bims-mibica Biomed News
on Mitochondrial bioenergetics in cancer
Issue of 2022‒01‒16
thirty-nine papers selected by
Kelsey Fisher-Wellman
East Carolina University

  1. Pathol Res Pract. 2021 Nov 03. pii: S0344-0338(21)00340-X. [Epub ahead of print]230 153679
      BACKGROUND: ATP Synthase F1 Subunit Alpha (ATP5F1A), also named as ATP5A1, is a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Dysregulated expression of ATP5A1 has been reported in several malignancies, nevertheless it showed either oncogenic or tumor-suppressing roles in different cancer types. Here we aimed to initially investigate the expression and role of ATP5A1 in colon adenocarcinoma.METHODS: We firstly evaluated the transcription and mRNA levels of ATP5A1 using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Besides, we tested its mRNA and protein expression in our enrolled retrospective cohort (n = 115). Univariate and multivariate analyzes were conducted to assess its prognostic value. Cellular experiments and xenografts in mice model were performed to validate the role of ATP5A1 in colon cancer.
    RESULTS: ATP5A1 showed a significant lower level in colon adenocarcinoma than in adjacent nontumorous tissue. Advanced tumor stage was characterized with lower ATP5A1 level. Lower ATP5A1 was associated with poor prognosis in both TCGA dataset (P = 0.041) and our cohort (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Cox regression analysis demonstrated that ATP5A1 was a novel independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients (HR=0.43, P = 0.018). Finally, cellular and xenografts data confirmed that overexpressing ATP5A1 can remarkably attenuate colon cancer growth.
    CONCLUSION: Low expression of ATP5A1 may be a potential molecular marker for poor prognosis in colon cancer.
    DATA AVAILABILITY: Data will be available upon request.
    Keywords:  ATP5A1; Colon adenocarcinoma; Prognosis; Proliferation
  2. Blood Cancer Discov. 2021 May;2(3): 198-200
      In this issue of Blood Cancer Discovery, Yan and colleagues discovered that mitochondrial deacylase, SIRT5, is required in AML cells to support mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, maintain redox homeostasis, and drive glutaminolysis. The new SIRT5 inhibitor, NRD167, can efficiently target SIRT5 in AMLs at micromolar range and may constitute a novel therapeutic approach to improve clinical outcomes of patients with AML.See related article by Yan et al., p. 266.
  3. Cell Rep Med. 2021 Dec 21. 2(12): 100471
      Resistance to platinum compounds is a major determinant of patient survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). To understand mechanisms of platinum resistance and identify potential therapeutic targets in resistant HGSOC, we generated a data resource composed of dynamic (±carboplatin) protein, post-translational modification, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiles from intra-patient cell line pairs derived from 3 HGSOC patients before and after acquiring platinum resistance. These profiles reveal extensive responses to carboplatin that differ between sensitive and resistant cells. Higher fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathway expression is associated with platinum resistance, and both pharmacologic inhibition and CRISPR knockout of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), which represents a rate limiting step of FAO, sensitize HGSOC cells to platinum. The results are further validated in patient-derived xenograft models, indicating that CPT1A is a candidate therapeutic target to overcome platinum resistance. All multiomic data can be queried via an intuitive gene-query user interface (
    Keywords:  CPT1A; carboplatin; fatty acid oxidation; ovarian cancer; oxidative phosphorylation; proteogenomic; proteomic; reactive oxygen species; resistance
  4. ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2021 Jun 21. 4(6): 5222-5230
      Mitochondria are identified as a valuable target for cancer therapy owing to their primary function in energy supply and cellular signal regulation. Mitochondria in tumor cells are depicted by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which lead to numerous detrimental results. Hence, mitochondria-targeting ROS-associated therapy is an optional therapeutic strategy for cancer. In this contribution, a light-induced ROS generator (TBTP) is developed for evaluation of the efficacy of mitochondria-targeting ROS-associated therapy and investigation of the mechanism underlying mitochondrial-injure-mediated therapy of tumors. TBTP serves as an efficient ROS generator with low cytotoxicity, favorable biocompatibility, excellent photostability, mitochondria-targeted properties, and NIR emission. In vivo and in vitro experiments reveal that TBTP exhibits effective anticancer potential. ROS generated from TBTP could destroy the integrity of mitochondria, downregulate ATP, decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential, secrete Cyt-c into cytoplasm, activate Caspase-3/9, and induce cell apoptosis. Moreover, RNA-seq analysis highlights that an ROS burst in mitochondria can kill tumor cells via inhibition of the AKT pathway. All these results prove that mitochondrial-targeted ROS-associated therapy hold great potential in cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  AKT inhibition; NIR fluorescence; ROS generator; ROS-associated therapy; mitochondrial-targeted
  5. Cell Metab. 2022 Jan 03. pii: S1550-4131(21)00632-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue insulin resistance are major drivers of metabolic disease. To uncover pathways involved in insulin resistance, specifically in these tissues, we leveraged the metabolic diversity of different dietary exposures and discrete inbred mouse strains. This revealed that muscle insulin resistance was driven by gene-by-environment interactions and was strongly correlated with hyperinsulinemia and decreased levels of ten key glycolytic enzymes. Remarkably, there was no relationship between muscle and adipose tissue insulin action. Adipocyte size profoundly varied across strains and diets, and this was strongly correlated with adipose tissue insulin resistance. The A/J strain, in particular, exhibited marked adipocyte insulin resistance and hypertrophy despite robust muscle insulin responsiveness, challenging the role of adipocyte hypertrophy per se in systemic insulin resistance. These data demonstrate that muscle and adipose tissue insulin resistance can occur independently and underscore the need for tissue-specific interrogation to understand metabolic disease.
    Keywords:  GxE; Western diet; adipose; glucose uptake; glycolysis; insulin resistance; metabolism; obesity; proteomics; skeletal muscle
  6. ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2020 Aug 17. 3(8): 5182-5192
      Drug resistance is one of the major obstacles to the success of cancer chemotherapy. Mitochondrial targeting drugs are increasingly thought to be able to eradicate resistant cancer cells. However, immature drug release outside mitochondria and the absence of multifunctional targeting carriers against tumor mitochondria greatly limit the corresponding therapeutic benefits. Here, we synthesized polymerized dequalinium by integrating dequalinium, lysine, and poly(ethylene glycol) for mitochondrial targeting. The polymerized dequalinium exhibited lower cytotoxicity and stronger gene condensing ability than free dequalinium. We designed AS1411-ATP fusion aptamer to load doxorubicin (DOX) for both tumor targeting and ATP-responsive DOX release. The polyplexes by polymerized dequalinium and bifunctional aptamer can target tumor cells via AS1411 and show improved stability, mitochondrial targeting, DOX release in response to mitochondrial ATP, and enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on DOX-resistant MCF-7/DOX cells. The present study highlights a promising application of the polyplexes in reversing drug resistance in tumor cells via tumor mitochondrial targeting drug release.
    Keywords:  ATP-responsive; cancer chemotherapy; drug release; drug resistance; mitochondrial targeting
  7. JCI Insight. 2022 Jan 11. pii: e150041. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitophagy and mitochondrial integrated stress response (ISR) are two primary protective mechanisms to maintain functional mitochondria. Whether these two processes are coordinately regulated remains unclear. Here we show that mitochondrial fission 1 protein (Fis1), which is required for completion of mitophagy, serves as a signaling hub linking mitophagy and ISR. In mouse hepatocytes, high fat diet (HFD) feeding induces unresolved oxidative stress, defective mitophagy and enhanced type I interferon (IFN-I) response implicated in promoting metabolic inflammation. Adenoviral-mediated acute hepatic Fis1 over-expression is sufficient to reduce oxidative damage and improve glucose homeostasis in HFD fed mice. RNA-seq analysis reveals that Fis1 triggers a retrograde mitochondria-to-nucleus communication upregulating ISR genes encoding anti-oxidant defense, redox homeostasis and proteostasis pathways. Fis1-mediated ISR also suppresses expression of IFN-I stimulated genes through Atf5, which inhibits the transactivation activity of Irf3 known to control IFN-I production. Metabolite analysis demonstrates that Fis1 activation leads to accumulation of fumarate, a TCA cycle intermediate capable of increasing Atf5 activity. Consequently, hepatic Atf5 over-expression or monomethyl fumarate (MMF) treatment improves glucose homeostasis in HFD fed mice. Collectively, these results support the potential use of small molecules targeting the Fis1-Atf5 axis, such as MMF, to treat metabolic diseases.
    Keywords:  Glucose metabolism; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Obesity
  8. Int J Cancer. 2022 Jan 09.
      Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has widespread applications in aging and cancer studies. However, cross-contamination of mtDNA constitutes a major concern. Previous methods for the detection of mtDNA contamination mainly focus on haplogroup-level phylogeny, but neglect haplotype-level differences, leading to limited sensitivity and accuracy. In this study, we present mitoDataclean, a random-forest-based machine learning package for accurate identification of cross-contamination, evaluation of contamination levels and detection of contamination-derived variants in mtDNA NGS data. Comprehensive optimization of mitoDataclean revealed that training simulation with mixtures of small haplogroup distance and low polymorphic difference was critical for optimal modeling. Compared with existing methods, mitoDataclean exhibited significantly improved sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of sample contamination in simulated data. In addition, mitoDataclean achieved area under the curve values of 0.91 and 0.97 for discerning genuine and contamination-derived mtDNA variants in a simulated Western dataset and private sequencing contamination data, respectively, suggesting that this tool may be applicable for different populations and samples with different sources of contamination. Finally, mitoDataclean was further evaluated in several private and public datasets and showed a robust ability for contamination detection. Altogether, our study demonstrates that mitoDataclean may be used for accurate detection of contaminated samples and contamination-derived variants in mtDNA NGS data. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  machine learning; mitochondrial DNA; next-generation sequencing; sample cross-contamination
  9. iScience. 2022 Jan 21. 25(1): 103605
      Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a nonclassical cytokine expressed in cancers, inflammatory diseases, and infections. Its expression is regulated by two different oxygen sensing systems; HIF1α and cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO), indicating that IL-32 may be involved in the response to hypoxia. We here demonstrate that endogenously expressed, intracellular IL-32 interacts with components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and promotes oxidative phosphorylation. Knocking out IL-32 in three myeloma cell lines reduced cell survival and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. High-throughput transcriptomic and MS-metabolomic profiling of IL-32 KO cells revealed that cells depleted of IL-32 had perturbations in metabolic pathways, with accumulation of lipids, pyruvate precursors, and citrate. IL-32 was expressed in a subgroup of myeloma patients with inferior survival, and primary myeloma cells expressing IL-32 had a gene signature associated with immaturity, proliferation, and oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of IL-32 in the regulation of plasma cell metabolism.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Cell biology; Immunology
  10. Cell Rep Med. 2021 Dec 21. 2(12): 100469
      The most frequently mutated metabolic genes in human cancer are those encoding the enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2; these mutations have so far been identified in more than 20 tumor types. Since IDH mutations were first reported in glioma over a decade ago, extensive research has revealed their association with altered cellular processes. Mutations in IDH lead to a change in enzyme function, enabling efficient conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2-HG). It is proposed that elevated cellular R-2-HG inhibits enzymes that regulate transcription and metabolism, subsequently affecting nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial biochemistry. The significance of these biochemical changes for tumorigenesis and potential for therapeutic exploitation remains unclear. Here we comprehensively review reported direct and indirect metabolic changes linked to IDH mutations and discuss their clinical significance. We also review the metabolic effects of first-generation mutant IDH inhibitors and highlight the potential for combination treatment strategies and new metabolic targets.
    Keywords:  2-oxoglutarate; IDH inhibition; R-2-HG; R-2-hydoxyglutarate; TCA cycle; cancer metabolism; chromatin modification; histone modification; metabolic target; mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase; redox metabolism
  11. Nutrients. 2021 Dec 27. pii: 101. [Epub ahead of print]14(1):
      Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential molecule involved in various metabolic reactions, acting as an electron donor in the electron transport chain and as a co-factor for NAD+-dependent enzymes. In the early 2000s, reports that NAD+ declines with aging introduced the notion that NAD+ metabolism is globally and progressively impaired with age. Since then, NAD+ became an attractive target for potential pharmacological therapies aiming to increase NAD+ levels to promote vitality and protect against age-related diseases. This review summarizes and discusses a collection of studies that report the levels of NAD+ with aging in different species (i.e., yeast, C. elegans, rat, mouse, monkey, and human), to determine whether the notion that overall NAD+ levels decrease with aging stands true. We find that, despite systematic claims of overall changes in NAD+ levels with aging, the evidence to support such claims is very limited and often restricted to a single tissue or cell type. This is particularly true in humans, where the development of NAD+ levels during aging is still poorly characterized. There is a need for much larger, preferably longitudinal, studies to assess how NAD+ levels develop with aging in various tissues. This will strengthen our conclusions on NAD metabolism during aging and should provide a foundation for better pharmacological targeting of relevant tissues.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; NAD+; aging; human; monkey; mouse; rat; yeast
  12. Cell Metab. 2022 Jan 07. pii: S1550-4131(21)00636-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitophagy is a quality control mechanism that eliminates damaged mitochondria, yet its significance in mammalian pathophysiology and aging has remained unclear. Here, we report that mitophagy contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of aged mice and human patients. The early disease stage is characterized by muscle fibers with central nuclei, with enhanced mitophagy around these nuclei. However, progressive mitochondrial dysfunction halts mitophagy and disrupts lysosomal homeostasis. Interestingly, activated or halted mitophagy occur in a mosaic manner even in adjacent muscle fibers, indicating cell-autonomous regulation. Rapamycin restores mitochondrial turnover, indicating mTOR-dependence of mitochondrial recycling in advanced disease stage. Our evidence suggests that (1) mitophagy is a hallmark of age-related mitochondrial pathology in mammalian muscle, (2) mosaic halting of mitophagy is a mechanism explaining mosaic respiratory chain deficiency and accumulation of pathogenic mtDNA variants in adult-onset mitochondrial diseases and normal aging, and (3) augmenting mitophagy is a promising therapeutic approach for muscle mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Keywords:  SBFSEM; centrally nucleated fibers; lysosome; mito-QC; mitochondrial disease; mitochondrial myopathy; mitophagy; patient; ragged-red fibers
  13. Hum Mol Genet. 2022 Jan 13. pii: ddac002. [Epub ahead of print]
      The SLC25A26 gene encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane carrier that transports S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) into the mitochondrial matrix in exchange for S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). SAM is the predominant methyl-group donor for most cellular methylation processes, of which SAH is produced as a by-product. Pathogenic, bi-allelic SLC25A26 variants are a recognised cause of mitochondrial disease in children, with a severe neonatal-onset caused by decreased SAM transport activity. Here, we describe two, unrelated adult cases, one of whom presented with recurrent episodes of severe abdominal pain and metabolic decompensation with lactic acidosis. Both patients had exercise intolerance and mitochondrial myopathy associated with bi-allelic variants in SLC25A26 which led to marked respiratory chain deficiencies and mitochondrial histopathological abnormalities in skeletal muscle that are comparable to those previously described in early-onset cases. We demonstrate using both mouse and fruit fly models that impairment of SAH, rather than SAM, transport across the mitochondrial membrane is likely the cause of this milder, late-onset phenotype. Our findings associate a novel pathomechanism with a known disease-causing protein and highlight the quests of precision medicine in optimising diagnosis, therapeutic intervention, and prognosis.
  14. Cell Rep. 2022 Jan 11. pii: S2211-1247(21)01724-1. [Epub ahead of print]38(2): 110220
      The epigenome delineates lineage-specific transcriptional programs and restricts cell plasticity to prevent non-physiological cell fate transitions. Although cell diversification fosters tumor evolution and therapy resistance, upstream mechanisms that regulate the stability and plasticity of the cancer epigenome remain elusive. Here we show that 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) not only suppresses DNA repair but also mediates the high-plasticity chromatin landscape. A combination of single-cell epigenomics and multi-omics approaches demonstrates that 2HG disarranges otherwise well-preserved stable nucleosome positioning and promotes cell-to-cell variability. 2HG induces loss of motif accessibility to the luminal-defining transcriptional factors FOXA1, FOXP1, and GATA3 and a shift from luminal to basal-like gene expression. Breast tumors with high 2HG exhibit enhanced heterogeneity with undifferentiated epigenomic signatures linked to adverse prognosis. Further, ascorbate-2-phosphate (A2P) eradicates heterogeneity and impairs growth of high 2HG-producing breast cancer cells. These findings suggest 2HG as a key determinant of cancer plasticity and provide a rational strategy to counteract tumor cell evolution.
    Keywords:  2-hydroxyglutarate; DNA repair; breast cancer; cancer cell plasticity; chromatin CyTOF; epigenome fluctuation; lineage fidelity; luminal-to-basal transition; oncometabolite; single-cell epigenomics
  15. Blood Cancer Discov. 2022 Jan;3(1): 50-65
      Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are broadly dependent on anaplerotic metabolism regulated by mitochondrial SIRT3. Herein we find that translational upregulation of ATF4 is coupled with anaplerotic metabolism in DLBCLs due to nutrient deprivation caused by SIRT3 driving rapid flux of glutamine into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. SIRT3 depletion led to ATF4 downregulation and cell death, which was rescued by ectopic ATF4 expression. Mechanistically, ATF4 translation is inhibited in SIRT3-deficient cells due to the increased pools of amino acids derived from compensatory autophagy and decreased glutamine consumption by the TCA cycle. Absence of ATF4 further aggravates this state through downregulation of its target genes, including genes for amino acid biosynthesis and import. Collectively, we identify a SIRT3-ATF4 axis required to maintain survival of DLBCL cells by enabling them to optimize amino acid uptake and utilization. Targeting ATF4 translation can potentiate the cytotoxic effect of SIRT3 inhibitor to DLBCL cells. SIGNIFICANCE: We discovered the link between SIRT3 and ATF4 in DLBCL cells, which connected lymphoma amino acid metabolism with ATF4 translation via metabolic stress signals. SIRT3-ATF4 axis is required in DLBCL cells regardless of subtype, which indicates a common metabolic vulnerability in DLBCLs and can serve as a therapeutic target.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1.
  16. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2022 Jan 10. pii: S1532-0456(22)00002-3. [Epub ahead of print] 109267
      Although the preferred cardiac metabolic fuels are fatty acids, glucose metabolism also plays an important role. However, irrespective of substrate type, energy generation results in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. To determine if the preference of fat over carbohydrates predisposes cardiomyocytes to oxidant production, we measured total and site-specific H2O2 emission in heart mitochondria oxidizing palmitoylcarnitine or pyruvate during copper (Cu) exposure. H2O2 emission was higher during oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine compared with pyruvate. Moreover, the bulk of the H2O2 emitted during palmitoylcarnitine oxidation originated from the outer ubiquinone binding site of complex III (site IIIQo) and the flavin site of electron transfer flavoprotein (site EF). We found no evidence of ROS production from complex I ubiquinone-binding site (site IQ) by reverse electron transport during oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine. Pyruvate oxidation also drove H2O2 emission primarily from sites IIIQo; however, the flavin sites of pyruvate dehydrogenase (site PF) and complex II (site IIF) contributed substantially. The effect of Cu depended on substrate and redox site, with effects at sites OF and IIIQo being more pronounced in mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate compared with palmitoylcarnitine. Cu imposed a concentration-saturable effect at site PF but concentration-dependently stimulated H2O2 emission at site EF. The substrate-dependent differences in H2O2 emission and effects of Cu suggest that fuel type and points of entry of electrons into the mitochondrial electron transport system determine the mitochondrial ROS production rate. Importantly, knowledge of sites of mitochondrial ROS production is crucial to the understanding of cardiac dysfunction associated with impaired substrate metabolism.
    Keywords:  Copper; Fish; Heart mitochondria; Metabolic substrate preference; Total and site-specific ROS production
  17. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 01. pii: 482. [Epub ahead of print]23(1):
      The mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψ) is the driving force providing the electrical component of the total transmembrane potential of hydrogen ions generated by proton pumps, which is utilized by the ATP synthase. The role of ∆Ψ is not limited to its role in bioenergetics since it takes part in other important intracellular processes, which leads to the mandatory requirement of the homeostasis of ∆Ψ. Conventionally, ∆Ψ in living cells is estimated by the fluorescence of probes such as rhodamine 123, tetramethylrodamine, etc. However, when assessing the fluorescence, the possibility of the intracellular/intramitochondrial modification of the rhodamine molecule is not taken into account. Such changes were revealed in this work, in which a comparison of normal (astrocytic) and tumor (glioma) cells was conducted. Fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry, and mass spectrometry revealed significant modifications of rhodamine molecules developing over time, which were prevented by amiodarone apparently due to blocking the release of xenobiotics from the cell and their transformation with the participation of cytochrome P450. Obviously, an important role in these processes is played by the increased retention of rhodamines in tumor cells. Our data require careful evaluation of mitochondrial ∆Ψ potential based on the assessment of the fluorescence of the mitochondrial probe.
    Keywords:  cancer; cytochrome P450; energetics; esterase; fluorescence; membrane potential; mitochondria; tumor cells
  18. Cell Metab. 2022 Jan 10. pii: S1550-4131(21)00635-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Tissue sensitivity and response to exercise vary according to the time of day and alignment of circadian clocks, but the optimal exercise time to elicit a desired metabolic outcome is not fully defined. To understand how tissues independently and collectively respond to timed exercise, we applied a systems biology approach. We mapped and compared global metabolite responses of seven different mouse tissues and serum after an acute exercise bout performed at different times of the day. Comparative analyses of intra- and inter-tissue metabolite dynamics, including temporal profiling and blood sampling across liver and hindlimb muscles, uncovered an unbiased view of local and systemic metabolic responses to exercise unique to time of day. This comprehensive atlas of exercise metabolism provides clarity and physiological context regarding the production and distribution of canonical and novel time-dependent exerkine metabolites, such as 2-hydroxybutyrate (2-HB), and reveals insight into the health-promoting benefits of exercise on metabolism.
    Keywords:  2-hydroxybutyrate; arteriovenous metabolomics; circadian rhythms; exercise metabolism; exerkines; metabolomics; multitissue analysis
  19. J Physiol Biochem. 2022 Jan 13.
      Typically, healthy cardiac tissue utilizes more fat than any other organ. Cardiac hypertrophy induces a metabolic shift leading to a preferential consumption of glucose over fatty acids to support the high energetic demand. Calorie restriction is a dietary procedure that induces health benefits and lifespan extension in many organisms. Given the beneficial effects of calorie restriction, we hypothesized that calorie restriction prevents cardiac hypertrophy, lipid content changes, mitochondrial and redox dysregulation. Strikingly, calorie restriction reversed isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Isolated mitochondria from hypertrophic hearts produced significantly higher levels of succinate-driven H2O2 production, which was blocked by calorie restriction. Cardiac hypertrophy lowered mitochondrial respiratory control ratios, and decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. These effects were also prevented by calorie restriction. We performed lipidomic profiling to gain insights into how calorie restriction could interfere with the metabolic changes induced by cardiac hypertrophy. Calorie restriction protected against the consumption of several triglycerides (TGs) linked to unsaturated fatty acids. Also, this dietary procedure protected against the accumulation of TGs containing saturated fatty acids observed in hypertrophic samples. Cardiac hypertrophy induced an increase in ceramides, phosphoethanolamines, and acylcarnitines (12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0). These were all reversed by calorie restriction. Altogether, our data demonstrate that hypertrophy changes the cardiac lipidome, causes mitochondrial disturbances, and oxidative stress. These changes are prevented (at least partially) by calorie restriction intervention in vivo. This study uncovers the potential for calorie restriction to become a new therapeutic intervention against cardiac hypertrophy, and mechanisms in which it acts.
    Keywords:  Antioxidants; Calorie restriction; Cardiac hypertrophy; Free radicals; Lipidome; Mitochondria
  20. ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2020 Jul 20. 3(7): 4188-4197
      Among human diseases, cancer has been in the frontlines of drug discovery and development. Despite having several decades of research efforts, therapeutic targeting of cancer is still challenging, which is due to the ability of cancer cells to adapt to the tumor microenvironment, exhibiting resistance to therapeutic drugs, and facilitated altered cancer metabolism. The small molecule inhibitors aimed at targeting a selective pathway are becoming void since cancer cells can activate alternate mechanisms. Despite broad acceptance of the Warburg effect, cellular energy metabolism, which determines the cell fate, is often overlooked for cancer treatment. We reported earlier that mitochondrial chaperone, TRAP-1 acts as a switch for activating the alternate cellular metabolism. Hence, we hypothesized that interfering with TRAP-1 inhibition can target the activation of alternative energy metabolism and sensitize tumor cells to existing chemotherapeutic drugs. We developed a nanocarrier where the iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) were conjugated to Hsp90 inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA), and the mitochondria localization signal (MLS) peptide. We examined its effect against mitochondrial dynamics and metabolic status of human tumor cells. The synthesized nanocarrier exhibited both stability and target-specific activity and did not show nanoparticle-associated cytotoxicity. However, the nanocarrier treated cancer cells exhibited altered mitochondrial morphology and decreased cellular ATP levels suggesting that selective TRAP-1 targeting interferes with the altered energy metabolism. We present a nanoparticle-based TRAP-1 inhibitor to target tumor metabolism.
    Keywords:  MLS peptide; TRAP-1; cancer; geldanamycin; iron oxide nanoparticles; mitochondrion
  21. Nat Ecol Evol. 2022 Jan 13.
      Determining the phylogenetic origin of mitochondria is key to understanding the ancestral mitochondrial symbiosis and its role in eukaryogenesis. However, the precise evolutionary relationship between mitochondria and their closest bacterial relatives remains hotly debated. The reasons include pervasive phylogenetic artefacts as well as limited protein and taxon sampling. Here we developed a new model of protein evolution that accommodates both across-site and across-branch compositional heterogeneity. We applied this site-and-branch-heterogeneous model (MAM60 + GFmix) to a considerably expanded dataset that comprises 108 mitochondrial proteins of alphaproteobacterial origin, and novel metagenome-assembled genomes from microbial mats, microbialites and sediments. The MAM60 + GFmix model fits the data much better and agrees with analyses of compositionally homogenized datasets with conventional site-heterogenous models. The consilience of evidence thus suggests that mitochondria are sister to the Alphaproteobacteria to the exclusion of MarineProteo1 and Magnetococcia. We also show that the ancestral presence of the crista-developing mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (a mitofilin-domain-containing Mic60 protein) in mitochondria and the Alphaproteobacteria only supports their close relationship.
  22. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Jan 04. pii: 245. [Epub ahead of print]14(1):
      Aspartate has a central role in cancer cell metabolism. Aspartate cytosolic availability is crucial for protein and nucleotide biosynthesis as well as for redox homeostasis. Since tumor cells display poor aspartate uptake from the external environment, most of the cellular pool of aspartate derives from mitochondrial catabolism of glutamine. At least four transporters are involved in this metabolic pathway: the glutamine (SLC1A5_var), the aspartate/glutamate (AGC), the aspartate/phosphate (uncoupling protein 2, UCP2), and the glutamate (GC) carriers, the last three belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF). The loss of one of these transporters causes a paucity of cytosolic aspartate and an arrest of cell proliferation in many different cancer types. The aim of this review is to clarify why different cancers have varying dependencies on metabolite transporters to support cytosolic glutamine-derived aspartate availability. Dissecting the precise metabolic routes that glutamine undergoes in specific tumor types is of upmost importance as it promises to unveil the best metabolic target for therapeutic intervention.
    Keywords:  SLC1A5_var; UCP2; aspartate; aspartate/glutamate carrier; cancer; glutamate carrier; glutamine metabolism; mitochondrial carriers
  23. iScience. 2022 Jan 21. 25(1): 103635
      Nicotinamide riboside supplements (NRS) have been touted as a nutraceutical that promotes cardiometabolic and musculoskeletal health by enhancing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, and/or the activities of NAD-dependent sirtuin deacetylase enzymes. This investigation examined the impact of NRS on whole body energy homeostasis, skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, and corresponding shifts in the acetyl-lysine proteome, in the context of diet-induced obesity using C57BL/6NJ mice. The study also included a genetically modified mouse model that imposes greater demand on sirtuin flux and associated NAD+ consumption, specifically within muscle tissues. In general, whole body glucose control was marginally improved by NRS when administered at the midpoint of a chronic high-fat diet, but not when given as a preventative therapy upon initiation of the diet. Contrary to anticipated outcomes, the study produced little evidence that NRS increases tissue NAD+ levels, augments mitochondrial function, and/or mitigates diet-induced hyperacetylation of the skeletal muscle proteome.
    Keywords:  Nutrition; Physiology; Proteomics
  24. Anal Biochem. 2022 Jan 06. pii: S0003-2697(21)00446-2. [Epub ahead of print]640 114545
      Sensitive and accurate detection and imaging of mitochondrial pH have become significant methods in biological and biomedical research to elucidate the biological functions of mitochondria. Herein, a mitochondria-targeted ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe was developed to image mitochondrial pH in living cells. This nanoprobe was prepared by covalently linking a mitochondria-targeted ligand (triphenylphosphonium, TPP) and a pH recognition fluorescent indicator (rhodamine, RhB) onto the surface of MoS2 quantum dots (QDs). In this multifunctional fluorescent nanoprobe, MoS2 QDs serve not only as nanocarrier for the targeting ligand and pH fluorescent indicator, but also as a fluorescent reference for the ratiometric signal. Indeed, the fluorescence intensity of the MoS2 QDs is highly resistant to increasing proton concentrations, while that of RhB is sensitive to pH. Ratiometric detection of pH was carried out by comparing the pH-sensitive fluorescence of the RhB-based group with the pH-resistant fluorescence of MoS2 QDs. After uptake in living cells, the nanoprobe could stain mitochondria specifically, and allowed to image and monitor pH in mitochondria in a satisfactory manner.
    Keywords:  Fluorescent pH probe; Living cell; Mitochondrial targeted; MoS(2) quantum dot; Ratiometric
  25. NPJ Breast Cancer. 2022 Jan 13. 8(1): 7
      Anoikis resistance is an essential prerequisite for tumor metastasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Herein, we report that the oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is prominently upregulated in breast cancer cells following ECM detachment. Altering HBXIP expression can impair the anchorage-independent growth ability of tumor cells. Mechanistically, HBXIP, which binds to Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) to activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), contains a cis-acting antioxidant response element (ARE) in the gene promoter and is a target gene of Nrf2. The HBXIP/Nrf2 axis forms a reciprocal positive feedback loop that reinforces the expression and tumor-promoting actions of each protein. In response to ECM detachment, Nrf2 reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, protects the mitochondrial membrane potential and increases cellular ATP, GSH and NADPH levels to maintain breast cancer cell survival. Meanwhile, the reinforcement of HBXIP induced by Nrf2 inhibits JNK1 activation by inhibiting ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Prdx1, which also plays an essential role in promoting ECM-detached cell survival. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was identified between HBXIP expression and Prdx1 expression in clinical breast cancer tissues and TCGA Pan-Cancer Atlas clinical data of breast invasive carcinoma based on the cBioPortal cancer genomics database. Co-expression of HBXIP and Prdx1 predicts a poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. Collectively, our findings reveal a significant mechanism by which the HBXIP/Nrf2 feedback loop contributes to anoikis resistance by maintaining redox homeostasis and inhibiting JNK1 activation and support the likely therapeutic value of the HBXIP/Nrf2 axis in breast cancer patients.
  26. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 05. pii: 560. [Epub ahead of print]23(1):
      BACKGROUND: Enzymes of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) have recently been recognized as tumor suppressors. Mutations in the SDHB subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) cause pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs) and predispose patients to malignant disease with poor prognosis.METHODS: Using the human pheochromocytoma cell line (hPheo1), we knocked down SDHB gene expression using CRISPR-cas9 technology.
    RESULTS: Microarray gene expression analysis showed that >500 differentially expressed gene targets, about 54%, were upregulated in response to SDHB knock down. Notably, genes involved in glycolysis, hypoxia, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation were up regulated, whereas genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were downregulated. In vitro studies show that hPheo1 proliferation is not affected negatively and the cells that survive by shifting their metabolism to the use of glutamine as an alternative energy source and promote OXPHOS activity. Knock down of SDHB expression results in a significant increase in GLUD1 expression in hPheo1 cells cultured as monolayer or as 3D culture. Analysis of TCGA data confirms the enhancement of GLUD1 in SDHB mutated/low expressed PCCs/PGLs.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the downregulation of SDHB in PCCs/PGLs results in increased GLUD1 expression and may represent a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in SDHB mutated tumors and SDHB loss of activity-dependent diseases.
    Keywords:  GLUD1; OXPHOS; PCCs/PGLs; SDHB; glutamine; hPheo1
  27. Nucleic Acids Res. 2022 Jan 08. pii: gkab1251. [Epub ahead of print]
      Human mitochondria lack ribonucleotide excision repair pathways, causing misincorporated ribonucleotides (rNMPs) to remain embedded in the mitochondrial genome. Previous studies have demonstrated that human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ can bypass a single rNMP, but that longer stretches of rNMPs present an obstacle to mitochondrial DNA replication. Whether embedded rNMPs also affect mitochondrial transcription has not been addressed. Here we demonstrate that mitochondrial RNA polymerase elongation activity is affected by a single, embedded rNMP in the template strand. The effect is aggravated at stretches with two or more consecutive rNMPs in a row and cannot be overcome by addition of the mitochondrial transcription elongation factor TEFM. Our findings lead us to suggest that impaired transcription may be of functional relevance in genetic disorders associated with imbalanced nucleotide pools and higher levels of embedded rNMPs.
  28. Nat Commun. 2022 Jan 11. 13(1): 208
      Cancer is often called a disease of aging. There are numerous ways in which cancer epidemiology and behaviour change with the age of the patient. The molecular bases for these relationships remain largely underexplored. To characterise them, we analyse age-associations in the nuclear and mitochondrial somatic mutational landscape of 20,033 tumours across 35 tumour-types. Age influences both the number of mutations in a tumour (0.077 mutations per megabase per year) and their evolutionary timing. Specific mutational signatures are associated with age, reflecting differences in exogenous and endogenous oncogenic processes such as a greater influence of tobacco use in the tumours of younger patients, but higher activity of DNA damage repair signatures in those of older patients. We find that known cancer driver genes such as CDKN2A and CREBBP are mutated in age-associated frequencies, and these alter the transcriptome and predict for clinical outcomes. These effects are most striking in brain cancers where alterations like SUFU loss and ATRX mutation are age-dependent prognostic biomarkers. Using three cancer datasets, we show that age shapes the somatic mutational landscape of cancer, with clinical implications.
  29. mBio. 2022 Jan 11. e0235721
      The single-celled parasite Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted by hematophagous tsetse flies. Life cycle progression from mammalian bloodstream form to tsetse midgut form and, subsequently, infective salivary gland form depends on complex developmental steps and migration within different fly tissues. As the parasite colonizes the glucose-poor insect midgut, ATP production is thought to depend on activation of mitochondrial amino acid catabolism via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). This process involves respiratory chain complexes and F1Fo-ATP synthase and requires protein subunits of these complexes that are encoded in the parasite's mitochondrial DNA (kDNA). Here, we show that progressive loss of kDNA-encoded functions correlates with a decreasing ability to initiate and complete development in the tsetse. First, parasites with a mutated F1Fo-ATP synthase with reduced capacity for OXPHOS can initiate differentiation from bloodstream to insect form, but they are unable to proliferate in vitro. Unexpectedly, these cells can still colonize the tsetse midgut. However, these parasites exhibit a motility defect and are severely impaired in colonizing or migrating to subsequent tsetse tissues. Second, parasites with a fully disrupted F1Fo-ATP synthase complex that is completely unable to produce ATP by OXPHOS can still differentiate to the first insect stage in vitro but die within a few days and cannot establish a midgut infection in vivo. Third, parasites lacking kDNA entirely can initiate differentiation but die soon after. Together, these scenarios suggest that efficient ATP production via OXPHOS is not essential for initial colonization of the tsetse vector but is required to power trypanosome migration within the fly. IMPORTANCE African trypanosomes cause disease in humans and their livestock and are transmitted by tsetse flies. The insect ingests these parasites with its blood meal, but to be transmitted to another mammal, the trypanosome must undergo complex development within the tsetse fly and migrate from the insect's gut to its salivary glands. Crucially, the parasite must switch from a sugar-based diet while in the mammal to a diet based primarily on amino acids when it develops in the insect. Here, we show that efficient energy production by an organelle called the mitochondrion is critical for the trypanosome's ability to swim and to migrate through the tsetse fly. Surprisingly, trypanosomes with impaired mitochondrial energy production are only mildly compromised in their ability to colonize the tsetse fly midgut. Our study adds a new perspective to the emerging view that infection of tsetse flies by trypanosomes is more complex than previously thought.
    Keywords:  ATP synthase; Trypanosoma brucei; human African trypanosomiasis; mitochondria; mitochondrial metabolism; oxidative phosphorylation; sleeping sickness; trypanosomes; tsetse fly
  30. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2021 Dec;11(12): 3966-3982
      Mitochondria as a signaling platform play crucial roles in deciding cell fate. Many classic anticancer agents are known to trigger cell death through induction of mitochondrial damage. Mitophagy, one selective autophagy, is the key mitochondrial quality control that effectively removes damaged mitochondria. However, the precise roles of mitophagy in tumorigenesis and anticancer agent treatment remain largely unclear. Here, we examined the functional implication of mitophagy in the anticancer properties of magnolol, a natural product isolated from herbal Magnolia officinalis. First, we found that magnolol induces mitochondrial depolarization, causes excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, and increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). Second, magnolol induces PTEN-induced putative kinase protein 1 (PINK1)‒Parkin-mediated mitophagy through regulating two positive feedforward amplification loops. Third, magnolol triggers cancer cell death and inhibits neuroblastoma tumor growth via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Moreover, magnolol prolongs the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. Finally, inhibition of mitophagy by PINK1/Parkin knockdown or using inhibitors targeting different autophagy/mitophagy stages significantly promotes magnolol-induced cell death and enhances magnolol's anticancer efficacy, both in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, our study demonstrates that magnolol can induce autophagy/mitophagy and apoptosis, whereas blockage of autophagy/mitophagy remarkably enhances the anticancer efficacy of magnolol, suggesting that targeting mitophagy may be a promising strategy to overcome chemoresistance and improve anticancer therapy.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Combination therapy; Magnolol; PINK1‒Parkin-mediated mitophagy; Tumor suppression
  31. Front Mol Biosci. 2021 ;8 752404
      Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive brain tumor, is associated with a median survival at diagnosis of 16-20 months and limited treatment options. The key hallmark of GBM is altered tumor metabolism and marked increase in the rate of glycolysis. Aerobic glycolysis along with elevated glucose consumption and lactate production supports rapid cell proliferation and GBM growth. In this study, we examined the gene expression profile of metabolic targets in GBM samples from patients with lower grade glioma (LGG) and GBM. We found that gene expression of glycolytic enzymes is up-regulated in GBM samples and significantly associated with an elevated risk for developing GBM. Our findings of clinical outcomes showed that GBM patients with high expression of HK2 and PKM2 in the glycolysis related genes and low expression of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism-SDHB and COX5A related to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), respectively, was associated with poor patient overall survival. Surprisingly, expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism are markedly increased in GBM compared to LGG but was lower compared to normal brain. The fact that in GBM the expression levels of TCA cycle and OXPHOS-related genes are higher than those in LGG patients suggests the metabolic shift in GBM cells when progressing from LGG to GBM. These results are an important step forward in our understanding of the role of metabolic reprogramming in glioma as drivers of the tumor and could be potential prognostic targets in GBM therapies.
    Keywords:  aerobic glycolysis; brain; glioblastoma; glucose metabolism; the Warburg effect
  32. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021 Dec 31. pii: S0006-291X(21)01764-2. [Epub ahead of print]591 62-67
      Glioblastoma, a type of brain cancer, is one of the most aggressive and lethal types of malignancy. The present study shows that JCI-20679, an originally synthesized mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, enhances the anti-proliferative effects of suboptimal concentrations of the clinically used chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide in glioblastoma cells. Analysis of the effects of temozolomide combined with JCI-20679 using isobologram and combination index methods demonstrated that the combination had synergistic effects in murine and human glioblastoma cells. We found that JCI-20679 inhibited the temozolomide-mediated induction of autophagy that facilitates cellular survival. The autophagy induced by temozolomide increased ATP production, which confers temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma cells. JCI-20679 blocked temozolomide-mediated increases in ATP levels and increased the AMP/ATP ratio. Furthermore, JCI-20679 enhanced the therapeutic effects of temozolomide in an orthotopic transplantation model of glioblastoma. These results indicate that JCI-20679 may be promising as a novel agent for enhancing the efficacy of temozolomide against glioblastoma.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Combination index; Glioblastoma; Isobologram; Mitochondrial inhibitor; Temozolomide
  33. Data Brief. 2022 Feb;40 107739
      Determination of oxygen consumption is one of the most valuable methodologies to evaluate mitochondrial (dys)function. Previous studies demonstrated that a widely used protocol, consisting of adding the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin before mitochondrial respiratory uncoupling by sequential addition of a protonophore (e.g., carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenyl hydrazone [CCCP]), may lead to underestimation of maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCRmax) and spare respiratory capacity (SRC) parameters in highly glycolytic tumor cell lines. In this dataset, we report the effects of the glycolytic inhibitors 2-deoxy-D-glucose, iodoacetic acid, and lonidamine on overcoming the underestimation of OCRmax and SRC in oligomycin-treated cells. We propose a protocol in which 2-deoxy-D-glucose is added after oligomycin and just before the sequential addition of CCCP to avoid underestimation of OCRmax and SRC parameters in A549, C2C12, and T98G cells. The oxygen consumption rates were determined in intact suspended cell lines using a high-resolution oxygraph device. The data can be used in several fields of research that require characterization of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in intact cells.
    Keywords:  2-Deoxi-D-glucose; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial membrane potential; Oligomycin; Oxygen consumption; Spare respiratory capacity; Tumor cell
  34. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2022 Jan 08. 41(1): 16
      BACKGROUND: KRAS is the predominant oncogene mutated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the fourth cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Mutant KRAS-driven tumors are metabolically programmed to support their growth and survival, which can be used to identify metabolic vulnerabilities. In the present study, we aimed to understand the role of extracellularly derived fatty acids in KRAS-driven pancreatic cancer.METHODS: To assess the dependence of PDAC cells on extracellular fatty acids we employed delipidated serum or RNAi-mediated suppression of ACSL3 (to inhibit the activation and cellular retention of extracellular fatty acids) followed by cell proliferation assays, qPCR, apoptosis assays, immunoblots and fluorescence microscopy experiments. To assess autophagy in vivo, we employed the KrasG12D/+;p53flox/flox;Pdx1-CreERT2 (KPC) mice crossed with Acsl3 knockout mice, and to assess the efficacy of the combination therapy of ACSL3 and autophagy inhibition we used xenografted human cancer cell-derived tumors in immunocompromised mice.
    RESULTS: Here we show that depletion of extracellularly derived lipids either by serum lipid restriction or suppression of ACSL3, triggers autophagy, a process that protects PDAC cells from the reduction of bioenergetic intermediates. Combined extracellular lipid deprivation and autophagy inhibition exhibits anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects against PDAC cell lines in vitro and promotes suppression of xenografted human pancreatic cancer cell-derived tumors in mice. Therefore, we propose lipid deprivation and autophagy blockade as a potential co-targeting strategy for PDAC treatment.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our work unravels a central role of extracellular lipid supply in ensuring fatty acid provision in cancer cells, unmasking a previously unappreciated metabolic vulnerability of PDAC cells.
    Keywords:  Combination therapy; Extracellular lipids; Lipid metabolism; Pancreatic cancer; Tumor metabolic vulnerabilities
  35. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Jan 11. 13(1): 49
      Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been shown with high mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MnSOD (SOD2) is a mitochondrial antioxidant defense that has been implicated in inhibition of human malignancies. However, the impact of MnSOD on immunosuppressive macrophage functions and TNBC aggressiveness has never been explored. We found here that SOD2high is primarily observed in the aggressive subtypes of HER2(+) breast cancers and TNBCs patients. Further analyses demonstrated that the oncoprotein multiple copies in T-cell malignancy-1 (MCT-1 or MCTS1) induces mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in TNBC cells by stabilizing the transcription factor Nrf2. SOD2high/MCTS1high expression correlates with a poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. MnSOD in TNBC cells functions as a prooxidant peroxidase that increases mitochondrial ROS (mROS) and adaptation to oxidative stress under the oncogenic effect. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the MCT-1 pathway elevates Nrf2/MnSOD and mROS levels. Knockdown of MnSOD inhibits TNBC cell invasion, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), mROS, and IL-6 excretion promoted by MCT-1. TNBC cells deficient in MnSOD prevent the polarization and chemotaxis of M2 macrophages but improve the ability of M1 macrophages to engulf cancer cells. Quenching mROS with MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted non-metal-based antioxidant MnSOD mimics, effectively suppresses BCSCs and M2 macrophage invasion exacerbated by MnSOD and MCT-1. Consistently, silencing MnSOD impedes TNBC progression and intratumoral M2 macrophage infiltration. We revealed a novel stratagem for TNBC management involving targeting the MCT-1 oncogene-induced mitochondrial prooxidant MnSOD pathway, which prevents the development of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.
  36. Biochimie. 2022 Jan 10. pii: S0300-9084(22)00002-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      This review aims to make a framework of exogenous healthy mitochondrial transplantation and to assemble present information for improving new therapeutic applications in a variety of diseases. Recently, the significance of mitochondrial transplantation has been emphasized in a variety of mitochondrial dysfunction-related diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, toxic injury, ischemia, cardiovascular diseases. We describe the natural mitochondrial transfer mechanisms (ie. TNT, EVs, mitochondrial dynamics), mitochondrial isolation process for transplantation (ie. source of mitochondria, requirements for successful isolation), mitochondrial transplantation methods (in vivo, in vitro), the effects and limitations of mitochondrial transplantation. Since mitochondrial transplantation is seen as an innovative potential treatment for diseases that can not be treated at the desired level, we expect to represent how the mitochondrial transplantation methods can be used in different diseases.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria dysfunction; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitochondrial isolation; Mitochondrial transplantation
  37. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2022 Jan 10. pii: S1096-4959(22)00001-X. [Epub ahead of print] 110713
      Mitochondria are key cellular sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contain at least 12 known sites on multiple enzymes that convert molecular oxygen to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Quantitation of site-specific ROS emission is critical to understand the relative contribution of different sites and the pathophysiologic importance of mitochondrial ROS. However, factors that affect mitochondrial ROS emission are not well understood. We characterized and optimized conditions for maximal total and site-specific H2O2 emission during oxidation of standard substrates and probed the source of the high H2O2 emission in unenergized rainbow trout liver mitochondria. We found that mitochondrial H2O2 emission capacity depended on the substrate being oxidized, mitochondrial protein concentration, and composition of the ROS detection system. Contrary to our expectation, addition of exogenous superoxide dismutase reduced H2O2 emission. Titration of conventional mitochondrial electron transfer system (ETS) inhibitors over a range of conditions revealed that one size does not fit all; inhibitor concentrations evoking maximal responses varied with substrate and were moderated by the presence of other inhibitors. Moreover, the efficacy of suppressors of electron leak (S1QEL1.1 and S3QEL2) was low and depended on the substrate being oxidized. We found that H2O2 emission in unenergized rainbow trout liver mitochondria was suppressed by GKT136901 suggesting that it is associated with NADPH oxidase activity. We conclude that optimization of assay conditions is critical for quantitation of maximal H2O2 emission and would facilitate more valid comparisons of mitochondrial total and site-specific H2O2 emission capacities between studies, tissues, and species.
    Keywords:  Amplex UltraRed; Liver mitochondria; Optimal conditions; ROS; Site-specific H(2)O(2) emission
  38. Cell Rep. 2022 Jan 11. pii: S2211-1247(21)01717-4. [Epub ahead of print]38(2): 110213
      Deficiency of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein seipin results in generalized lipodystrophy by incompletely understood mechanisms. Here, we report mitochondrial abnormalities in seipin-deficient patient cells. A subset of seipin is enriched at ER-mitochondria contact sites (MAMs) in human and mouse cells and localizes in the vicinity of calcium regulators SERCA2, IP3R, and VDAC. Seipin association with MAM calcium regulators is stimulated by fasting-like stimuli, while seipin association with lipid droplets is promoted by lipid loading. Acute seipin removal does not alter ER calcium stores but leads to defective mitochondrial calcium import accompanied by a widespread reduction in Krebs cycle metabolites and ATP levels. In mice, inducible seipin deletion leads to mitochondrial dysfunctions preceding the development of metabolic complications. Together, these data suggest that seipin controls mitochondrial energy metabolism by regulating mitochondrial calcium influx at MAMs. In seipin-deficient adipose tissue, reduced ATP production compromises adipocyte properties, contributing to lipodystrophy pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  ATP production; Adipocyte; Calcium handling; ER-LD contact sites; Krebs cycle metabolites; MAMs; Mitochondria dysfunction; lipid droplet; lipodystrophy; seipin