. Subsequent tail-autotomy fission separates the matrix-excluded tubule segments into matrix-excluded mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) which recruit Parkin and LC3B, indicating the unique role of tail-autotomy fission in segregating only outer membrane components for mitophagy. Sustained force promotes fission and MDV biogenesis more effectively than transient one. Our results uncover a mechanistically and functionally distinct type of fission and unveil the role of tensile forces in modulating fission and MDV biogenesis for quality control, underscoring the heterogeneity of fission and mechanoregulation of mitochondrial dynamics.
    Keywords:  mitochondrial fission; mitochondrial quality control; optogenetics; photoactivatable proteins; tensile force
  3. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2024 ;12 1342741
      Background: Dynamin-related protein Drp1 -a major mitochondrial fission protein- is widely distributed in the central nervous system and plays a crucial role in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, specifically mitochondrial fission and the organelle's shaping. Upregulated Drp1 function may contribute to the pathological progression of neurodegenerative diseases by dysregulating mitochondrial fission/ fusion. The study aims to investigate the effects of Drp1 on retinoic acid-BDNF-induced (RA-BDNF) neuronal differentiation and mitochondrial network reorganization in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Methods: We generated an SH-SY5Y cell line with stably depleted Drp1 (shDrp1). We applied RNA sequencing and analysis to study changes in gene expression upon stable Drp1 knockdown. We visualized the mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy and used high-content confocal imaging to characterize and analyze cell morphology changes and mitochondrial network reorganization during neuronal differentiation. Results: shDrp1 cells exhibited fused mitochondrial ultrastructure with perinuclear clustering. Stable knockdown of Drp1 resulted in the upregulation of genes involved in nervous system development. High content analysis showed improved neurite outgrowth, segmentation, and extremities in differentiated shDrp1 cells. Neuronal differentiation was associated with a significant reduction in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was independent of the dual specificity phosphatases DUSP1/6 in shDrp1 cells. Differentiated control underwent mitochondrial morphology remodeling, whereas differentiated shDrp1 cells retained the highly fused mitochondria and developed long, elongated structures. The shDrp1 cells responded to specific apoptotic stimuli like control in vitro, suggesting that Drp1 is not a prerequisite for apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Drp1 downregulation reduced the formation of toxic mHtt aggregates in vitro. Discussion: Our results indicate that Drp1 silencing enhances RA-BDNF-induced neuronal differentiation by promoting transcriptional and mitochondrial network changes in undifferentiated cells. We also demonstrate that the suppression of Drp1 reduces toxic mHtt aggregate formation in vitro, suggesting protection against neurotoxicity. Thus, Drp1 may be an attractive target for further investigation in future strategies to combat neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  DRP1; DUSP1 and DUSP6; ERK1/2; RNA seq; high-content analysis; huntingtin aggregates; in vitro neuronal differentiation; mitochondrial network rearrangement
  4. Contact (Thousand Oaks). 2024 Jan-Dec;7:7 25152564241239445
      Rapid increase in body surface area of growing zebrafish larvae (Danio rario) is partially accomplished by asynthetic fission of superficial epithelial cells (SECs) of the skin. There are two cycles of this atypical form of cell division which is unaccompanied by DNA replication; resulting in cells with a variable DNA content. Here, electron microscopy of basal epithelium cells that give rise to these SECs in zebrafish larvae shows aggregation of mitochondria around the nucleus and the formation of nucleus-mitochondria membrane contact sites. Membrane aggregates appear in the lumen of the nuclear envelope at these sites of membrane contact in some cells, suggesting lipid turnover in this vicinity. As the epithelial cells mature and stratify, the mitochondria are engulfed by extensions arising from the nuclear envelope. The mitochondrial outer membrane fragments and mitochondria fuse with the nuclear envelope and parts of the endoplasmic reticulum. Other organelles, including the Golgi apparatus, progressively localize to a central region of the cell and lose their integrity. Thus, asynthetic fission is accompanied by an atypical pattern of organelle destruction and a prelude to this is the formation of nucleus-mitochondria membrane contact sites.
    Keywords:  asynthetic fission; contact site; corneocyte; danio rerio; epidermis; keratocyte; membrane contact site; nucleus–mitochondria; site of membrane contact
  5. Channels (Austin). 2024 Dec;18(1): 2335467
      The mitochondrion, one of the important cellular organelles, has the major function of generating adenosine triphosphate and plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, governing signal transduction, regulating membrane potential, controlling programmed cell death and modulating cell proliferation. The dynamic balance of mitochondrial volume is an important factor required for maintaining the structural integrity of the organelle and exerting corresponding functions. Changes in the mitochondrial volume are closely reflected in a series of biological functions and pathological changes. The mitochondrial volume is controlled by the osmotic balance between the cytoplasm and the mitochondrial matrix. Thus, any disruption in the influx of the main ion, potassium, into the cells can disturb the osmotic balance between the cytoplasm and the matrix, leading to water movement between these compartments and subsequent alterations in mitochondrial volume. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial volume homeostasis is closely implicated in a variety of diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the main influencing factors and research progress in the field of mitochondrial volume homeostasis.
    Keywords:  Ion channels; cell volume regulation; mitochondrial
  6. Cell Rep. 2024 Mar 28. pii: S2211-1247(24)00346-2. [Epub ahead of print]43(4): 114018
      Mitochondria consist of hundreds of proteins, most of which are inaccessible to the proteasomal quality control system of the cytosol. How cells stabilize the mitochondrial proteome during challenging conditions remains poorly understood. Here, we show that mitochondria form spatially defined protein aggregates as a stress-protecting mechanism. Two different types of intramitochondrial protein aggregates can be distinguished. The mitoribosomal protein Var1 (uS3m) undergoes a stress-induced transition from a soluble, chaperone-stabilized protein that is prevalent under benign conditions to an insoluble, aggregated form upon acute stress. The formation of Var1 bodies stabilizes mitochondrial proteostasis, presumably by sequestration of aggregation-prone proteins. The AAA chaperone Hsp78 is part of a second type of intramitochondrial aggregate that transiently sequesters proteins and promotes their folding or Pim1-mediated degradation. Thus, mitochondrial proteins actively control the formation of distinct types of intramitochondrial protein aggregates, which cooperate to stabilize the mitochondrial proteome during proteotoxic stress conditions.
    Keywords:  CP: Cell biology; CP: Molecular biology; Hsp78; MitoStores; Pim1 protease; Var1 bodies; aggregates; chaperones; mitochondria; mitoribosome; protein folding; protein import
  7. Commun Biol. 2024 Mar 28. 7(1): 377
      Mitochondria are the main suppliers of energy for cells and their bioenergetic function is regulated by mitochondrial dynamics: the constant changes in mitochondria size, shape, and cristae morphology to secure cell homeostasis. Although changes in mitochondrial function are implicated in a wide range of diseases, our understanding is challenged by a lack of reliable ways to extract spatial features from the cristae, the detailed visualization of which requires electron microscopy (EM). Here, we present a semi-automatic method for the segmentation, 3D reconstruction, and shape analysis of mitochondria, cristae, and intracristal spaces based on 2D EM images of the murine hippocampus. We show that our method provides a more accurate characterization of mitochondrial ultrastructure in 3D than common 2D approaches and propose an operational index of mitochondria's internal organization. With an improved consistency of 3D shape analysis and a decrease in the workload needed for large-scale analysis, we speculate that this tool will help increase our understanding of mitochondrial dynamics in health and disease.
  8. Antioxidants (Basel). 2024 Mar 14. pii: 347. [Epub ahead of print]13(3):
      Norcantharidin (NCTD), a cantharidin derivative, induces ROS generation and is widely used to treat CRC. In this study, we clarified the role and mechanism of action of norcantharidin in increasing CRC sensitivity to radiotherapy. We treated the CRC cell lines LoVo and DLD-1 with NCTD (10 or 50 μmol/L), ionizing radiation (IR, 6 Gy), and a combination of the two and found that NCTD significantly inhibited the proliferation of CRC cells and enhanced their sensitivity to radiotherapy. NCTD induced ROS generation by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability, and promoting cytochrome C release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. IR combined with NCTD induced ROS production, which activated the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1, leading to increased mitochondrial fission and CRC sensitivity to radiotherapy. NCTD also reduced CRC cell resistance to radiotherapy by blocking the cell cycle at the G2/M phase and decreasing p-CHK2, cyclin B1, and p-CDC2 expression. NCTD and IR also inhibited radiation resistance by causing DNA damage. Our findings provide evidence for the potential therapeutic use of NCTD and IR against CRC. Moreover, this study elucidates whether NCTD can overcome CRC radiation tolerance and provides insights into the underlying mechanisms.
    Keywords:  DRP1; NCTD; ROS; colorectal cancer; mitochondria
  9. PLoS One. 2024 ;19(3): e0301372
      The importance of mitochondria in tissue homeostasis, stress responses and human diseases, combined to their ability to transition between various structural and functional states, makes them excellent organelles for monitoring cell health. There is therefore a need for technologies to accurately analyze and quantify changes in mitochondrial organization in a variety of cells and cellular contexts. Here we present an innovative computerized method that enables accurate, multiscale, fast and cost-effective analysis of mitochondrial shape and network architecture from confocal fluorescence images by providing more than thirty features. In order to facilitate interpretation of the quantitative results, we introduced two innovations: the use of Kiviat-graphs (herein named MitoSpider plots) to present highly multidimensional data and visualization of the various mito-cellular configurations in the form of morphospace diagrams (called MitoSigils). We tested our fully automated image analysis tool on rich datasets gathered from live normal human skin cells cultured under basal conditions or exposed to specific stress including UVB irradiation and pesticide exposure. We demonstrated the ability of our proprietary software (named MitoTouch) to sensitively discriminate between control and stressed dermal fibroblasts, and between normal fibroblasts and other cell types (including cancer tissue-derived fibroblasts and primary keratinocytes), showing that our automated analysis captures subtle differences in morphology. Based on this novel algorithm, we report the identification of a protective natural ingredient that mitigates the deleterious impact of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on mitochondrial organization. Hence we conceived a novel wet-plus-dry pipeline combining cell cultures, quantitative imaging and semiotic analysis for exhaustive analysis of mitochondrial morphology in living adherent cells. Our tool has potential for broader applications in other research areas such as cell biology and medicine, high-throughput drug screening as well as predictive and environmental toxicology.
  10. Natl Sci Rev. 2024 Mar;11(3): nwae039
      Mitochondria undergo fission and fusion that are critical for cell survival and cancer development, while the regulatory factors for mitochondrial dynamics remain elusive. Herein we found that RNA m6A accelerated mitochondria fusion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Metabolomics analysis and function studies indicated that m6A triggered the generation of glutathione (GSH) via the upregulation of RRM2B-a p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase subunit with anti-reactive oxygen species potential. This in turn resulted in the mitochondria fusion of CRC cells. Mechanistically, m6A methylation of A1240 at 3'UTR of RRM2B increased its mRNA stability via binding with IGF2BP2. Similarly, m6A methylation of A2212 at the coding sequence (CDS) of OPA1-an essential GTPase protein for mitochondrial inner membrane fusion-also increased mRNA stability and triggered mitochondria fusion. Targeting m6A through the methyltransferase inhibitor STM2457 or the dm6ACRISPR system significantly suppressed mitochondria fusion. In vivo and clinical data confirmed the positive roles of the m6A/mitochondrial dynamics in tumor growth and CRC progression. Collectively, m6A promoted mitochondria fusion via induction of GSH synthesis and OPA1 expression, which facilitated cancer cell growth and CRC development.
    Keywords:  OPA1; colorectal cancer; glutathione; m6A; mitochondrial fusion
  11. J Cell Biol. 2024 May 06. pii: e202306051. [Epub ahead of print]223(5):
      Most mitochondrial proteins originate from the cytosol and require transport into the organelle. Such precursor proteins must be unfolded to pass through translocation channels in mitochondrial membranes. Misfolding of transported proteins can result in their arrest and translocation failure. Arrested proteins block further import, disturbing mitochondrial functions and cellular proteostasis. Cellular responses to translocation failure have been defined in yeast. We developed the cell line-based translocase clogging model to discover molecular mechanisms that resolve failed import events in humans. The mechanism we uncover differs significantly from these described in fungi, where ATPase-driven extraction of blocked protein is directly coupled with proteasomal processing. We found human cells to rely primarily on mitochondrial factors to clear translocation channel blockage. The mitochondrial membrane depolarization triggered proteolytic cleavage of the stalled protein, which involved mitochondrial protease OMA1. The cleavage allowed releasing the protein fragment that blocked the translocase. The released fragment was further cleared in the cytosol by VCP/p97 and the proteasome.
  12. Cell Rep. 2024 Mar 22. pii: S2211-1247(24)00324-3. [Epub ahead of print]43(4): 113996
      Physiological dysfunction confers negative valence to coincidental sensory cues to induce the formation of aversive associative memory. How peripheral tissue stress engages neuromodulatory mechanisms to form aversive memory is poorly understood. Here, we show that in the nematode C. elegans, mitochondrial disruption induces aversive memory through peroxisomal β-oxidation genes in non-neural tissues, including pmp-4/very-long-chain fatty acid transporter, dhs-28/3-hydroxylacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and daf-22/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. Upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation genes under mitochondrial stress requires the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49. Importantly, the memory-promoting function of peroxisomal β-oxidation is independent of its canonical role in pheromone production. Peripheral signals derived from the peroxisomes target NSM, a critical neuron for memory formation under stress, to upregulate serotonin synthesis and remodel evoked responses to sensory cues. Our genetic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic approaches establish peroxisomal lipid signaling as a crucial mechanism that connects peripheral mitochondrial stress to central serotonin neuromodulation in aversive memory formation.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; CP: Cell biology; CP: Neuroscience; aversive memory; gut-brain signaling; mitochondria; neural activity; peroxisome; response properties; serotonin; stress; very-long-chain fatty acids
  13. Cell Death Differ. 2024 Mar 22.
      Mitophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and can be categorized into two types: ubiquitin-mediated and receptor-mediated pathways. During receptor-mediated mitophagy, mitophagy receptors facilitate mitophagy by tethering the isolation membrane to mitochondria. Although at least five outer mitochondrial membrane proteins have been identified as mitophagy receptors, their individual contribution and interrelationship remain unclear. Here, we show that HeLa cells lacking BNIP3 and NIX, two of the five receptors, exhibit a complete loss of mitophagy in various conditions. Conversely, cells deficient in the other three receptors show normal mitophagy. Using BNIP3/NIX double knockout (DKO) cells as a model, we reveal that mitophagy deficiency elevates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), which leads to activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Notably, BNIP3/NIX DKO cells are highly sensitive to ferroptosis when Nrf2-driven antioxidant enzymes are compromised. Moreover, the sensitivity of BNIP3/NIX DKO cells is fully rescued upon the introduction of wild-type BNIP3 and NIX, but not the mutant forms incapable of facilitating mitophagy. Consequently, our results demonstrate that BNIP3 and NIX-mediated mitophagy plays a role in regulating mtROS levels and protects cells from ferroptosis.
  14. Anal Methods. 2024 Mar 27.
      Mitochondria are not only the center of energy metabolism but also involved in regulating cellular activities. Quality and quantity control of mitochondria is therefore essential. Mitophagy is a lysosome-dependent process to clear dysfunctional mitochondria, and abnormal mitophagy can cause metabolic disorders. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the mitophagy in living cells on a real-time basis. Herein, we developed a pH-responsive fluorescent probe MP for the detection of the mitophagy process using real-time tracing colocalization coefficients. Probe MP showed good pH responses with high selectivity and sensitivity in spectral testing. Probe MP is of positive charge, which is beneficial for accumulating into mitochondrial in living cells. Cells exhibited pH-dependent fluorescence when they were treated with different pH media. Importantly, the changes in the colocalization coefficient between probe MP and Lyso Tracker® Deep Red from 0.4 to 0.8 were achieved in a real-time manner during the mitophagy stimulated by CCCP, starvation and rapamycin. Therefore, combined with the parameter of the colocalization coefficient, probe MP is a potential molecular tool for the real-time tracing of mitophagy to further explore the details of mitophagy.
  15. Biomolecules. 2024 Mar 07. pii: 316. [Epub ahead of print]14(3):
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by loss of the dystrophin protein. This pathology is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction contributing to muscle fiber instability. It is known that mitochondria-targeted in vivo therapy mitigates pathology and improves the quality of life of model animals. In the present work, we applied mitochondrial transplantation therapy (MTT) to correct the pathology in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Intramuscular injections of allogeneic mitochondria obtained from healthy animals into the hind limbs of mdx mice alleviated skeletal muscle injury, reduced calcium deposits in muscles and serum creatine kinase levels, and improved the grip strength of the hind limbs and motor activity of recipient mdx mice. We noted normalization of the mitochondrial ultrastructure and sarcoplasmic reticulum/mitochondria interactions in mdx muscles. At the same time, we revealed a decrease in the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle mitochondria of recipient mdx mice accompanied by a reduction in lipid peroxidation products (MDA products) and reduced calcium overloading. We found no effect of MTT on the expression of mitochondrial signature genes (Drp1, Mfn2, Ppargc1a, Pink1, Parkin) and on the level of mtDNA. Our results show that systemic MTT mitigates the development of destructive processes in the quadriceps muscle of mdx mice.
    Keywords:  Duchenne muscular dystrophy; lipid peroxidation; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial transplantation; muscle force; skeletal muscle
  16. Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Mar 11. pii: 3196. [Epub ahead of print]25(6):
      The communication between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is facilitated by a dynamic membrane structure formed by protein complexes known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). The structural and functional integrity of MAMs is crucial for insulin signal transduction, relying heavily on their regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis, lipid homeostasis, mitochondrial quality control, and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). This article reviews recent research findings, suggesting that exercise may promote the remodeling of MAMs structure and function by modulating the expression of molecules associated with their structure and function. This, in turn, restores cellular homeostasis and ultimately contributes to the amelioration of insulin resistance (IR). These insights provide additional possibilities for the study and treatment of insulin resistance-related metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  calcium homeostasis; endoplasmic reticulum stress; exercise; insulin resistance; lipid homeostasis; mitochondria-associated membranes; mitochondrial quality control
  17. Biology (Basel). 2024 Mar 15. pii: 187. [Epub ahead of print]13(3):
      The eukaryotic lineage has enjoyed a long-term "stable" mutualism between nucleus and mitochondrion, since mitochondrial endosymbiosis began about 2 billion years ago. This mostly cooperative interaction has provided the basis for eukaryotic expansion and diversification, which has profoundly altered the forms of life on Earth. While we ignore the exact biochemical details of how the alpha-proteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria entered into endosymbiosis with a proto-eukaryote, in more general terms, we present a signaling games perspective of how the cooperative relationship became established, and has been maintained. While games are used to understand organismal evolution, information-asymmetric games at the molecular level promise novel insights into endosymbiosis. Using a previously devised biomolecular signaling games approach, we model a sender-receiver information asymmetric game, in which the informed mitochondrial sender signals and the uninformed nuclear receiver may take actions (involving for example apoptosis, senescence, regeneration and autophagy/mitophagy). The simulation shows that cellularization is a stabilizing mechanism for Pareto efficient sender/receiver strategic interaction. In stark contrast, the extracellular environment struggles to maintain efficient outcomes, as senders are indifferent to the effects of their signals upon the receiver. Our hypothesis has translational implications, such as in cellular therapy, as mitochondrial medicine matures. It also inspires speculative conjectures about how an analogous human-AI endosymbiosis may be engineered.
    Keywords:  endosymbiosis; information asymmetry; mitochondria; signaling game
  18. iScience. 2024 Apr 19. 27(4): 109398
      Mitochondria play a vital role in non-shivering thermogenesis in both brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (BAT and scWAT, respectively). However, specific regulatory mechanisms driving mitochondrial function in these tissues have been unclear. Here we demonstrate that prolonged activation of β-adrenergic signaling induces epigenetic modifications in scWAT, specifically targeting the enhancers for the mitochondria master regulator genes Pgc1a/b. This is mediated at least partially through JMJD1A, a histone demethylase that in response to β-adrenergic signals, facilitates H3K9 demethylation of the Pgc1a/b enhancers, promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and the formation of beige adipocytes. Disruption of demethylation activity of JMJD1A in mice impairs activation of Pgc1a/b driven mitochondrial biogenesis and limits scWAT beiging, contributing to reduced energy expenditure, obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders. Notably, JMJD1A demethylase activity is not required for Pgc1a/b dependent thermogenic capacity of BAT especially during acute cold stress, emphasizing the importance of scWAT thermogenesis in overall energy metabolism.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Cellular physiology; Pathophysiology
  19. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Apr 02. 121(14): e2317492121
      Energy metabolism is highly interdependent with adaptive cell migration in vivo. Mechanical confinement is a critical physical cue that induces switchable migration modes of the mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transition (MAT). However, the energy states in distinct migration modes, especially amoeboid-like stable bleb (A2) movement, remain unclear. In this report, we developed multivalent DNA framework-based nanomachines to explore strategical mitochondrial trafficking and differential ATP levels during cell migration in mechanically heterogeneous microenvironments. Through single-particle tracking and metabolomic analysis, we revealed that fast A2-moving cells driven by biomimetic confinement recruited back-end positioning of mitochondria for powering highly polarized cytoskeletal networks, preferentially adopting an energy-saving mode compared with a mesenchymal mode of cell migration. We present a versatile DNA nanotool for cellular energy exploration and highlight that adaptive energy strategies coordinately support switchable migration modes for facilitating efficient metastatic escape, offering a unique perspective for therapeutic interventions in cancer metastasis.
    Keywords:  DNA nanomachines; an energy-saving mode; distinct migration modes; mechanical confinement
  20. Nat Commun. 2024 Mar 22. 15(1): 2569
      The B cell response in the germinal centre (GC) reaction requires a unique bioenergetic supply. Although mitochondria are remodelled upon antigen-mediated B cell receptor stimulation, mitochondrial function in B cells is still poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of the role of mitochondria in B cell function, here we generate mice with B cell-specific deficiency in Tfam, a transcription factor necessary for mitochondrial biogenesis. Tfam conditional knock-out (KO) mice display a blockage of the GC reaction and a bias of B cell differentiation towards memory B cells and aged-related B cells, hallmarks of an aged immune response. Unexpectedly, blocked GC reaction in Tfam KO mice is not caused by defects in the bioenergetic supply but is associated with a defect in the remodelling of the lysosomal compartment in B cells. Our results may thus describe a mitochondrial function for lysosome regulation and the downstream antigen presentation in B cells during the GC reaction, the dysruption of which is manifested as an aged immune response.