bims-mibica Biomed News
on Mitochondrial bioenergetics in cancer
Issue of 2020‒09‒06
fifty-eight papers selected by
Kelsey Fisher-Wellman
East Carolina University

  1. Cells. 2020 Sep 01. pii: E2013. [Epub ahead of print]9(9):
      The greatest challenge in cancer therapy is posed by drug-resistant recurrence following treatment. Anticancer chemotherapy is largely focused on targeting the rapid proliferation and biosynthesis of cancer cells. This strategy has the potential to trigger autophagy, enabling cancer cell survival through the recycling of molecules and energy essential for biosynthesis, leading to drug resistance. Autophagy recycling contributes amino acids and ATP to restore mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, which leads to cell survival. However, autophagy with mTORC1 activation can be stalled by reducing the ATP level. We have previously shown that cytosolic NADH production supported by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is critical for supplying ATP through oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in cancer cell mitochondria. Inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of the OxPhos electron transfer chain and ALDH significantly reduce the ATP level selectively in cancer cells, terminating autophagy triggered by anticancer drug treatment. With the aim of overcoming drug resistance, we investigated combining the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, using phenformin, and ALDH, using gossypol, with anticancer drug treatment. Here, we show that OxPhos targeting combined with anticancer drugs acts synergistically to enhance the anticancer effect in mouse xenograft models of various cancers, which suggests a potential therapeutic approach for drug-resistant cancer.
    Keywords:  ATP production; aldehyde dehydrogenase; cancer metabolism; energy metabolism; oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos)
  2. Cell Rep. 2020 Sep 01. pii: S2211-1247(20)31084-6. [Epub ahead of print]32(9): 108095
      The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) is a Ca2+-activated channel that plays a key role in cell death. Thiol oxidation facilitates PTP opening, yet the targets and molecular mechanisms still await a definition. Here, we investigate the role of C141 of F-ATP synthase oligomycin sensitivity conferral protein (OSCP) subunit in PTP modulation by oxidation. We find that the OSCP C141S mutation confers resistance to PTP opening and cell death by diamide and MitoParaquat only when cyclophilin D (CyPD) has been ablated, a protective role that can be explained by CyPD shielding C141 from oxidants. The mutation decreases apoptosis in zebrafish embryos, indicating that this OSCP residue is involved in development. Site-directed mutagenesis in yeast suggests that other conserved cysteines in the α, γ, and c subunits of F-ATP synthase are not involved in PTP modulation. Thus, OSCP provides a strategic site that regulates PTP opening by the interplay between CyPD (un)binding and thiol oxidation-reduction.
    Keywords:  F-ATP synthase; OSCP; cyclophilin D; cysteine; mitochondria; oxidation; permeability transition pore
  3. J Proteomics. 2020 Aug 31. pii: S1874-3919(20)30317-1. [Epub ahead of print] 103949
      Strict quality control for mitochondrial proteins is necessary to ensure cell homeostasis. Two cellular pathways-Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) and autophagy-contribute to mitochondrial homeostasis under stressful conditions. Here, we investigate changes to the mitochondria proteome and to the ubiquitin landscape at mitochondria in response to proteasome inhibition. Treatment of HeLa cells devoid of Parkin, the primary E3 ligase responsible for mitophagy, with proteasome inhibitor MG132 for a few hours caused mitochondrial oxidative stress and fragmentation, reduced energy output, and increased mitochondrial ubiquitination without inducing mitophagy. Overexpression of Parkin did not show any induction of mitophagy in response to MG132 treatment. Analysis of ubiquitin chains on isolated mitochondria revealed predominance of K48, K29 and K63-linked polyubiquitin. Interestingly, of all ubiquitinated mitochondrial proteins detected in response to MG132 treatment, a majority (≥90%) were intramitochondrial irrespective of Parkin expression. However, overall levels of these ubiquitinated mitochondrial proteins did not change significantly upon proteasome inhibition when evaluated by quantitative proteomics (LFQ and SILAC), suggesting that only a small portion are ubiquitinated under basal conditions. Another aspect of proteasome inhibition is significant enrichment of UPS, lysosomal and phagosomal components, and other heat shock proteins associated with isolated mitochondria. Taken together, our study highlights a critical role of UPS for ubiquitinating and removing imported proteins as part of a basal mitochondrial quality control system independent of Parkin. SIGNIFICANCE: As centers of cellular bioenergetics, numerous metabolic pathways and signaling cascades, the health of mitochondria is of utmost importance for ensuring cell survival. Due to their unique physiology, mitochondria are constantly subjected to damaging oxidative radicals (ROS) and protein import-related stress due to buildup of unfolded aggregate-prone proteins. Thus, for quality control purposes, mitochondria are constantly under surveillance by Autophagy and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS), both of which share ubiquitin as a common signal. The ubiquitin landscape of mitochondria has been studied in detail under stressful conditions, however, little is known about basal mitochondrial ubiquitination. Our study reveals that the extent of ubiquitination at mitochondria greatly increases upon proteasome inhibition, pointing to a large number of potential substrates for proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, most of the ubiquitination occurs on intramitochondrial proteins, components of the electron transport chain (ETC) and matrix-resident metabolic enzymes in particular. Moreover, numerous cytosolic UPS components, chaperones and autophagy-lysosomal proteins were recruited to mitochondria upon proteasome inhibition. Taken together, this suggests that the levels and functions of mitochondrial proteins are constantly regulated through ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation even under basal conditions. Unclogging mitochondrial import channels may provide a mechanism to alleviate stress associated with mitochondrial protein import or to adapt cells according to their metabolic needs. Therefore, targeting the mitochondrial ubiquitination/deubiquitination machinery, such as improving the therapeutic potency of proteasome inhibitors, may provide an additional therapeutic arsenal against tumors.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Mitostasis; Proteasome; Quantitative proteomics; Ubiquitin
  4. EMBO Mol Med. 2020 Aug 16. e12423
      Aging is associated with redox imbalance according to the redox theory of aging. Consistently, a mouse model of premature aging (LmnaG609G/+) showed an increased level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a reduced basal antioxidant capacity, including loss of the NADPH-coupled glutathione redox system. LmnaG609G/+ mice also exhibited reduced mitochondrial ATP synthesis secondary to ROS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment of LmnaG609G/+ vascular smooth muscle cells with magnesium-enriched medium improved the intracellular ATP level, enhanced the antioxidant capacity, and thereby reduced mitochondrial ROS production. Moreover, treatment of LmnaG609G/+ mice with dietary magnesium improved the proton pumps (complexes I, III, and IV), stimulated extramitochondrial NADH oxidation and enhanced the coupled mitochondrial membrane potential, and thereby increased H+-coupled mitochondrial NADPH and ATP synthesis, which is necessary for cellular energy supply and survival. Consistently, magnesium treatment reduced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and improved the longevity of mice. This antioxidant property of magnesium may be beneficial in children with HGPS.
    Keywords:  HGPS; aging; magnesium; progeria; vascular calcification
  5. Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 31. 10(1): 14328
      The permanent transfer of specific mtDNA sequences into mammalian cells could generate improved models of mtDNA disease and support future cell-based therapies. Previous studies documented multiple biochemical changes in recipient cells shortly after mtDNA transfer, but the long-term retention and function of transferred mtDNA remains unknown. Here, we evaluate mtDNA retention in new host cells using 'MitoPunch', a device that transfers isolated mitochondria into mouse and human cells. We show that newly introduced mtDNA is stably retained in mtDNA-deficient (ρ0) recipient cells following uridine-free selection, although exogenous mtDNA is lost from metabolically impaired, mtDNA-intact (ρ+) cells. We then introduced a second selective pressure by transferring chloramphenicol-resistant mitochondria into chloramphenicol-sensitive, metabolically impaired ρ+ mouse cybrid cells. Following double selection, recipient cells with mismatched nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes retained transferred mtDNA, which replaced the endogenous mutant mtDNA and improved cell respiration. However, recipient cells with matched mtDNA-nDNA failed to retain transferred mtDNA and sustained impaired respiration. Our results suggest that exogenous mtDNA retention in metabolically impaired ρ+ recipients depends on the degree of recipient mtDNA-nDNA co-evolution. Uncovering factors that stabilize exogenous mtDNA integration will improve our understanding of in vivo mitochondrial transfer and the interplay between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes.
  6. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Aug 27. pii: E2437. [Epub ahead of print]12(9):
      Cancer cells generate large quantities of cytoplasmic protons as byproducts of aberrantly activated aerobic glycolysis and lactate fermentation. To avoid potentially detrimental acidification of the intracellular milieu, cancer cells activate multiple acid-removal pathways that promote cytosolic alkalization and extracellular acidification. Accumulating evidence suggests that in addition to the well-characterized ion pumps and exchangers in the plasma membrane, cancer cell lysosomes are also reprogrammed for this purpose. On the one hand, the increased expression and activity of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) on the lysosomal limiting membrane combined with the larger volume of the lysosomal compartment increases the lysosomal proton storage capacity substantially. On the other hand, enhanced lysosome exocytosis enables the efficient release of lysosomal protons to the extracellular space. Together, these two steps dynamically drive proton flow from the cytosol to extracellular space. In this perspective, we provide mechanistic insight into how lysosomes contribute to the rewiring of pH homeostasis in cancer cells.
    Keywords:  V-ATPase; lysosomal exocytosis; lysosome; pH regulation
  7. JCI Insight. 2020 Sep 03. pii: 140326. [Epub ahead of print]5(17):
      Cardiac energetic dysfunction has been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is an independent predictor of mortality. Identification of the mechanisms driving mitochondrial dysfunction, and therapeutic strategies to rescue these modifications, will improve myocardial energetics in T2D. We demonstrate using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) that decreased cardiac ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations occurred before contractile dysfunction or a reduction in PCr/ATP ratio in T2D. Real-time mitochondrial ATP synthesis rates and state 3 respiration rates were similarly depressed in T2D, implicating dysfunctional mitochondrial energy production. Driving this energetic dysfunction in T2D was an increase in mitochondrial protein acetylation, and increased ex vivo acetylation was shown to proportionally decrease mitochondrial respiration rates. Treating T2D rats in vivo with the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 activator honokiol reversed the hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins and restored mitochondrial respiration rates to control levels. Using 13C-hyperpolarized MRS, respiration with different substrates, and enzyme assays, we localized this improvement to increased glutamate dehydrogenase activity. Finally, honokiol treatment increased ATP and PCr concentrations and increased total ATP synthesis flux in the T2D heart. In conclusion, hyperacetylation drives energetic dysfunction in T2D, and reversing acetylation with the SIRT3 activator honokiol rescued myocardial and mitochondrial energetics in T2D.
    Keywords:  Cardiology; Metabolism; Mitochondria
  8. Mol Cell. 2020 Aug 04. pii: S1097-2765(20)30515-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria contain their own gene expression systems, including membrane-bound ribosomes dedicated to synthesizing a few hydrophobic subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. We used a proximity-dependent biotinylation technique, BioID, coupled with mass spectrometry to delineate in baker's yeast a comprehensive network of factors involved in biogenesis of mitochondrial encoded proteins. This mitochondrial gene expression network (MiGENet) encompasses proteins involved in transcription, RNA processing, translation, or protein biogenesis. Our analyses indicate the spatial organization of these processes, thereby revealing basic mechanistic principles and the proteins populating strategically important sites. For example, newly synthesized proteins are directly handed over to ribosomal tunnel exit-bound factors that mediate membrane insertion, co-factor acquisition, or their mounting into OXPHOS complexes in a special early assembly hub. Collectively, the data reveal the connectivity of mitochondrial gene expression, reflecting a unique tailoring of the mitochondrial gene expression system.
    Keywords:  assembly; co-factor acquisition; gene expression; mitochondria; network; proximity interactions; respiratory chain; ribosome; translation; tunnel exit
  9. Mitochondrion. 2020 Aug 31. pii: S1567-7249(20)30175-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Skeletal muscle, a significant contributor to resting energy expenditure and reactive oxygen species, may play critical role in body-weight regulation and aging processes. Methionine restriction (MR) is a dietary intervention which extends lifespan, lowers body-weight and enhances energy expenditure in rodents, all of which has been linked to mitochondrial function in various tissues including liver, kidney, heart and brown adipose tissue; however, mitochondrial responses to MR in skeletal muscle is largely unknown. Given the importance of skeletal muscle on energy mobilization and aging-related processes, we investigated if there are changes in skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in response to MR. Although MR lowers body-weight in rats, neither respiration, proton leak nor hydrogen peroxide metabolism was altered in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria. This suggests that the function of skeletal muscle remains conserved while MR alters metabolism in other tissues.
    Keywords:  H(2)O(2); Skeletal muscle; antioxidants; methionine restriction; proton leak; respiration
  10. iScience. 2020 Aug 13. pii: S2589-0042(20)30645-3. [Epub ahead of print]23(9): 101453
      Glioblastoma (GBM) metabolism has traditionally been characterized by a primary dependence on aerobic glycolysis, prompting the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a potential therapy. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of the KD in GBM and assessed the role of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in promoting GBM propagation. In vitro assays revealed FA utilization throughout the GBM metabolome and growth inhibition in nearly every cell line in a broad spectrum of patient-derived glioma cells treated with FAO inhibitors. In vivo assessments revealed that knockdown of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme for FAO, reduced the rate of tumor growth and increased survival. However, the unrestricted ketogenic diet did not reduce tumor growth and for some models significantly reduced survival. Altogether, these data highlight important roles for FA and ketone body metabolism that could serve to improve targeted therapies in GBM.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Diet; Pathophysiology
  11. Nat Commun. 2020 Sep 04. 11(1): 4416
      Despite the clear association between myocardial injury, heart failure and depressed myocardial energetics, little is known about upstream signals responsible for remodeling myocardial metabolism after pathological stress. Here, we report increased mitochondrial calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activation and left ventricular dilation in mice one week after myocardial infarction (MI) surgery. By contrast, mice with genetic mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition are protected from left ventricular dilation and dysfunction after MI. Mice with myocardial and mitochondrial CaMKII overexpression (mtCaMKII) have severe dilated cardiomyopathy and decreased ATP that causes elevated cytoplasmic resting (diastolic) Ca2+ concentration and reduced mechanical performance. We map a metabolic pathway that rescues disease phenotypes in mtCaMKII mice, providing insights into physiological and pathological metabolic consequences of CaMKII signaling in mitochondria. Our findings suggest myocardial dilation, a disease phenotype lacking specific therapies, can be prevented by targeted replacement of mitochondrial creatine kinase or mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibition.
  12. Nat Cell Biol. 2020 Sep;22(9): 1091-1102
      Organs and cells must adapt to shear stress induced by biological fluids, but how fluid flow contributes to the execution of specific cell programs is poorly understood. Here we show that shear stress favours mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic reprogramming to ensure energy production and cellular adaptation in kidney epithelial cells. Shear stress stimulates lipophagy, contributing to the production of fatty acids that provide mitochondrial substrates to generate ATP through β-oxidation. This flow-induced process is dependent on the primary cilia located on the apical side of epithelial cells. The interplay between fluid flow and lipid metabolism was confirmed in vivo using a unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model. Finally, primary cilium-dependent lipophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis are required to support energy-consuming cellular processes such as glucose reabsorption, gluconeogenesis and cytoskeletal remodelling. Our findings demonstrate how primary cilia and autophagy are involved in the translation of mechanical forces into metabolic adaptation.
  13. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2020 Aug 28. pii: S0925-4439(20)30296-9. [Epub ahead of print] 165948
      Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a disease of pregnancy that is associated with D-glucose intolerance and foeto-placental vascular dysfunction. GMD causes mitochondrial dysfunction in the placental endothelium and trophoblast. Additionally, GDM is associated with reduced placental oxidative phosphorylation due to diminished activity of the mitochondrial F0F1-ATP synthase (complex V). This phenomenon may result from a higher generation of reactive superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Placental mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy work in concert to maintain cell homeostasis and are vital mechanisms securing the efficient generation of ATP, whose demand is higher in pregnancy, ensuring foetal growth and development. Additional factors disturbing placental ATP synthase activity in GDM include pre-gestational maternal obesity or overweight, intracellular pH, miRNAs, fatty acid oxidation, and foetal (and 'placental') sex. GDM is also associated with maternal and foetal hyperinsulinaemia, altered circulating levels of adiponectin and leptin, and the accumulation of extracellular adenosine. Here, we reviewed the potential interplay between these molecules or metabolic conditions on the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in the foeto-placental unit in GDM pregnancies.
    Keywords:  adenosine; endothelium; gestational diabetes; human; insulin; mitochondria; placenta
  14. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Aug 29. pii: E6255. [Epub ahead of print]21(17):
      OBJECTIVE: The rampant growth of obesity worldwide has stimulated explosive research into human metabolism. Energy expenditure has been shown to be altered by diets differing in macronutrient composition, with low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets eliciting a significant increase over other interventions. The central aim of this study was to explore the effects of the ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) on mitochondrial bioenergetics in adipose tissue.METHODS: We employed three distinct systems-namely, cell, rodent, and human models. Following exposure to elevated βHB, we obtained adipose tissue to quantify mitochondrial function.
    RESULTS: In every model, βHB robustly increased mitochondrial respiration, including an increase of roughly 91% in cultured adipocytes, 113% in rodent subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and 128% in human SAT. However, this occurred without a commensurate increase in adipose ATP production. Furthermore, in cultured adipocytes and rodent adipose, we quantified and observed an increase in the gene expression involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling status following βHB exposure.
    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, βHB increases mitochondrial respiration, but not ATP production, in mammalian adipocytes, indicating altered mitochondrial coupling. These findings may partly explain the increased metabolic rate evident in states of elevated ketones, and may facilitate the development of novel anti-obesity interventions.
    Keywords:  adipocyte; ketones; mitochondria; uncoupling
  15. Redox Biol. 2020 Jul 12. pii: S2213-2317(20)30845-4. [Epub ahead of print]36 101640
      Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury leads to significant patient morbidity and mortality, and its amelioration is an urgent unmet clinical need. Succinate accumulates during ischemia and its oxidation by the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) drives the ROS production that underlies IR injury. Consequently, compounds that inhibit SDH may have therapeutic potential against renal IR injury. Among these, the competitive SDH inhibitor malonate, administered as a cell-permeable malonate ester prodrug, has shown promise in models of cardiac IR injury, but the efficacy of malonate ester prodrugs against renal IR injury have not been investigated. Here we show that succinate accumulates during ischemia in mouse, pig and human models of renal IR injury, and that its rapid oxidation by SDH upon reperfusion drives IR injury. We then show that the malonate ester prodrug, dimethyl malonate (DMM), can ameliorate renal IR injury when administered at reperfusion but not prior to ischemia in the mouse. Finally, we show that another malonate ester prodrug, diacetoxymethyl malonate (MAM), is more potent than DMM because of its faster esterase hydrolysis. Our data show that the mitochondrial mechanisms of renal IR injury are conserved in the mouse, pig and human and that inhibition of SDH by 'tuned' malonate ester prodrugs, such as MAM, is a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of clinical renal IR injury.
    Keywords:  Ischemia reperfusion injury; Kidney; Malonate; Mitochondria; Succinate; Succinate dehydrogenase
  16. J Cell Sci. 2020 Sep 02. pii: jcs.248492. [Epub ahead of print]
      Proteasome-mediated degradation of misfolded proteins prevents aggregation inside and outside mitochondria. But how do cells safeguard mitochondrial proteome and function despite increased aggregation during proteasome-inactivation? Here, using a novel two-dimensional complexome profiling strategy, we report increased supra-organizations of respiratory complexes (RCs) in proteasome-inhibited cells simultaneous to pelletable aggregation of RC-subunits inside mitochondria. Complex-II (CII) and CV-subunits are increasingly incorporated into oligomers. CI, CIII and CIV-subunits are engaged into supercomplex formation. We unravel unique quinary-states of supercomplexes at early-stress that exhibit plasticity and inequivalence of constituent RCs. Core stoichiometry of CI and CIII is preserved whereas CIV-composition varies. These partially disintegrated supercomplexes remain functionally competent via conformational optimization. Subsequently, increased stepwise integration of RC-subunits into holocomplex and supercomplexes re-establish steady-state stoichiometry. Overall, the mechanism of increased supra-organization of RCs mimics the cooperative unfolding and folding pathways for protein-folding, restricted to RCs only and not observed for any other mitochondrial protein complexes.
    Keywords:  Increased supercomplex; Multistep proteome remodelling; Proteostasis; Quinary supercomplex; Respiratory complex biogenesis; Two-dimensional complexome profiling
  17. Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 03. 10(1): 14519
      With the discovery of magnetoreceptor mechanisms in animals, it materialized the novel applications of controlling cell and animal behaviors using magnetic fields. T cells have shown to be sensitive to magnetic fields. Here, we reported that exposure to moderate SMFs (static magnetic fields) led to increased granule and cytokine secretion as well as ATP production and mitochondrial respiration from CD8+ T cells. These effects were inhibited by knocking down the Uqcrb and Ndufs6 genes of mitochondrial respiratory chain, whose transcriptions were regulated by candidate magnetoreceptor genes Isca1 and Cry1/Cry2. SMF exposure also promoted CD8+ T cell granule and cytokine secretion and repressed tumor growth in vivo. SMFs enhanced CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, and the adoptive transfer into tumor-bearing mice resulted in enhanced antitumor effects. Collectively, our study suggests that moderate SMFs enhance CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity by promoting mitochondrial respiration and promoted the antitumor function of CD8+ T cells.
  18. NMR Biomed. 2020 Sep 01. e4402
      Dynamic phosphorus MRS (31 P-MRS) is a method used for in vivo studies of skeletal muscle energetics including measurements of phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis rate during recovery of submaximal exercise. However, the molecular events associated with the PCr resynthesis rate are still under debate. We assessed vastus lateralis PCr resynthesis rate from 31 P-MRS spectra collected from healthy adults as part of the CALERIE II study (caloric restriction), and assessed associations between PCr resynthesis and muscle mitochondrial signature transcripts and proteins (NAMPT, NQO1, PGC-1α, and SIRT1). Regression analysis indicated that higher concentration of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) protein, a mitochondrial capacity marker, was associated with faster PCr resynthesis. However, PCr resynthesis was not associated with greater physical fitness (VO2 peak) or messenger ribonucleic acid levels of mitochondrial function markers such as NQO1, PGC-1α, and SIRT1, suggesting that the impact of these molecular signatures on PCr resynthesis may be minimal in the context of an acute exercise bout. Together, these findings suggest that 31 P-MRS based PCr resynthesis may represent a valid non-invasive surrogate marker of mitochondrial NAMPT in human skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  31P-MRS; mitochondria; muscle; nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase
  19. FASEB J. 2020 Sep 03.
      Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been shown to be produced acutely by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, yet chronically elevated with obesity and aging. The mechanisms by which IL-6 influences skeletal muscle mitochondria acutely and chronically are unclear. To better understand the influence of extramyocellular IL-6 on skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology, we treated differentiated myotubes with exogenous IL-6 to evaluate the dose- and duration-dependent effects of IL-6 on salient aspects of mitochondrial biology and the role of canonical IL-6 signaling in muscle cells. Acute exposure of myotubes to IL-6 increased the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production and oxygen consumption rates (JO2 ) in a manner that was dependent on activation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Furthermore, STAT3 activation by IL-6 was partly attenuated by MitoQ, a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, suggesting that mtROS potentiates STAT3 signaling in skeletal muscle in response to IL-6 exposure. In concert with effects on mitochondrial physiology, acute IL-6 exposure induced several mitochondrial adaptations, consistent with the stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. Exposure of myotubes to chronically elevated IL-6 further increased mtROS with eventual loss of respiratory capacity. These data provide new evidence supporting the interplay between cytokine signaling and mitochondrial physiology in skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  STAT3; interleukin-6; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species; skeletal muscle
  20. Life (Basel). 2020 Aug 31. pii: E173. [Epub ahead of print]10(9):
      In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria originated in an α-proteobacterial endosymbiont. Although these organelles harbor their own genome, the large majority of genes, originally encoded in the endosymbiont, were either lost or transferred to the nucleus. As a consequence, mitochondria have become semi-autonomous and most of their processes require the import of nuclear-encoded components to be functional. Therefore, the mitochondrial-specific translation has evolved to be coordinated by mitonuclear interactions to respond to the energetic demands of the cell, acquiring unique and mosaic features. However, mitochondrial-DNA-encoded genes are essential for the assembly of the respiratory chain complexes. Impaired mitochondrial function due to oxidative damage and mutations has been associated with numerous human pathologies, the aging process, and cancer. In this review, we highlight the unique features of mitochondrial protein synthesis and provide a comprehensive insight into the mitonuclear crosstalk and its co-evolution, as well as the vulnerabilities of the animal mitochondrial genome.
    Keywords:  mitochondrial diseases; mitochondrion genetic code; mitonuclear coevolution; mt-DNA repair; translational fidelity
  21. Mol Biol Rep. 2020 Sep 03.
      Through the process of alternative splicing, proteins with distinct biological functions and localisations are generated from a single gene. The mitochondrial folate metabolism enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 2 (MTHFD2) has been receiving attention in recent years as one of the most frequently upregulated metabolic enzymes across multiple tumour types. We hypothesized that alternative splicing of MTHFD2 could be a mechanism that generates novel isoforms of this enzyme, with potentially distinct and important biological functions. Multiple alternatively spliced MTHFD2 transcripts were first characterized in the UCSC and Ensemble genome browser. Subsequently, investigating the transcriptomic data for the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTeX) project it was found that beyond the canonical MTHFD2 transcript, alternative transcripts lacking the second exon of MTHFD2 are also common. The presence of MTHFD2 transcripts lacking the second exon was confirmed by RT-PCR in normal and cancer cells. Translation of MTHFD2 transcripts lacking this second exon are predicted to generate a truncated protein lacking the first 102 N-terminal amino acids of the full-length protein, including the mitochondrial transport sequence. Hence, the truncated MTHFD2 protein could be an isoform with distinct localisation and functions. However, we were not able to confirm the generation of a stable truncated MTHFD2 protein in eukaryotic cells. This study characterizes for the first time alternative spliced transcripts of the enzyme MTHFD2, although further work is required to investigate their biological significance.
    Keywords:  Folate; Isoform; MTHFD2; Mitochondria; Nucleus; Splicing
  22. Mol Cancer Res. 2020 Sep 01. pii: molcanres.0439.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
      Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by a highly desmoplastic reaction, warranting intense cancer-stroma communication. In this study we interrogated the contribution of the BET family of chromatin adaptors to the crosstalk between PDAC cells and the tumor stroma. Short-term treatment of orthotopic xenograft tumors with CPI203, a small molecule inhibitor of BET proteins, resulted in broad changes in the expression of genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix (matrisome) in both cancer and stromal cells. Remarkably, more than half of matrisome genes were expressed by cancer cells. In vitro co-cultures of PDAC cells and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) demonstrated that matrisome expression was regulated by BET-dependent cancer-CAF crosstalk. Disrupting this crosstalk in vivo resulted in diminished growth of orthotopic patient-derived xenograft tumors, reduced proliferation of cancer cells, and changes in collagen structure consistent with that of patients who experienced better survival. Examination of matrisome gene expression in publicly available data sets of 573 PDAC tumors identified a 65-gene signature that was able to distinguish long- and short-term PDAC survivors. Importantly, the expression of genes predictive of short-term survival was diminished in the cancer cells of orthotopic xenograft tumors of mice treated with CPI203. Taken together, these results demonstrate that inhibiting the activity BET proteins results in transcriptional and structural differences in the matrisome are associated with better patient survival. Implications: These studies highlight the biological relevance of the matrisome program in PDAC and suggest targeting of epigenetically driven tumor-stroma crosstalk as a potential therapeutic avenue.
  23. Cell Metab. 2020 Sep 01. pii: S1550-4131(20)30421-6. [Epub ahead of print]32(3): 321-323
      Metabolic dialogue between tumors and their microenvironment emerges as a key regulator of chemoresistance, the major barrier for the treatment of several cancers. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, van Gastel et al. decipher the pivotal role of stromal glutamine-derived aspartate to sustain pyrimidine biosynthesis in chemoresistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and thus state it as a target for anti-cancer therapy.
  24. Mol Cancer Ther. 2020 Sep 02. pii: molcanther.0423.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
      One-carbon (1C) metabolism encompasses folate-mediated 1C transfer reactions and related processes, including nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis, antioxidant regeneration, and epigenetic regulation. 1C pathways are compartmentalized in the cytosol, mitochondria and nucleus. 1C metabolism in the cytosol has been an important therapeutic target for cancer since the inception of modern chemotherapy and "antifolates" targeting cytosolic 1C pathways continue to be a mainstay of the chemotherapy armamentarium for cancer. Recent insights into the complexities of 1C metabolism in cancer cells, including the critical role of the mitochondrial 1C pathway as a source of 1C units, glycine, reducing equivalents, and ATP, have spurred the discovery of novel compounds that target these reactions, with particular focus on 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 2 and serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2. In this review, we discuss key aspects of 1C metabolism, with emphasis on the importance of mitochondrial 1C metabolism to metabolic homeostasis, and its relationship to the oncogenic phenotype and therapeutic potential for cancer.
  25. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2020 Sep 02. 5(1): 177
      Cancer cells are usually characterized by hyperactive glucose metabolism, which can often lead to glucose scarcity; thus, alternative pathways to rewire cancer metabolism are required. Here, we demonstrated that GLUT3 was highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) and negatively linked to CRC patient outcomes, whereas GLUT1 was not associated with CRC prognosis. Under glucose-limiting conditions, GLUT3 expedited CRC cell growth by accelerating glucose input and fuelling nucleotide synthesis. Notably, GLUT3 had a greater impact on cell growth than GLUT1 under glucose-limiting stress. Mechanistically, low-glucose stress dramatically upregulated GLUT3 via the AMPK/CREB1 pathway. Furthermore, high GLUT3 expression remarkably increased the sensitivity of CRC cells to treatment with vitamin C and vitamin C-containing regimens. Together, the results of this study highlight the importance of the AMPK/CREB1/GLUT3 pathway for CRC cells to withstand glucose-limiting stress and underscore the therapeutic potential of vitamin C in CRC with high GLUT3 expression.
  26. Anticancer Res. 2020 Sep;40(9): 5159-5170
      BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to elucidate the possibility of sensitizing colon cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic drug SN38 and investigate its mechanism of action after combined treatment with electroporation (EP).MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were treated with SN38, EP and their combination for 24/48 h. The cell viability, actin cytoskeleton integrity, mitochondrial superoxide, hydroperoxides, total glutathione, phosphatidyl serine expression, DNA damages and expression of membrane ABC transporters were analyzed using conventional analytical tests.
    RESULTS: The combination of EP and SN38 affected cell viability and cytoskeleton integrity. This effect was accompanied by: (i) high production of intracellular superoxide and hydroperoxides and depletion of glutathione; (ii) increased DNA damage and apoptotic/ferroptotic cell death; (iii) changes in the expression of membrane ABC transporters - up-regulation of SLCO1B1 and retention of SN38 in the cells.
    CONCLUSION: The anticancer effect of the combined treatment of SN38 and EP is related to changes in the redox-homeostasis of cancer cells, leading to cell death via apoptosis and/or ferroptosis. Thus, electroporation has a potential to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to conventional anticancer therapy with SN38.
    Keywords:  Colorectal cancer; SN38; electroporation; ferroptosis; multidrug resistance; oxidative stress; redox-status
  27. Theranostics. 2020 ;10(21): 9830-9842
      It is universally accepted that aberrant metabolism facilitates tumor growth. However, how cancer cells coordinate glucose metabolism and tumor proliferation is largely unknown. Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) is a transcription factor that belongs to the SIX family and is believed to play an important role in the regulation of the Warburg effect in tumors. However, whether the role of SIX1 and the molecular mechanisms that regulate its activity are similar in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still needs further investigation. Methods: Western blotting was performed to determine the levels of SIX1 and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) in HCC tissues. Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK8), colony formation and mouse tumor model assays were used to establish the role of SIX1 and O-GlcNAcylation in HCC processes. Mass spectrometry, immunoprecipitation and site-directed mutagenesis were performed to confirm the O-GlcNAcylation of SIX1. Results: Here, we demonstrated that SIX1, the key transcription factor regulating the Warburg effect in cancer, promotes HCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we revealed that SIX1 could also enhance the levels of a posttranslational modification called O-GlcNAcylation. Importantly, we found that SIX1 was also highly modified by O-GlcNAcylation and that O-GlcNAcylation inhibited the ubiquitination degradation of SIX1. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis at position 276 (T276A) decreased the O-GlcNAcylation level and reversed the protumor effect of SIX1. Conclusions: We conclude that O-GlcNAcylation of SIX1 enhances its stability and promotes HCC proliferation. Our findings illustrate a novel feedback loop of SIX1 and O-GlcNAcylation and show that O-GlcNAcylation of SIX1 is an important way to coordinate glucose metabolism and tumor progression.
    Keywords:  O-GlcNAcylation; SIX1; Warburg effect; hepatocellular carcinoma; ubiquitination
  28. Cell Metab. 2020 Aug 31. pii: S1550-4131(20)30420-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the earliest defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D), preceding and predicting disease development. To what extent this reflects a primary defect or is secondary to tissue cross talk due to changes in hormones or circulating metabolites is unknown. To address this question, we have developed an in vitro disease-in-a-dish model using iPS cells from T2D patients differentiated into myoblasts (iMyos). We find that T2D iMyos in culture exhibit multiple defects mirroring human disease, including an altered insulin signaling, decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and reduced mitochondrial oxidation. More strikingly, global phosphoproteomic analysis reveals a multidimensional network of signaling defects in T2D iMyos going beyond the canonical insulin-signaling cascade, including proteins involved in regulation of Rho GTPases, mRNA splicing and/or processing, vesicular trafficking, gene transcription, and chromatin remodeling. These cell-autonomous defects and the dysregulated network of protein phosphorylation reveal a new dimension in the cellular mechanisms underlying the fundamental defects in T2D.
    Keywords:  chromatin remodeling; glucose transport; iPSC; insulin resistance; mRNA splicing; mitochondrial oxidation; phosphoproteomics; skeletal muscle; type 2 diabetes; vesicle trafficking
  29. Nat Metab. 2020 Aug 31.
      Cellular metabolic reprogramming is an important mechanism by which cells rewire their metabolism to promote proliferation and cell growth. This process has been mostly studied in the context of tumorigenesis, but less is known about its relevance for nonpathological processes and how it affects whole-animal physiology. Here, we show that metabolic reprogramming in Drosophila female germline cells affects nutrient preferences of animals. Egg production depends on the upregulation of the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway in the germline, which also specifically increases the animal's appetite for sugar, the key nutrient fuelling this metabolic pathway. We provide functional evidence that the germline alters sugar appetite by regulating the expression of the fat-body-secreted satiety factor Fit. Our findings demonstrate that the cellular metabolic program of a small set of cells is able to increase the animal's preference for specific nutrients through inter-organ communication to promote specific metabolic and cellular outcomes.
  30. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Sep 02. pii: E6365. [Epub ahead of print]21(17):
      Mitochondrial transplantation therapy is an innovative strategy for the treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction. The approach has been reported to be useful in the treatment of cardiac ischemic reperfusion injuries in human clinical trials and has also been shown to be useful in animal studies as a method for treating mitochondrial dysfunction in various tissues, including the heart, liver, lungs, and brain. On the other hand, there is no methodology for using preserved mitochondria. Research into the pharmaceutical formulation of mitochondria to promote mitochondrial transplantation therapy as the next step in treating many patients is urgently needed. In this review, we overview previous studies on the therapeutic effects of mitochondrial transplantation. We also discuss studies related to immune responses that occur during mitochondrial transplantation and methods for preserving mitochondria, which are key to their stability as medicines. Finally, we describe research related to mitochondrial targeting drug delivery systems (DDS) and discuss future perspectives of mitochondrial transplantation.
    Keywords:  MITO-Porter; drug delivery; immunological reaction; mitochondria; mitochondrial storage; mitochondrial transplantation
  31. Redox Biol. 2020 Jul 13. pii: S2213-2317(20)30848-X. [Epub ahead of print]36 101643
      Epithelial cells require attachment to a support, such as the extracellular matrix, for survival. During cancer progression and metastasis, cancerous epithelial cells must overcome their dependence on adhesion signals. Dependence on glucose metabolism is a hallmark of cancer cells, but the nutrient requirements of cancer cells under anchorage-deficient conditions remain uncharacterized. Here, we report that cancer cells prioritize glutamine-derived tricarboxylic acid cycle energy metabolism over glycolysis to sustain anchorage-independent survival. Moreover, glutamine-dependent metabolic reprogramming is required not only to maintain ATP levels but also to suppress excessive oxidative stress through interaction with cystine. Mechanistically, AMPK, a central regulator of cellular responses to metabolic stress, participates in the induction of the expression of ASCT2, a glutamine transporter, and enhances glutamine consumption. Most interestingly, AMPK activation induces Nrf2 and its target proteins, allowing cancer cells to maintain energy homeostasis and redox status through glutaminolysis. Treatment with an integrin inhibitor was used to mimic the alterations in cell morphology and metabolic reprogramming caused by detachment. Under these conditions, cells were vulnerable to glutamine starvation or glutamine metabolism inhibitors. The observed preference for glutamine over glucose was more pronounced in aggressive cancer cell lines, and treatment with the glutaminase inhibitor, CB839, and cystine transporter inhibitor, sulfasalazine, caused strong cytotoxicity. Our data clearly show that anchorage-independent survival of cancer cells is supported mainly by glutaminolysis via the AMPK-Nrf2 signal axis. The discovery of new vulnerabilities along this route could help slow or prevent cancer progression.
    Keywords:  Anoikis; Extracellular matrix detachment; Glutaminolysis; Metabolic reprogramming; Metastasis
  32. Mitochondrion. 2020 Aug 27. pii: S1567-7249(20)30174-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Intercellular transfer of mitochondria and mitochondrial components through extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, is an area of intense interest. The cargos that are carried by EVs define their biological activities. Mitochondria are in charge of bioenergetics and maintenance of cell viability. Increasing evidences indicate the presence of intact mitochondria or mitochondrial components in EVs, which raises many questions, how they are engulfed into EVs and what do they do? Here, we present what is currently known about the presence and function of various mitochondrial constituent in EVs. We also review current understanding about how and why mitochondrial components are encapsulated into EVs.
    Keywords:  Exosomes; Extracellular vesicles; Microvesicles; Mitochondrial components; Mitochondrial transfer
  33. Nature. 2020 Sep 02.
      Abnormal epigenetic patterns correlate with effector T cell malfunction in tumours1-4, but the cause of this link is unknown. Here we show that tumour cells disrupt methionine metabolism in CD8+ T cells, thereby lowering intracellular levels of methionine and the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and resulting in loss of dimethylation at lysine 79 of histone H3 (H3K79me2). Loss of H3K79me2 led to low expression of STAT5 and impaired T cell immunity. Mechanistically, tumour cells avidly consumed methionine and outcompeted T cells for methionine by expressing high levels of the methionine transporter SLC43A2. Genetic and biochemical inhibition of tumour SLC43A2 restored H3K79me2 in T cells, thereby boosting spontaneous and checkpoint-induced tumour immunity. Moreover, methionine supplementation improved the expression of H3K79me2 and STAT5 in T cells, and this was accompanied by increased T cell immunity in tumour-bearing mice and patients with colon cancer. Clinically, tumour SLC43A2 correlated negatively with T cell histone methylation and functional gene signatures. Our results identify a mechanistic connection between methionine metabolism, histone patterns, and T cell immunity in the tumour microenvironment. Thus, cancer methionine consumption is an immune evasion mechanism, and targeting cancer methionine signalling may provide an immunotherapeutic approach.
  34. Nat Biotechnol. 2020 Aug 31.
      Cellular metabolism regulates immune cell activation, differentiation and effector functions, but current metabolic approaches lack single-cell resolution and simultaneous characterization of cellular phenotype. In this study, we developed an approach to characterize the metabolic regulome of single cells together with their phenotypic identity. The method, termed single-cell metabolic regulome profiling (scMEP), quantifies proteins that regulate metabolic pathway activity using high-dimensional antibody-based technologies. We employed mass cytometry (cytometry by time of flight, CyTOF) to benchmark scMEP against bulk metabolic assays by reconstructing the metabolic remodeling of in vitro-activated naive and memory CD8+ T cells. We applied the approach to clinical samples and identified tissue-restricted, metabolically repressed cytotoxic T cells in human colorectal carcinoma. Combining our method with multiplexed ion beam imaging by time of flight (MIBI-TOF), we uncovered the spatial organization of metabolic programs in human tissues, which indicated exclusion of metabolically repressed immune cells from the tumor-immune boundary. Overall, our approach enables robust approximation of metabolic and functional states in individual cells.
  35. Cell Chem Biol. 2020 Aug 27. pii: S2451-9456(20)30303-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Aflatoxin contamination of crops is a serious problem worldwide. Utilization of aflatoxin production inhibitors is attractive, as the elucidation of their modes of action contributes to clarifying the mechanism of aflatoxin production. Here, we identified mitochondrial protease ClpP as the target of dioctatin, an inhibitor of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus. Dioctatin conferred uncontrolled caseinolytic capacity on ClpP of A. flavus and Escherichia coli. Dioctatin-bound ClpP selectively degraded mitochondrial energy-related proteins in vitro, including a subunit of respiratory chain complex V, which was also reduced by dioctatin in a ClpP-dependent manner in vivo. Dioctatin enhanced glycolysis and alcohol fermentation while reducing tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites. These disturbances were accompanied by reduced histone acetylation and reduced expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. Our results suggest that dioctatin inhibits aflatoxin production by inducing ClpP-mediated degradation of mitochondrial energy-related components, and that mitochondrial energy metabolism functions as a key determinant of aflatoxin production.
    Keywords:  2D-DIGE; Aspergillus flavus; Clp protease; aflatoxin; dioctatin; metabolomic analysis; target identification
  36. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2020 Aug 27. pii: S0005-2728(20)30152-3. [Epub ahead of print] 148302
      From mitochondrial quality control pathways to the regulation of specific functions, the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) could be compared to a Swiss knife without which mitochondria could not maintain its integrity in the cell. Here, we review the mechanisms that the UPS employs to regulate mitochondrial function and efficiency. For this purpose, we depict how Ubiquitin and the Proteasome participate in diverse quality control pathways that safeguard entry into the mitochondrial compartment. A focus is then achieved on the UPS-mediated control of the yeast mitofusin Fzo1 which provides insights into the complex regulation of this particular protein in mitochondrial fusion. We ultimately dissect the mechanisms by which the UPS controls the degradation of mitochondria by autophagy in both mammalian and yeast systems. This organization should offer a useful overview of this abundant but fascinating literature on the crosstalks between mitochondria and the UPS.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Mitochondrial Quality Control; Mitochondrial fusion; Mitophagy; Proteasome; Ubiquitin
  37. Cell Metab. 2020 Sep 01. pii: S1550-4131(20)30422-8. [Epub ahead of print]32(3): 323-325
      In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Asadi Shahmirzadi et al. (2020) demonstrate that late-onset dietary supplementation with calcium alpha-ketoglutarate results in increased survival, compressed morbidity, and reduced frailty in mice. The study provides further evidence for critical links between metabolism, inflammation, and aging.
  38. Cell Metab. 2020 Sep 01. pii: S1550-4131(20)30417-4. [Epub ahead of print]32(3): 447-456.e6
      Metabolism and aging are tightly connected. Alpha-ketoglutarate is a key metabolite in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and its levels change upon fasting, exercise, and aging. Here, we investigate the effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (delivered in the form of a calcium salt, CaAKG) on healthspan and lifespan in C57BL/6 mice. To probe the relationship between healthspan and lifespan extension in mammals, we performed a series of longitudinal, clinically relevant measurements. We find that CaAKG promotes a longer, healthier life associated with a decrease in levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines. We propose that induction of IL-10 by dietary AKG suppresses chronic inflammation, leading to health benefits. By simultaneously reducing frailty and enhancing longevity, AKG, at least in the murine model, results in a compression of morbidity.
    Keywords:  IL-10; SASP; alpha-ketoglutarate; frailty; healthspan; inflammation; lifespan; longevity
  39. Cell Metab. 2020 Sep 01. pii: S1550-4131(20)30412-5. [Epub ahead of print]32(3): 479-497.e9
      We used BioID, a proximity-dependent biotinylation assay with 100 mitochondrial baits from all mitochondrial sub-compartments, to create a high-resolution human mitochondrial proximity interaction network. We identified 1,465 proteins, producing 15,626 unique high-confidence proximity interactions. Of these, 528 proteins were previously annotated as mitochondrial, nearly half of the mitochondrial proteome defined by Mitocarta 2.0. Bait-bait analysis showed a clear separation of mitochondrial compartments, and correlation analysis among preys across all baits allowed us to identify functional clusters involved in diverse mitochondrial functions and to assign uncharacterized proteins to specific modules. We demonstrate that this analysis can assign isoforms of the same mitochondrial protein to different mitochondrial sub-compartments and show that some proteins may have multiple cellular locations. Outer membrane baits showed specific proximity interactions with cytosolic proteins and proteins in other organellar membranes, suggesting specialization of proteins responsible for contact site formation between mitochondria and individual organelles.
    Keywords:  BioID proximity interactions; functional modules; mitochondrial protein proximity map; mitochondrial translation initiation; organellar contact sites; sub-mitochondrial organization
  40. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 Aug 27. pii: S0006-291X(20)31633-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Anoikis is a programmed death of cell induced upon detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Resistance to anoikis is a critical contributor to cancer invasion and metastasis. High frequency of metastatic recurrence is a huge challenge for current therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous study had identified sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) as a suppressor of HCC metastasis. In the present study, we used the anchorage-independent growth condition to mimic the detachment of HCC cells from ECM. We found that QSOX1 was induced in HCC cells under the anchorage-independent growth condition and that could be blocked by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inhibitor. Overexpression and knockdown of QSOX1 gene were performed on HCC cells. QSOX1 inhibited de novo synthesis of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol (ChE) and reduced their content in the detached HCC cells, and thus mediated mitochondrial apoptosis of HCC cells. In conclusion, QSOX1 is induced under detached culture condition via ERS. QSOX1 promotes mitochondrial apoptosis by suppressing the lipid synthesis of HCC cells in detached condition. QSOX1 appears to accelerate anoikis of HCC cells. These findings offer a new insight into how to overcome anoikis resistance of HCC cells and provide a potential target for prevention of HCC metastasis.
    Keywords:  Anoikis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Lipid metabolism; Mitochondrial apoptosis
  41. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 04. pii: 202007391. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial complex II, also known as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), is an integral-membrane heterotetramer (SDHABCD) that links two essential energy-producing processes, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. A significant amount of information is available on the structure and function of mature complex II from a range of organisms. However, there is a gap in our understanding of how the enzyme assembles into a functional complex, and disease-associated complex II insufficiency may result from incorrect function of the mature enzyme or from assembly defects. Here, we investigate the assembly of human complex II by combining a biochemical reconstructionist approach with structural studies. We report an X-ray structure of human SDHA and its dedicated assembly factor SDHAF2. Importantly, we also identify a small molecule dicarboxylate that acts as an essential cofactor in this process and works in synergy with SDHAF2 to properly orient the flavin and capping domains of SDHA. This reorganizes the active site, which is located at the interface of these domains, and adjusts the pKa of SDHAR451 so that covalent attachment of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor is supported. We analyze the impact of disease-associated SDHA mutations on assembly and identify four distinct conformational forms of the complex II flavoprotein that we assign to roles in assembly and catalysis.
    Keywords:  assembly; bioenergetics; complex II; flavinylation; protein folding
  42. Redox Biol. 2020 Jun 24. pii: S2213-2317(20)30816-8. [Epub ahead of print]36 101611
      Iron plays a major role in multiple processes involved in cell homeostasis such as metabolism, respiration and DNA synthesis. Cancer cells exhibit pronounced iron retention as compared to healthy counterpart. This phenomenon also occurs in multiple myeloma (MM), a hematological malignancy characterized by terminally differentiated plasma cells (PCs), in which serum ferritin levels have been reported as a negative prognostic marker. The aim of current study is to evaluate the potential role of iron metabolism in promoting drug resistance in myeloma cancer cells with particular regard to the interactions between PCs and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as a source of iron. Our data showed that myeloma cell lines are able to intake and accumulate iron and thus, increasing their scavenger antioxidant-related genes and mitochondrial mass. We further demonstrated that PCs pre-treated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) decreased bortezomib (BTZ)-induced apoptosis in vitro and successfully engrafted in zebrafish larvae treated with BTZ. Treating human macrophages with FAC, we observed a switch toward a M2-like phenotype associated with an increased expression of anti-inflammatory markers such as ARG1, suggesting the establishment of an iron-mediated immune suppressive tumor microenvironment favouring myeloma growth. Using mfap4:tomato mutant zebrafish larvae, we further confirmed the increase of PCs-monocytes interactions after FAC treatment which favour BTZ-resistance. Taken together our data support the hypothesis that targeting iron trafficking in myeloma microenvironment may represent a promising strategy to counteract a tumor-supporting milieu and drug resistance.
    Keywords:  Iron; Monocyte; Multiple myeloma; Zebrafish
  43. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Sep 01. pii: E2482. [Epub ahead of print]12(9):
      Despite the leaps and bounds in achieving success in the management and treatment of breast cancers through surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, breast cancer remains the most frequently occurring cancer in women and the most common cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Systemic therapeutic approaches, such as chemotherapy, although beneficial in treating and curing breast cancer subjects with localized breast tumors, tend to fail in metastatic cases of the disease due to (a) an acquired resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug and (b) the development of intrinsic resistance to therapy. The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) plays a crucial role in both acquired and intrinsic chemoresistance. CSCs are less abundant than terminally differentiated cancer cells and confer chemoresistance through a unique altered metabolism and capability to evade the immune response system. Furthermore, CSCs possess active DNA repair systems, transporters that support multidrug resistance (MDR), advanced detoxification processes, and the ability to self-renew and differentiate into tumor progenitor cells, thereby supporting cancer invasion, metastasis, and recurrence/relapse. Hence, current research is focusing on targeting CSCs to overcome resistance and improve the efficacy of the treatment and management of breast cancer. Studies revealed that metformin (1, 1-dimethylbiguanide), a widely used anti-hyperglycemic agent, sensitizes tumor response to various chemotherapeutic drugs. Metformin selectively targets CSCs and improves the hypoxic microenvironment, suppresses the tumor metastasis and inflammation, as well as regulates the metabolic programming, induces apoptosis, and reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and MDR. Here, we discuss cancer (breast cancer) and chemoresistance, the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in breast cancers, and metformin as a chemo-sensitizing/re-sensitizing agent, with a particular focus on breast CSCs as a critical contributing factor to acquired and intrinsic chemoresistance. The review outlines the prospects and directions for a better understanding and re-purposing of metformin as an anti-cancer/chemo-sensitizing drug in the treatment of breast cancer. It intends to provide a rationale for the use of metformin as a combinatory therapy in a clinical setting.
    Keywords:  cancer; cancer stem cells; chemoresistance; metformin; multidrug resistance
  44. Mol Cancer Res. 2020 Aug 31. pii: molcanres.0334.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
      Collective invasion can be led by breast cancer cells expressing basal epithelial markers, typified by keratin-14 (KRT14). We analyzed gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and demonstrated a significant correlation between a KRT14+ invasion signature and a stromal mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) organization module. We then developed a novel co-culture model of tumor organoids with autologous stromal cells. Co-culture significantly increased KRT14 expression and invasion of organoids from both luminal and basal murine breast cancer models. However, stromal cell conditioned medium induced invasion but not KRT14 expression. Cancer cells released TGF-β and that signaling pathway was required for stromal cell-induced invasion and KRT14 expression. Mechanistically, TGF-β induced NOX4 expression in stromal cells and NOX4 inhibition reduced invasion and KRT14 expression. In summary, we developed a novel co-culture model and revealed dynamic molecular interactions between stromal cells and cancer cells that regulate both basal gene expression and invasive behavior. Implications: Fibroblasts within mammary tumors can regulate the molecular phenotype and invasive behavior of breast cancer cells.
  45. Cancer Cell. 2020 Aug 25. pii: S1535-6108(20)30413-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      We integrate the genomics, proteomics, and phosphoproteomics of 480 clinical tissues from 146 patients in a Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) cohort, among which 70 had metastatic CRC (mCRC). Proteomic profiling differentiates three CRC subtypes characterized by distinct clinical prognosis and molecular signatures. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of primary tumors alone successfully distinguishes cases with metastasis. Metastatic tissues exhibit high similarities with primary tumors at the genetic but not the proteomic level, and kinase network analysis reveals significant heterogeneity between primary colorectal tumors and their liver metastases. In vivo xenograft-based drug tests using 31 primary and metastatic tumors show personalized responses, which could also be predicted by kinase-substrate network analysis no matter whether tumors carry mutations in the drug-targeted genes. Our study provides a valuable resource for better understanding of mCRC and has potential for clinical application.
    Keywords:  colorectal cancer; drug testing model; metastasis; phosphorylation; proteogenomic
  46. Exp Gerontol. 2020 Aug 28. pii: S0531-5565(20)30426-5. [Epub ahead of print] 111078
      Thioredoxin 2 (TXN2) is a small redox protein found in nearly all organisms. As a mitochondrial member of the thioredoxin antioxidant defense system, TXN2 interacts with peroxiredoxin 3 (PRDX3) to remove hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly, TXN2 is thought to play an important role in maintaining the appropriate mitochondrial redox environment and protecting the mitochondrial components against oxidative stress. In the current study, we investigated the effects of Txn2 haplodeficiency on cochlear antioxidant defenses, auditory function, and cochlear cell loss across the lifespan in wild-type (WT) and Txn2 heterozygous knockout (Txn2+/-) mice backcrossed onto CBA/CaJ mice, a well-established model of age-related hearing loss. Txn2+/- mice displayed a 58% decrease in TXN2 protein levels in the mitochondria of the inner ears compared to WT mice. However, Txn2 haplodeficiency did not affect the thioredoxin or glutathione antioxidant defense in both the mitochondria and cytosol of the inner ears of young mice. There were no differences in the levels of mitochondrial biogenesis markers, mitochondrial DNA content, or oxidative DNA and protein damage markers in the inner ears between young WT and Txn2+/- mice. In a mouse inner ear cell line, knockdown of Txn2 did not affect cell viability under hydrogen peroxide treatment. Consistent with the tissue and cell line results, there were no differences in hair cell loss or spiral ganglion neuron density between WT and Txn2+/- mice at 3-5 or 23-25 months of age. Furthermore, Txn2 haplodeficiency did not affect auditory brainstem response threshold, wave I latency, or wave I amplitude at 3-5, 15-16, or 23-25 months of age. Therefore, Txn2 haplodeficiency does not affect cochlear antioxidant defenses, accelerate degeneration of cochlear cells, or affect auditory function in mice across the lifespan.
    Keywords:  Antioxidant defense; Cochlea; Hearing loss; Mitochondria; Oxidative stress
  47. Nat Cancer. 2020 Mar;1(3): 329-344
      Identification of genomic and epigenomic determinants of drug resistance provides important insights for improving cancer treatment. Using agnostic genome-wide interrogation of mRNA and miRNA expression, DNA methylation, SNPs, CNAs and SNVs/Indels in primary human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, we identified 463 genomic features associated with glucocorticoid resistance. Gene-level aggregation identified 118 overlapping genes, 15 of which were confirmed by genome-wide CRISPR screen. Collectively, this identified 30 of 38 (79%) known glucocorticoid-resistance genes/miRNAs and all 38 known resistance pathways, while revealing 14 genes not previously associated with glucocorticoid-resistance. Single cell RNAseq and network-based transcriptomic modelling corroborated the top previously undiscovered gene, CELSR2. Manipulation of CELSR2 recapitulated glucocorticoid resistance in human leukemia cell lines and revealed a synergistic drug combination (prednisolone and venetoclax) that mitigated resistance in mouse xenograft models. These findings illustrate the power of an integrative genomic strategy for elucidating genes and pathways conferring drug resistance in cancer cells.
  48. Chem. 2020 Jun 11. 6(6): 1408-1419
      Tumor recurrence as a result of therapy-induced nuclear DNA lesions is a major issue in cancer treatment. Currently, only a few examples of potentially non-genotoxic drugs have been reported. Mitochondrial re-localization of ciprofloxacin, one of the most commonly prescribed synthetic antibiotics, is reported here as a new approach. Conjugating ciprofloxacin to a triphenyl phosphonium group (giving lead Mt-CFX), is used to enhance the concentration of ciprofloxacin in the mitochondria of cancer cells. The localization of Mt-CFX to the mitochondria induces oxidative damage to proteins, mtDNA, and lipids. A large bias in favor of mtDNA damage over nDNA was seen with Mt-CFX, contrary to classic cancer chemotherapeutics. Mt-CFX was found to reduce cancer growth in a xenograft mouse model and proved to be well tolerated. Mitochondrial relocalization of antibiotics could emerge as a useful approach to generating anticancer leads that promote cell death via the selective induction of mitochondrially-mediated oxidative damage.
    Keywords:  Ciprofloxacin; DNA damage; Mitochondria; Non-genotoxic cancer therapy; Prodrug; Reactive oxygen species; Targeted therapeutics
  49. JCI Insight. 2020 Sep 03. pii: 136215. [Epub ahead of print]5(17):
      Obesity predisposes to cancer and a virtual universality of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the impact of hepatic steatosis on liver metastasis is enigmatic. We find that while control mice were relatively resistant to hepatic metastasis, those which were lipodystrophic or obese, with NAFLD, had a dramatic increase in breast cancer and melanoma liver metastases. NAFLD promotes liver metastasis by reciprocal activation initiated by tumor-induced triglyceride lipolysis in juxtaposed hepatocytes. The lipolytic products are transferred to cancer cells via fatty acid transporter protein 1, where they are metabolized by mitochondrial oxidation to promote tumor growth. The histology of human liver metastasis indicated the same occurs in humans. Furthermore, comparison of isolates of normal and fatty liver established that steatotic lipids had enhanced tumor-stimulating capacity. Normalization of glucose metabolism by metformin did not reduce steatosis-induced metastasis, establishing the process is not mediated by the metabolic syndrome. Alternatively, eradication of NAFLD in lipodystrophic mice by adipose tissue transplantation reduced breast cancer metastasis to that of control mice, indicating the steatosis-induced predisposition is reversible.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Hepatology; Obesity; Oncology
  50. J Neurochem. 2020 Aug 31.
      Mitochondria and releasable endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium modulate neuronal calcium signaling, and both change in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The releasable calcium stores in the ER are exaggerated in fibroblasts from AD patients and in multiple models of AD. The activity of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), a key mitochondrial enzyme complex, is diminished in brains from AD patients, and can be plausibly linked to plaques and tangles. Our previous studies in cell lines and mouse neurons demonstrate that reductions in KGDHC increase the ER releasable calcium stores. The goal of these studies was to test whether the relationship was true in human iPSC-derived neurons. Inhibition of KGDHC for one or 24 hours increased the ER releasable calcium store in human neurons by 69% and 144%, respectively. The effect was mitochondrial enzyme specific because inhibiting the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, another key mitochondrial enzyme complex, diminished the ER releasable calcium stores. The link of KGDHC to ER releasable calcium stores was cell type specific as the interaction was not present in iPSC or neural stem cells. Thus, these studies in human neurons verify a link between KGDHC and releasable ER calcium stores, and support the use of human neurons to examine mechanisms and potential therapies for AD.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; calcium stores; development; endoplasmic reticulum; mitochondria; pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; stem cells; tricarboxylic acid cycle
  51. Anticancer Res. 2020 Sep;40(9): 4895-4905
      BACKGROUND/AIM: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (NAMPT) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway synthesizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD (+)) from nicotinamide (NAM). Glioma tissues exhibit up-regulated NAMPT expression associated with a poor prognosis of patients. To determine if NAMPT can be a molecular therapeutic target, we investigated the effects of short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated NAMPT down-regulation.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed shRNA to NAMPT and transfected to T98G cells. The characteristics of these cells were analyzed.
    RESULTS: The NAMPT shRNA-transfected cells exhibited delayed cell growth. However, there was no difference in the increase of sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) or X-ray irradiation between the NAMPT and scramble shRNA-transfected cells. The expression of NAMPT in the NAMPT shRNA-transfected cells increased with cell passage. Additionally, the shRNA-mediated transfection was associated with enhanced expression of quinolinic acid phosphoribo-syltransferase (QPRT).
    CONCLUSION: shRNA-mediated NAMPT down-regulation may not decrease the NADt to a sufficient level to increase TMZ/radiation sensitivity.
    Keywords:  Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase; glioma; shRNA
  52. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2020 May-Aug;14(2):14(2): 338-345
      Signet-ring cell carcinoma, a colorectal cancer (CRC) subtype, sometimes shows metastases to uncommon metastatic sites. However, gastric metastasis is extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of gastric metastasis from colonic cancer. A 76-year-old woman presented with anemia. Colonoscopic biopsy revealed a CRC on the transverse colon showing a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a partial component of the signet-ring carcinoma. Computed tomography revealed multiple subcutaneous nodules on her chest and back, and a tumor in the left lower lobe of her lung. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a submucosal tumor-like lesion in the upper gastric body, and endoscopic biopsy revealed the poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma along with the partial component of the signet-ring carcinoma as well as the colonic, subcutaneous, and pulmonary lesion. The findings of endoscopic and microscopic examinations revealed gastric metastasis from CRC on the transverse colon. A systemic chemotherapy was given, and the biopsy conducted 1 year after the initial chemotherapy revealed no evidence of the residual tumor tissue in the gastric lesion. However, best supportive care was recommended depending on metastasis to the rectum. Our case suggests that gastric metastases from CRC should be considered in patients with lesions resembling a submucosal tumor accompanied by central depression and erosion.
    Keywords:  Colorectal cancer; Gastric metastasis; Metastatic tumor; Signet-ring cell carcinoma
  53. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Aug 31.
      Sirtuins are a family of proteins that regulate biological processes such as cellular stress and aging by removing post-translational modifications (PTMs). We recently identified several novel PTMs that can be removed by sirtuin 4 (SIRT4), which is found in mitochondria. We showed that mice with a global loss of SIRT4 (SIRT4KO mice) developed an increase in glucose- and leucine-stimulated insulin secretion, and this was followed by accelerated age-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Since whole body SIRT4KO mice had alterations to nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion, we hypothesized that SIRT4 plays a direct role in regulating pancreatic beta-cell function. Thus, we tested whether beta-cell specific ablation of SIRT4 would recapitulate the elevated insulin secretion seen in mice with a global loss of SIRT4. Tamoxifen-inducible beta-cell specific SIRT4KO mice were generated and their glucose tolerance, and glucose- and leucine-stimulated insulin secretion were measured over time. These mice exhibited normal glucose- and leucine-stimulated insulin secretion and maintained normal glucose tolerance even as they aged. Furthermore, 832/13 beta-cells with a CRISPR/Cas9n-mediated loss of SIRT4 did not show any alterations in nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Despite the fact that whole body SIRT4KO mice demonstrated an age-induced increase in glucose- and leucine- stimulated insulin secretion, our current data indicate that the loss of SIRT4 specifically in pancreatic beta-cells, both in vivo and in vitro, does not have a significant impact on nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. These data suggest that SIRT4 controls nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion during aging by acting on tissues external to the beta-cell, which warrants further study.
    Keywords:  SIRT4; beta-cell; diabetes; insulin secretion; sirtuin
  54. Cancer Res. 2020 Sep 01. pii: canres.0531.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
      Overexpression of IL2RA, which encodes the alpha chain of the interleukin-2 receptor, is associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The clinical potential of anti-IL2RA therapy is therefore being explored in early-stage clinical trials. Notwithstanding, only very limited information regarding the biological function of IL2RA in AML is available. Using genetic manipulation of IL2RA expression as well as antibody-mediated inhibition of IL2RA in human cell lines, mouse models, and primary patient samples, we investigated the effects of IL2RA on AML cell proliferation and apoptosis, and on pertinent signalling pathways. The impact of IL2RA on the properties of leukemic stem cells (LSC) and on leukemogenesis were queried. IL2RA promoted proliferation and cell cycle activity and inhibited apoptosis in human AML cell lines and primary cells. These phenotypes were accompanied by corresponding alterations in cell cycle machinery and in pathways associated with cell survival and apoptosis. The biological roles of IL2RA were confirmed in two genetically distinct AML mouse models, revealing that IL2RA inhibits differentiation, promotes stem cell-related properties, and is required for leukemogenesis. IL2RA antibodies inhibited leukemic, but not normal, hematopoietic cells and synergised with other anti-leukemic agents in this regard. Collectively, these data show for the first time that IL2RA plays key biological roles in AML and underscore its value as a potential therapeutic target in this disease.
  55. J Biol Chem. 2020 Sep 02. pii: jbc.RA120.013121. [Epub ahead of print]
      Branched-chain α-keto acids (BCKAs) are catabolites of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Intracellular BCKAs is cleared by branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), which is sensitive to inhibitory phosphorylation by BCKD kinase (BCKDK). Accumulation of BCKAs is an indicator of defective BCAA catabolism and has been correlated with glucose intolerance and cardiac dysfunction. However, it is unclear whether BCKAs directly alter insulin signaling and function in the skeletal and cardiac muscle cell. Furthermore, the role of excess fatty acids (FA) in perturbing BCAA catabolism and BCKA availability merits investigation. By using immunoblot and UPLC MS/MS to analyze the hearts of fasted mice, we observed decreased BCAA catabolizing enzyme expression and increased circulating BCKAs, but not BCAAs. In mice subjected to diet-induced obesity (DIO), we observed similar increases in circulating BCKAs with concomitant changes in BCAA catabolizing enzyme expression only in the skeletal muscle. Effects of DIO were recapitulated by simulating lipotoxicity in skeletal muscle cells treated with saturated FA, palmitate. Exposure of muscle cells to high concentrations of BCKAs resulted in inhibition of insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation, decreased glucose uptake and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Altering intracellular clearance of BCKAs by genetic modulation of BCKDK and BCKDHA expression showed similar effects on AKT phosphorylation. BCKAs increased protein translation and mTORC1 activation. Pretreating cells with mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin restored BCKAs effect on insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation. This study provides evidence for FA mediated regulation of BCAA catabolizing enzymes, BCKA content and highlights the biological role of BCKAs in regulating muscle insulin signaling and function.
    Keywords:  BCKA; Insulin signaling; amino acid; cardiomyocyte; cardiomyocytes; insulin resistance; protein translation; skeletal muscle; skeletal muscle metabolism; translation
  56. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Sep 01. pii: E2477. [Epub ahead of print]12(9):
      Glycolysis is known as the main pathway for ATP production in cancer cells. However, in cancer cells, glucose deprivation for 24 h does not reduce ATP levels, whereas it does suppress lactate production. In this study, metabolic pathways were blocked to identify the main pathway of ATP production in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Blocking fatty acid oxidation (FAO) decreased ATP production by 40% in cancer cells with no effect on normal cells. The effects of calorie balanced high- or low-fat diets were tested to determine whether cancer growth is modulated by fatty acids instead of calories. A low-fat diet caused a 70% decrease in pancreatic preneoplastic lesions compared with the control, whereas a high-fat diet caused a two-fold increase in preneoplastic lesions accompanied with increase of ATP production in the Kras (G12D)/Pdx1-cre PDAC model. The present results suggest that ATP production in cancer cells is dependent on FAO rather than on glycolysis, which can be a therapeutic approach by targeting cancer energy metabolism.
    Keywords:  ATP production; KC mouse; PDAC; fatty acid oxidation; glycolysis
  57. Life Sci. 2020 Aug 31. pii: S0024-3205(20)31122-X. [Epub ahead of print] 118369
      Exosomes hold great potential for cancer treatment to deliver therapeutics due to its inherent low immunogenicity. Exosomes are biocompatible cell-exocytosed secreted vesicles by most cell types, which can be used to construct novel biomanufacturing platform for drug delivery and cancer therapy. In this study, we implemented nano-sized vesicles which were secreted by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), to encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) through electroporation method (DOX@exosome). DOX was loaded into exosomes, with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 35% and separated by ultracentrifugation. Subsequently, carboxylic acid-end MUC1 aptamer was used to covalently decorate the surface amine groups of the exosomes via amide bond formation to provide selective guided drug delivery (DOX@exosome-apt). The data showed that the DOX@exosome-apt provided highly efficient DOX transportation to MUC1-positive cancer cells in vitro as confirmed by MTT and flow cytometry experiments. Moreover, in vivo study on ectopic model of C26 (mouse colon adenocarcinoma) in BALB/c mice indicated that the single dose intravenous injection of DOX@exosome-apt significantly suppress tumor growth in comparison with free DOX. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging also verified the desirable biodistribution of DOX@exosome-apt by exhibiting higher tumor accumulation and faster liver clearance in comparison with DOX@exosome and free DOX. It could be concluded that MUC1 aptamer-decorated exosomes can be implemented therapeutically for the safe and versatile delivery of DOX to colon adenocarcinoma, thus offering valuable platform for clinical applications.
    Keywords:  Aptamer; Exosome, doxorubicin, MUC1; Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC); Targeted drug delivery
  58. Biochem J. 2020 Sep 04. pii: BCJ20200551. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lipid droplets are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes that act as storage sites for neutral lipids. Under normal growth conditions they are not required in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, recent works have shown that lipid droplets are required for autophagy to proceed in response to nitrogen starvation and that they play an essential role in maintaining ER homeostasis. Autophagy is a major catabolic pathway that helps degradation and recycling of potentially harmful proteins and organelles. It can be pharmacologically induced by rapamycin even in the absence of lipid droplets. Here, we show that amino acid starvation is responsible for autophagy failure in lipid droplet-deficient yeast.  It not only fails to induce autophagy but also inhibits rapamycin-induced autophagy. The general amino acid control pathway is not involved in this paradoxical effect of amino acid shortage. We correlate the autophagy failure with mitochondria aggregation and we show that amino acid starvation-induced autophagy is restored in lipid droplet-deficient yeast by increasing mitochondrial biomass physiologically (respiration) or genetically (REG1 deletion). Our results establish a new functional link between lipid droplets, ER and mitochondria during nitrogen starvation-induced autophagy.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; catabolite repression; lipid droplets; mitochondrial dysfunction