bims-mibica Biomed News
on Mitochondrial bioenergetics in cancer
Issue of 2020‒05‒17
forty papers selected by
Kelsey Fisher-Wellman
East Carolina University

  1. Nat Commun. 2020 May 14. 11(1): 2397
      Obesity is a health problem affecting more than 40% of US adults and 13% of the global population. Anti-obesity treatments including diet, exercise, surgery and pharmacotherapies have so far failed to reverse obesity incidence. Herein, we target obesity with a pharmacotherapeutic approach that decreases caloric efficiency by mitochondrial uncoupling. We show that a recently identified mitochondrial uncoupler BAM15 is orally bioavailable, increases nutrient oxidation, and decreases body fat mass without altering food intake, lean body mass, body temperature, or biochemical and haematological markers of toxicity. BAM15 decreases hepatic fat, decreases inflammatory lipids, and has strong antioxidant effects. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies show that BAM15 improves insulin sensitivity in multiple tissue types. Collectively, these data demonstrate that pharmacologic mitochondrial uncoupling with BAM15 has powerful anti-obesity and insulin sensitizing effects without compromising lean mass or affecting food intake.
  2. Aging (Albany NY). 2020 May 12. 12
      Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumour in adults. The most accurate prognostic factor of UM is classification by gene expression profiling. Currently, the role of epigenetics is much less defined compared to genetic mechanisms. We recently showed a strong prognostic role of the expression levels of histone variant macroH2A1 in UM patients. Here, we assessed the mechanistic effects of macroH2A1 on UM progression.UM cell lines were stably knocked down (KD) for macroH2A1, and proliferation and colony formation capacity were evaluated. Mitochondrial function was assayed through qPCR and HPLC analyses. Correlation between mitochondrial gene expression and cancer aggressiveness was studied using a bioinformatics approach.MacroH2A1 loss significantly attenuated UM cells proliferation and aggressiveness. Furthermore, genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation displayed a decreased expression in KD cells. Consistently, macroH2A1 loss resulted also in a significant decrease of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) expression, suggesting impaired mitochondrial replication. Bioinformatics analyses uncovered that the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism correlates with macroH2A1 and with cancer aggressiveness in UM patients. Altogether, our results suggest that macroH2A1 controls UM cells progression and it may represent a molecular target to develop new pharmacological strategies for UM treatment.
    Keywords:  epigenetics; histones; macroH2A1; metabolism; uveal melanoma
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 May 09. pii: E3363. [Epub ahead of print]21(9):
      Mitochondria are well known for their role in ATP production and biosynthesis of macromolecules. Importantly, increasing experimental evidence points to the roles of mitochondrial bioenergetics, dynamics, and signaling in tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that many types of cancer cells, including metastatic tumor cells, therapy-resistant tumor cells, and cancer stem cells, are reliant on mitochondrial respiration, and upregulate oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity to fuel tumorigenesis. Mitochondrial metabolism is crucial for tumor proliferation, tumor survival, and metastasis. Mitochondrial OXPHOS dependency of cancer has been shown to underlie the development of resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that elevated heme synthesis and uptake leads to intensified mitochondrial respiration and ATP generation, thereby promoting tumorigenic functions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Also, lowering heme uptake/synthesis inhibits mitochondrial OXPHOS and effectively reduces oxygen consumption, thereby inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, migration, and tumor growth in NSCLC. Besides metabolic changes, mitochondrial dynamics such as fission and fusion are also altered in cancer cells. These alterations render mitochondria a vulnerable target for cancer therapy. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of mitochondrial alterations in cancer cells that contribute to tumorigenesis and the development of drug resistance. It highlights novel approaches involving mitochondria targeting in cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  OXPHOS; heme; metabolism; mitochondria
  4. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020 May 12.
      Fetal sheep with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have lower hind-limb oxygen consumption rates (OCR), indicating depressed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in their skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that OCRs are lower in skeletal muscle mitochondria from IUGR fetuses due to reduced electron transport chain (ETC) activity and lower abundances of Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. IUGR sheep fetuses (n=12) were created with mid-gestation maternal hyperthermia and compared to control fetuses (n=12). At 132±1 days of gestation, biceps femoris muscles were collected, and the mitochondria were isolated. Mitochondria from IUGR muscle have 47% lower State 3 (Complex-I dependent) OCRs than controls, while State 4 (proton leak) OCRs were not different between groups. Furthermore, Complex I, but not Complex II or IV, enzymatic activity was lower in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Proteomic analysis (n=6/group) identified 160 differentially expressed proteins between groups with 107 upregulated and 53 downregulated mitochondria proteins in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Although no differences were identified in ETC subunit protein abundances, abundances of key TCA cycle enzymes (IDH3B, SUCLA2, and OGDH) were lower in IUGR mitochondria. IUGR mitochondria had a greater abundance of a hypoxia inducible protein, NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex 4-like 2, which is known to incorporate into Complex I and lower Complex I-mediated NADH oxidation. Our findings show that mitochondria from IUGR skeletal muscle adapts to hypoxemia and hypoglycemia by lowering Complex I activity and TCA cycle enzymes concentrations, which together act to lower OCR and NADH production/oxidation in IUGR skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  electron transport chain; mitochondria; placental insufficiency; proteomics; tricarboxylic acid cycle
  5. Oncotarget. 2020 Apr 28. 11(17): 1531-1544
      New drugs are needed for glioblastoma, an aggressive brain tumor with a dismal prognosis. We recently reported that gallium maltolate (GaM) retards the growth of glioblastoma in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model by inhibiting mitochondrial function and iron-dependent ribonucleotide reductase (RR). However, GaM's mechanism of action at the mitochondrial level is not known. Given the interaction between gallium and iron metabolism, we hypothesized that gallium might target iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-containing mitochondrial proteins. Using Extracellular Flux Analyzer technology, we confirmed that after a 24-h incubation, GaM 50 μmol/L inhibited glioblastoma cell growth by <10% but inhibited cellular oxygen consumption rate by 44% and abrogated mitochondrial reserve capacity. GaM blocked mitochondrial complex I activity and produced a 2.9-fold increase in cellular ROS. NMR spectroscopy revealed that gallium binds to IscU, the bacterial scaffold protein for Fe-S cluster assembly and stabilizes its folded state. Gallium inhibited the rate of in vitro cluster assembly catalyzed by bacterial cysteine desulfurase in a reaction mixture containing IscU, Fe (II), DTT, and L-cysteine. Metformin, a complex I inhibitor, enhanced GaM's inhibition of complex I, further increased cellular ROS levels, and synergistically enhanced GaM's cytotoxicity in glioblastoma cells in 2-D and 3-D cultures. Metformin did not affect GaM action on cellular iron uptake or transferrin receptor1 expression nor did it enhance the cytotoxicity of the RR inhibitor Didox. Our results show that GaM inhibits complex I by disrupting iron-sulfur cluster assembly and that its cytotoxicity can be synergistically enhanced by metformin through combined action on complex I.
    Keywords:  gallium; glioblastoma; iron; metformin; mitochondrial complex I
  6. Immunol Med. 2020 May 12. 1-6
      Almost 160 years after the discovery of mitochondria, they are known for their production of energy and are called "the powerhouse of the cell". Recently, immune-metabolism has been revealed as a key factor controlling immune cell proliferation and differentiation. Resting lymphocytes generate energy through oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, whereas activated lymphocytes rapidly shift to glycolysis. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generated through the electron transport chain (ETC) are involved in many immune cell functions. Moreover, mitochondria are dynamic organelles that can provide immunogenic molecules, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) resulting in innate immune system activation. Here, we describe the role of mitochondria in immune system regulation, highlighting metabolism-dependent and other immunogenic aspects.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial dysfunction; OXPHOS; autoimmune diseases; mtDNA; mtROS
  7. Cell Metab. 2020 May 05. pii: S1550-4131(20)30197-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Age is a non-modifiable risk factor for the inflammation that underlies age-associated diseases; thus, anti-inflammaging drugs hold promise for increasing health span. Cytokine profiling and bioinformatic analyses showed that Th17 cytokine production differentiates CD4+ T cells from lean, normoglycemic older and younger subjects, and mimics a diabetes-associated Th17 profile. T cells from older compared to younger subjects also had defects in autophagy and mitochondrial bioenergetics that associate with redox imbalance. Metformin ameliorated the Th17 inflammaging profile by increasing autophagy and improving mitochondrial bioenergetics. By contrast, autophagy-targeting siRNA disrupted redox balance in T cells from young subjects and activated the Th17 profile by activating the Th17 master regulator, STAT3, which in turn bound IL-17A and F promoters. Mitophagy-targeting siRNA failed to activate the Th17 profile. We conclude that metformin improves autophagy and mitochondrial function largely in parallel to ameliorate a newly defined inflammaging profile that echoes inflammation in diabetes.
    Keywords:  T cells; autophagy; inflammaging; metformin; mitochondria
  8. EMBO Mol Med. 2020 May 13. e11217
      Mitochondrial metabolism and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the acquisition of DNA mutations and genomic instability in cancer. How genomic instability influences the metabolic capacity of cancer cells is nevertheless poorly understood. Here, we show that homologous recombination-defective (HRD) cancers rely on oxidative metabolism to supply NAD+ and ATP for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Studies in breast and ovarian cancer HRD models depict a metabolic shift that includes enhanced expression of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway and its key components and a decline in the glycolytic Warburg phenotype. Hence, HRD cells are more sensitive to metformin and NAD+ concentration changes. On the other hand, shifting from an OXPHOS to a highly glycolytic metabolism interferes with the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors (PARPi) in these HRD cells. This feature is associated with a weak response to PARP inhibition in patient-derived xenografts, emerging as a new mechanism to determine PARPi sensitivity. This study shows a mechanistic link between two major cancer hallmarks, which in turn suggests novel possibilities for specifically treating HRD cancers with OXPHOS inhibitors.
    Keywords:   BCRA ; OXPHOS ; PARP inhibitors; cancer metabolism; metformin
  9. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2020 May 15.
      The safety of diclofenac (DIC) use in clinical practice has been questioned because of adverse cardiovascular effects. Previous studies have indicated that DIC cause mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in heart mitochondria. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of calcitriol against the mitochondrial toxicity potency of diclofenac in heart rat mitochondria. For this purpose, rat heart mitochondria were isolated with mechanical lysis and differential centrifugation. Then isolated mitochondria were pretreated with 3 different concentrations of calcitriol (2.5, 5 and 10 µM) for 5 min at 37°C, after which DIC (10 µg/ml) was added to promote deleterious effects on mitochondria. During 1 hour of incubation, using by flow cytometry and biochemical evaluations, the parameters of mitochondrial toxicity were evaluated. Our results showed that DIC (10 µg/ml) caused a significant decrease in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, and mitochondrial swelling, and a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation (LP) and oxidative stress. Also, our results revealed that co-administration of calcitriol (5 and 10 µM) with diclofenac markedly ameliorates the mitochondrial toxicity effects in rat hart mitochondria. In this study, we showed that DIC impairs mitochondrial function and induces mitochondrial toxicity in rat heart isolated mitochondria, which were ameliorated by calcitriol. These findings suggest that calcitriol may be a preventive/therapeutic strategy for cardiotoxicity complications caused by DIC.
  10. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(5): e0233177
      Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) is the process by which the ATP synthase conserves the energy released during the oxidation of different nutrients as ATP. The yeast ATP synthase consists of three assembly modules, one of which is a ring consisting of 10 copies of the Atp9 subunit. We previously reported the existence in yeast mitochondria of high molecular weight complexes composed of mitochondrially encoded Atp9 and of Cox6, an imported structural subunit of cytochrome oxidase (COX). Pulse-chase experiments indicated a correlation between the loss of newly translated Atp9 complexed to Cox6 and an increase of newly formed Atp9 ring, but did not exclude the possibility of an alternate source of Atp9 for ring formation. Here we have extended studies on the functions and structure of this complex, referred to as Atco. We show that Atco is the exclusive source of Atp9 for the ATP synthase assembly. Pulse-chase experiments show that newly translated Atp9, present in Atco, is converted to a ring, which is incorporated into the ATP synthase with kinetics characteristic of a precursor-product relationship. Even though Atco does not contain the ring form of Atp9, cross-linking experiments indicate that it is oligomeric and that the inter-subunit interactions are similar to those of the bona fide ring. We propose that, by providing Atp9 for biogenesis of ATP synthase, Atco complexes free Cox6 for assembly of COX. This suggests that Atco complexes may play a role in coordinating assembly and maintaining proper stoichiometry of the two oxphos enzymes.
  11. Oncogene. 2020 May 12.
      Klotho is a transmembrane protein, which can be shed and act as a circulating hormone and is involved in regulating cellular calcium levels and inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway. As a longevity hormone, it protects normal cells from oxidative stress, and as a tumor suppressor it inhibits growth of cancer cells. Mechanisms governing these differential activities have not been addressed. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer and dysregulation of mitochondrial activity is a hallmark of aging. We hypothesized that klotho exerts its differential effects through regulation of these two hallmarks. Treatment with klotho inhibited glycolysis, reduced mitochondrial activity and membrane potential only in cancer cells. Accordingly, global metabolic screen revealed that klotho altered pivotal metabolic pathways, amongst them glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle in breast cancer cells. Alteration of metabolic activity and increased AMP/ATP ratio lead to LKB1-dependent AMPK activation. Indeed, klotho induced AMPK phosphorylation; furthermore, inhibition of LKB1 partially abolished klotho's tumor suppressor activity. By diminishing deltapsi (Δψ) klotho also inhibited mitochondria Ca2+ shuttling thereby impairing mitochondria communication with SOCE leading to reduced Ca2+ influx by SOCE channels. The reduced SOCE was followed by ER Ca2+ depletion and stress. These data delineate mechanisms mediating the differential effects of klotho toward cancer versus normal cells, and indicate klotho as a potent regulator of metabolic activity.
  12. Diagnostics (Basel). 2020 May 11. pii: E295. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      Aging of functional ovaries occurs many years before aging of other organs in the female body. In recent years, a greater number of women continue to postpone their pregnancies to later stages in their lives, raising concerns of the effect of ovarian aging. Mitochondria play an important role in the connection between the aging granulosa cells and oocytes. However, the underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in these cells remain poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of the aging granulosa cells, including aspects such as accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, reduction of mtDNA, imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics, and diminished cell proliferation. Here, we applied bioinformatics approaches, and integrated publicly available resources, to investigate the role of CREB1 gene expression in reproduction. Senescence hallmark enrichment and pathway analysis suggested that the downregulation of bioenergetic-related genes in CREB1. Gene expression analyses showed alterations in genes related to energy metabolism and ROS production in ovary tissue. We also demonstrate that the biogenesis of aging granulosa cells is subject to CREB1 binding to the PRKAA1 and PRKAA2 upstream promoters. In addition, cofactors that regulate biogenesis significantly increase the levels of SIRT1 and PPARGC1A mRNA in the aging granulosa cells. These findings demonstrate that CREB1 elevates an oxidative stress-induced senescence in granulosa cells by reducing the mitochondrial function.
    Keywords:  aging; biogenesis; bioinformation; mitochondria; oxidative stress
  13. Nat Metab. 2019 Dec;1(12): 1209-1218
      The mammalian genome comprises nuclear DNA (nDNA) derived from both parents and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that is maternally inherited and encodes essential proteins required for oxidative phosphorylation. Thousands of copies of the circular mtDNA are present in most cell types that are packaged by TFAM into higher-order structures called nucleoids1. Mitochondria are also platforms for antiviral signalling2 and, due to their bacterial origin, mtDNA and other mitochondrial components trigger innate immune responses and inflammatory pathology2,3. We showed previously that instability and cytoplasmic release of mtDNA activates the cGAS-STING-TBK1 pathway resulting in interferon stimulated gene (ISG) expression that promotes antiviral immunity4. Here, we find that persistent mtDNA stress is not associated with basally activated NF-κB signalling or interferon gene expression typical of an acute antiviral response. Instead, a specific subset of ISGs, that includes Parp9, remains activated by the unphosphorylated form of ISGF3 (U-ISGF3) that enhances nDNA damage and repair responses. In cultured primary fibroblasts and cancer cells, the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin causes mtDNA damage and release, which leads to cGAS-STING-dependent ISG activation. In addition, mtDNA stress in TFAM-deficient mouse melanoma cells produces tumours that are more resistant to doxorubicin in vivo. Finally, Tfam +/- mice exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit enhanced nDNA repair responses in spleen. Therefore, we propose that damage to and subsequent release of mtDNA elicits a protective signalling response that enhances nDNA repair in cells and tissues, suggesting mtDNA is a genotoxic stress sentinel.
  14. Sci Rep. 2020 May 12. 10(1): 7885
      Cisplatin is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the intrinsic or acquired resistance against cisplatin remains a major obstacle to treatment efficacy in OSCC. Recently, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations have been reported in a variety of cancers. However, the role of mtDNA alterations in OSCC has not been comprehensively studied. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between mtDNA alterations (mtDNA content, point mutations, large-scale deletions, and methylation status) and cisplatin sensitivity using two OSCC cell lines, namely SAS and H103, and stem cell-like tumour spheres derived from SAS. By microarray analysis, we found that the tumour spheres profited from aberrant lipid and glucose metabolism and became resistant to cisplatin. By qPCR analysis, we found that the cells with less mtDNA were less responsive to cisplatin (H103 and the tumour spheres). Based on the findings, we theorised that the metabolic changes in the tumour spheres probably resulted in mtDNA depletion, as the cells suppressed mitochondrial respiration and switched to an alternative mode of energy production, i.e. glycolysis. Then, to ascertain the origin of the variation in mtDNA content, we used MinION, a nanopore sequencer, to sequence the mitochondrial genomes of H103, SAS, and the tumour spheres. We found that the lower cisplatin sensitivity of H103 could have been caused by a constellation of genetic and epigenetic changes in its mitochondrial genome. Future work may look into how changes in mtDNA translate into an impact on cell function and therefore cisplatin response.
  15. Cells. 2020 May 07. pii: E1158. [Epub ahead of print]9(5):
      Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a major contributor to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumorigenesis. Mitochondria have been shown to be a target for tumor viral invasion, and to mediate viral tumorigenesis. In this study, we detected that mitochondrial morphological changes in tumor tissues of NPC patients infected with EBV were accompanied by an elevated expression of BHRF1, an EBV encoded protein homologue to Bcl-2. High expression of BHRF1 in human NPC cell lines enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis features. With BHRF1 localized to mitochondria, its expression induced cyclophlin D dependent mitochondrial membrane permeabilization transition (MMPT). The MMPT further modulated mitochondrial function, increased ROS production and activated mitophagy, leading to enhanced tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that EBV-encoded BHRF1 plays an important role in NPC tumorigenesis through regulating cyclophlin D dependent MMPT.
    Keywords:  BHRF1; EBV; NPC; mitochondria; mitochondrial membrane permeabilization transition (MMPT); mitophagy
  16. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020 May 12.
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Reduced hepatic ketogenesis may promote these pathologies, but data are inconclusive in humans and the link between NAFLD and exacerbated skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains obscure. Objective We investigated individuals with obesity-related NAFLD and hypothesized that ß-hydroxybutyrate (ßOHB; the predominant ketone species) would be reduced and related to hepatic fat accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Further, we hypothesized ketones would impact skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in vitro. Methods Hepatic fat was assessed by ¹H-MRS in 22 participants in a parallel design, case control study (Control: n=7, age 50±6 yrs, BMI 30±1 mg/kg²; NAFLD: n=15, age 57±3 yrs, BMI 35±1 mg/kg²). Plasma assessments were conducted in the fasted state. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. The effect of ketone dose (0.5-5.0 mM) on mitochondrial respiration was conducted in human skeletal muscle cell culture. Results ßOHB was reduced in NAFLD (-15.6%, p<0.01) and negatively correlated with liver fat (r²=0.21, p=0.03) and insulin resistance (r²=0.30, p=0.01). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxygen consumption increased with low-dose ketones, attributable to increases in basal respiration (135%, p<0.05) and ATP-linked oxygen consumption (136%, p<0.05). Conclusions NAFLD pathophysiology includes impaired hepatic ketogenesis, which is related hepatic fat accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. This reduced capacity to produce ketones may be a potential link between NAFLD and skeletal muscle insulin resistance, whereby ketone concentrations impact skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration.
    Keywords:  insulin resistance; ketogenesis; mitochondria; nutrient metabolism; obesity
  17. Oncogenesis. 2020 May 15. 9(5): 51
      Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer type with poor prognosis due to its high metastatic potential, however, the role of metabolic reprogramming in the metastasis of PDAC cell is not known. Here, we report that COX6B2 drive metastasis but not cancer cell proliferation in PDAC by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation function (OXPHOS). Transcriptome and clinical analyses revealed that cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B2 (COX6B2) positively associated with metastasis of PDAC cells. Knockdown of COX6B2 in PDAC cells tuned down the assembly of complex IV and downregulated the function of OXPHOS, whereas re-expression of COX6B2 restored the function of OXPHOS and metastatic potential. Mechanistically, COX6B2 upregulated OXPHOS function to active purinergic receptor pathway for the metastasis of PDAC cells. Notably, the metastatic potential in PDAC could be reversely regulated by metformin, a drug was found accelerating the degradation of COX6B2 mRNA in this study. Collectively, our findings indicated that a complex metabolic control mechanism might be involved in achieving the balance of metabolic requirements for both growth and metastasis in PDAC, and regulation of the expression of COX6B2 could potentially encompass one of the targets.
  18. Cancer Sci. 2020 May 16.
      HER4 isoforms have oncogenic or tumor suppressor functions depending on their susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage and HER4 Intracellular Domain (4ICD) translocation. Here, we report that the NRG1 tumor suppressor mechanism through the HER4 JMa/CYT1 isoform can be mimicked by the agonist anti-HER4 antibody C6. NRG1 induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and sub-G1 DNA fragmentation, and also reduced the metabolic activity of HER3-negative/HER4-positive cervical (C-33A) and ovarian (COV318) cancer cells. This effect was confirmed in HER4 JMa/CYT1-, but not JMa/CYT2-transfected BT549 triple-negative breast cancer cells. NRG1 favored 4ICD cleavage and retention in mitochondria in JMa/CYT1-transfected BT549 cells, leading to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production through mitochondrial depolarization. Similarly, the anti-HER4 antibody C6, which binds to a conformational epitope located on aa 575-592 and 605-620 of HER4 domain IV, induced 4ICD cleavage and retention in mitochondria, and mimicked NRG1-mediated effects on PARP cleavage, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in cancer cells. In vivo, C6 reduced growth of COV434 and HCC1187 tumor cell xenografts in nude mice. Biasing 4ICD trafficking to mitochondria with anti-HER4 antibodies to mimic NRG1 suppressor functions could be an alternative anti-cancer strategy.
    Keywords:  4ICD; HER4; antibody; cancer; neuregulin
  19. Blood. 2020 May 12. pii: blood.2019003940. [Epub ahead of print]
      The connections between energy metabolism and stemness of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at different developmental stages remain largely unknown. We herein generate a transgenic mouse line for the genetically encoded NADH/NAD+ sensor (SoNar) and demonstrate that there exist three distinct fetal liver hematopoietic cell populations according to the ratios of SoNar fluorescence. SoNar-low cells have an enhanced level of mitochondrial respiration, but similar glycolytic level to SoNar-high cells. Interestingly, 10% of SoNar-low cells are enriched for 65% of total immunophenotypical fetal liver HSCs (FL-HSCs) and contain approximately 5-fold greater functional HSCs than that of SoNar-high counterparts. SoNar can monitor sensitively the dynamic changes of energy metabolism in HSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, STAT3 transactivates MDH1 to sustain the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and the HSC self-renewal and differentiation. We reveal an unexpected metabolic program of FL-HSCs and provide a powerful genetic tool for metabolic studies of HSCs or other types of stem cells.
  20. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2020 May 12.
      Recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) has been implicated in cell proliferation, metastasis, and chemoresistance of various human malignancies. The short-form RON (sf-RON) encoded by RON transcripts was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues, but its regulatory functions remain illustrated. Here, we found that sf-RON promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation by enhancing glucose metabolism. Furthermore, sf-RON was proved to induce the β-catenin expression level through the AKT1/GSK3β signaling pathway. Meanwhile, the binding sites of β-catenin were identified in the promoter region of SIX1 and it was also demonstrated that β-catenin positively regulated SIX1 expression. SIX1 enhanced the promoter activity of key proteins in glucose metabolism, such as GLUT1 and LDHA. Results indicated that sf-RON regulated the cell proliferation and glucose metabolism of gastric cancer by participating in a sf-RON/β-catenin/SIX1 signaling axis and had significant implications for choosing the therapeutic target of gastric cancer.
    Keywords:  Gastric cancer; Glucose metabolism; SIX1; sf-RON; β-Catenin
  21. Cell Metab. 2020 May 01. pii: S1550-4131(20)30190-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      NAD+ is a redox-active metabolite, the depletion of which has been proposed to promote aging and degenerative diseases in rodents. However, whether NAD+ depletion occurs in patients with degenerative disorders and whether NAD+ repletion improves their symptoms has remained open. Here, we report systemic NAD+ deficiency in adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy patients. We administered an increasing dose of NAD+-booster niacin, a vitamin B3 form (to 750-1,000 mg/day; clinicaltrials.govNCT03973203) for patients and their matched controls for 10 or 4 months, respectively. Blood NAD+ increased in all subjects, up to 8-fold, and muscle NAD+ of patients reached the level of their controls. Some patients showed anemia tendency, while muscle strength and mitochondrial biogenesis increased in all subjects. In patients, muscle metabolome shifted toward controls and liver fat decreased even 50%. Our evidence indicates that blood analysis is useful in identifying NAD+ deficiency and points niacin to be an efficient NAD+ booster for treating mitochondrial myopathy.
    Keywords:  NAD(+); NAD(+) repletion; mitochondria; mitochondrial disease; mitochondrial myopathy; mtDNA deletions; niacin; respiratory chain deficiency; treatment; vitamin B3
  22. Elife. 2020 May 12. pii: e54090. [Epub ahead of print]9
      Metabolic pathways and inflammatory processes are under circadian regulation. While rhythmic immune cell recruitment is known to impact infection outcomes, whether the circadian clock modulates immunometabolism remains unclear. We find the molecular clock Bmal1 is induced by inflammatory stimulants, including Ifn-g/lipopolysaccharide (M1) and tumor-conditioned medium, to maintain mitochondrial metabolism under these metabolically stressed conditions in mouse macrophages. Upon M1 stimulation, myeloid-specific Bmal1 knockout (M-BKO) renders macrophages unable to sustain mitochondrial function, enhancing succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-mediated mitochondrial ROS production and Hif-1a-dependent metabolic reprogramming and inflammatory damage. In tumor-associated macrophages, the aberrant Hif-1a activation and metabolic dysregulation by M-BKO contribute to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Consequently, M-BKO increases melanoma tumor burden, while administrating an SDH inhibitor dimethyl malonate suppresses tumor growth. Therefore, Bmal1 functions as a metabolic checkpoint integrating macrophage mitochondrial metabolism, redox homeostasis and effector functions. This Bmal1-Hif-1a regulatory loop may provide therapeutic opportunities for inflammatory diseases and immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  cell biology; mouse
  23. Mol Cell Biochem. 2020 May 11.
      Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often associated with a decrease in energy-dependent nutrient uptake across the jejunum that serves as the main site for absorption in the small intestine. This association has prompted us to investigate the bioenergetics underlying the alterations in jejunal absorption in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats. We have found that mitochondrial oxygen consumption did not change in state 2 and state 3 respirations but showed an increase in state 4 respiration indicating a decrease in the respiratory control ratio of jejunal mitochondria during the peak of inflammation. This decrease in the coupling state was found to be guanosine diphosphate-sensitive, hence, implicating the involvement of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2). Furthermore, the study has reported that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), known to be activators of UCP2, correlated negatively with UCP2 activity. Thus, we suggest that ROS production in the jejunum might be activating UCP2 which has an antioxidant activity, and that uncoupling of the mitochondria decreases the efficiency of energy production, leading to a decrease in energy-dependent nutrient absorption. Hence, this study is the first to account for an involvement of energy production and a role for UCP2 in the absorptive abnormalities of the small intestine in animal models of colitis.
    Keywords:  Colitis; Mitochondria; RCR; ROS; TNBS; UCP2
  24. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 274
      Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor (TF) that regulates a variety of biological processes, including a key role in mediating mitochondrial metabolism. It has been shown that STAT3 performs this function by translocating in minute amounts into mitochondria and interacting with mitochondrial proteins and genome. However, whether STAT3 localizes in mitochondria is still up for debate. To decipher the role of mitochondrial STAT3 requires a detailed understanding of its cellular localization. Using Percoll density gradient centrifugation, we surprisingly found that STAT3 is not located in the mitochondrial fraction, but instead, in the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) fraction. This was confirmed by sub-diffraction image analysis of labeled mitochondria in embryonic astrocytes. Also, we find that other TFs that have been previously found to localize in mitochondria are also found instead in the MAM fraction. Our results suggest that STAT3 and other transcriptional factors are, contrary to prior studies, consolidated specifically at MAMs, and further efforts to understand mitochondrial STAT3 function must take into consideration this localization, as the associated functional consequences offer a different interpretation to the questions of STAT3 trafficking and signaling in the mitochondria.
    Keywords:  ER; MAM; STAT3; mitochondrial localization; transcription factors
  25. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 May 11. pii: E410. [Epub ahead of print]9(5):
      Liver diseases affect millions of people worldwide. In most of the cases, severe hepatic dysfunction and liver cancer stem from mild and common clinical signs including hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, liver inflammation, and oxidative stress, all together referred to as Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Nutraceuticals endowed with antioxidant activity have been shown to reduce NAFLD risk factors and exert hepatoprotective effects. Here, we test the protective effect exerted on liver by the antioxidant Taurisolo, a nutraceutical formulation produced by grape pomace and enriched in Resveratrol and Polyphenols. We analyze the effect of Taurisolo on liver cells by profiling the metabolome of in vitro cultured hepatic HuH7 cells and of C57BL-6J mice fed a High Fat Diet and treated with the nutraceutical. Both in vitro and in vivo, we provide evidence that Taurisolo reduces risk factor markers associated with NAFLD. Taurisolo stimulates glucose uptake and reduces hepatic cholesterol and serum triglycerides. Furthermore, we give new insights into the mechanism of action of Taurisolo. The nutraceutical increases mitochondrial activity and promotes respiration and ATP production, fostering catabolic reactions like fatty acid β-oxidation and amino acid catabolism. On the contrary, Taurisolo reduces anabolic reactions like biosynthesis of cholesterol, bile acids, and plasma membrane lipids.
    Keywords:  Resveratrol; antioxidants; liver; mitochondria; nutraceuticals; polyphenols
  26. Geroscience. 2020 May 12.
      Mice lacking the superoxide anion scavenger CuZn superoxide dismutase (Sod1-/- mice) develop a number of age-related phenotypes, including an early progression of muscle atrophy and weakness (sarcopenia) associated with loss of innervation. The purpose of this study was to delineate the early development of sarcopenia in the Sod1-/- mice and to measure changes in the muscle transcriptome, proteome, and eicosanoid profile at the stage when sarcopenia is markedly induced in this model (7-9 months of age). We found a strong correlation between muscle atrophy and mitochondrial state 1 hydroperoxide production, which was 40% higher in isolated mitochondria from Sod1-/- mouse gastrocnemius muscle by 2 months of age. The primary pathways showing altered gene expression in Sod1-/- mice identified by RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis are protein ubiquitination, synaptic long-term potentiation, calcium signaling, phospholipase C signaling, AMPK, and TWEAK signaling. Targeted proteomics shows elevated expression of mitochondrial proteins, fatty acid metabolism enzymes, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, and antioxidants, while enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism are downregulated in Sod1-/- mice. LC-MS analysis of lipids in gastrocnemius muscle detected 78 eicosanoids, of which 31 are significantly elevated in muscle from Sod1-/- mice. These data suggest that mitochondrial hydroperoxide generation is elevated prior to muscle atrophy and may be a potential driving factor of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and eicosanoid profile of the Sod1-/- mice. Together, these analyses revealed important molecular events that occur during muscle atrophy, which will pave the way for future studies using new approaches to treat sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Aging; Muscle atrophy; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); Sarcopenia; Sod1 knockout mice
  27. Life Sci. 2020 May 05. pii: S0024-3205(20)30450-1. [Epub ahead of print] 117702
      There is a rapid increase in the incidence of melanoma which has led to a global crisis. Thus, there is a great need for developing novel, safe and effective drugs for the treatment of melanoma. Hispolon is a small molecular weight polyphenol derived from Phellinus linteus, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Hispolon has been reported to induce apoptosis in gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and myeloid leukemia. However, the anticancer effect in melanoma is not well elucidated. Thus, our present study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of hispolon on melanoma cancer cells. B16BL6 cells were treated with different concentrations of hispolon for 24 h and the effect on oxidative stress, mitochondrial functions, apoptosis and cell proliferation were studied. Hispolon is a potent generator of reactive oxygen species, nitrite and lipid peroxide levels. Furthermore, it significantly inhibits the expression of Bcl-2 and promotes the expression of Bax, increases the activity of caspase 1 and 3, inhibits mitochondrial Complex I and IV activities. By the above mechanisms, hispolon dose-dependently exhibited the antimelanoma effect similar to the well established pharmacological agent, curcumin. Thus, hispolon can be a potent anti-melanoma drug in the future if the pharmacodynamic effects and the toxicological studies are appropriately carried out.
  28. Cell Mol Immunol. 2020 May 12.
      Exposure to ionizing radiation, a physical treatment that inactivates live tumor cells, has been extensively applied to enhance the antitumor responses induced by cancer cell vaccines in both animal research and human clinical trials. However, the mechanisms by which irradiated cells function as immunogenic tumor vaccines and induce effective antitumor responses have not been fully explored. Here, we demonstrate that oxidized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling play a key roles in the enhanced antitumor effect achieved with an irradiated tumor cell vaccine. Elevations in ROS and oxidized mtDNA 8-OHG content could be induced in irradiated tumor cells. Oxidized mtDNA derived from irradiated tumor cells gained access to the cytosol of dendritic cells (DCs). Oxidized mtDNA, as a DAMP or adjuvant, activated the STING-TBK1-IRF3-IFN-β pathway in DCs, which subsequently cross-presented irradiated tumor cell-derived antigens to CD8+ T cells and elicited antitumor immunity. The results of our study provide insight into the mechanism by which an irradiated cell vaccine mediates antitumor immunity, which may have implications for new strategies to improve the efficacy of irradiated vaccines.
    Keywords:  Irradiated tumor cell vaccine; Oxidized mitochondrial DNA; STING signaling
  29. Cell Metab. 2020 May 11. pii: S1550-4131(20)30235-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      The impact of chronic caloric restriction (CR) on health and survival is complex with poorly understood underlying molecular mechanisms. A recent study in mice addressing the diets used in nonhuman primate CR studies found that while diet composition did not impact longevity, fasting time and total calorie intake were determinant for increased survival. Here, integrated analysis of physiological and multi-omics data from ad libitum, meal-fed, or CR animals was used to gain insight into pathways associated with improved health and survival. We identified a potential involvement of the glycine-serine-threonine metabolic axis in longevity and related molecular mechanisms. Direct comparison of the different feeding strategies unveiled a pattern of shared pathways of improved health that included short-chain fatty acids and essential PUFA metabolism. These findings were recapitulated in the serum metabolome from nonhuman primates. We propose that the pathways identified might be targeted for their potential role in healthy aging.
    Keywords:  aging; calorie restriction; calories; dietary interventions; dietary restriction; fasting; meal fed; metabolism; metabolomics; time-restricted feeding
  30. Nat Metab. 2019 Sep 30. 1 966-974
      During heart transplantation, storage in cold preservation solution is thought to protect the organ by slowing metabolism; by providing osmotic support; and by minimising ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury upon transplantation into the recipient1,2. Despite its widespread use our understanding of the metabolic changes prevented by cold storage and how warm ischaemia leads to damage is surprisingly poor. Here, we compare the metabolic changes during warm ischaemia (WI) and cold ischaemia (CI) in hearts from mouse, pig, and human. We identify common metabolic alterations during WI and those affected by CI, thereby elucidating mechanisms underlying the benefits of CI, and how WI causes damage. Succinate accumulation is a major feature within ischaemic hearts across species, and CI slows succinate generation, thereby reducing tissue damage upon reperfusion caused by the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)3,4. Importantly, the inevitable periods of WI during organ procurement lead to the accumulation of damaging levels of succinate during transplantation, despite cooling organs as rapidly as possible. This damage is ameliorated by metabolic inhibitors that prevent succinate accumulation and oxidation. Our findings suggest how WI and CI contribute to transplant outcome and indicate new therapies for improving the quality of transplanted organs.
  31. Nat Metab. 2019 Sep;1(9): 876-885
      The biophysical environment of membrane phospholipids affects structure, function, and stability of membrane-bound proteins.1,2 Obesity can disrupt membrane lipids, and in particular, alter the activity of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) to affect cellular metabolism.3-5 Recent evidence suggests that transport efficiency (Ca2+ uptake / ATP hydrolysis) of skeletal muscle SERCA can be uncoupled to increase energy expenditure and protect mice from diet-induced obesity.6,7 In isolated SR vesicles, membrane phospholipid composition is known to modulate SERCA efficiency.8-11 Here we show that skeletal muscle SR phospholipids can be altered to decrease SERCA efficiency and increase whole-body metabolic rate. The absence of skeletal muscle phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) methyltransferase (PEMT) promotes an increase in skeletal muscle and whole-body metabolic rate to protect mice from diet-induced obesity. The elevation in metabolic rate is caused by a decrease in SERCA Ca2+-transport efficiency, whereas mitochondrial uncoupling is unaffected. Our findings support the hypothesis that skeletal muscle energy efficiency can be reduced to promote protection from obesity.
  32. EMBO Rep. 2020 May 10. e47872
      CLC anion/proton exchangers control the pH and [Cl- ] of the endolysosomal system that is essential for cellular nutrient uptake. Here, we use heterologous expression and whole-cell electrophysiology to investigate the regulation of the CLC isoforms ClC-3, ClC-4, and ClC-5 by the adenylic system components ATP, ADP, and AMP. Our results show that cytosolic ATP and ADP but not AMP and Mg2+ -free ADP enhance CLC ion transport. Biophysical analysis reveals that adenine nucleotides alter the ratio between CLC ion transport and CLC gating charge and shift the CLC voltage-dependent activation. The latter effect is suppressed by blocking the intracellular entrance of the proton transport pathway. We suggest, therefore, that adenine nucleotides regulate the internal proton delivery into the CLC transporter machinery and alter the probability of CLC transporters to undergo silent non-transporting cycles. Our findings suggest that the CBS domains in mammalian CLC transporters serve as energy sensors that regulate vesicular Cl- /H+ exchange by detecting changes in the cytosolic ATP/ADP/AMP equilibrium. Such sensing mechanism links the endolysosomal activity to the cellular metabolic state.
    Keywords:  CBS domain; CLC transporter; adenine nucleotide regulation
  33. Front Pharmacol. 2020 ;11 416
      Emodin is one of the main active compounds in many Chinese traditional herbs. Due to its potential toxic effect on the liver, the possible injury mechanism needs to be explored. In the present study, we investigated liver injury mechanisms of emodin on rats by the technology of proteomics. Firstly, 4530 proteins were identified from the liver of rats treated with emodin by label free proteomics. Inside, 892 differential proteins were selected, presenting a downward trend. Bioinformatics analysis showed that proteins interfered with by emodin were mainly involved in oxidation-reduction biological processes and mitochondrial metabolic pathways, such as mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, which were further confirmed by western blot. The decrease in maximal respiration, ATP production, spare respiratory capacity, and coupling efficiency and increase in proton leakage were detected by seahorse XFe 24 analyzer, which confirmed the damage of mitochondrial function. The down-regulated expressions in antioxidant proteins were verified by western blot and a significant increase of ROS levels were detected in emodin group, which showed that emodin disrupted redox homeostasis in livers. Molecular docking revealed that the main targets of emodin might be acadvl and complex IV. Generally, emodin could induce oxidative stress in livers by directly targeting acadvl/complex IV and inhibiting fatty acid β-oxidation, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation taken place in mitochondria.
    Keywords:  Emodin; liver injury; mitochondrial dysfunction; proteomics; redox homeostasis
  34. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2020 Apr 19. pii: S2162-2531(20)30112-8. [Epub ahead of print]20 687-698
      Here, we report on validating a mitochondrial gene therapy by delivering nucleic acids to mitochondria of diseased cells by a MITO-Porter, a liposome-based carrier for mitochondrial delivery. We used cells derived from a patient with a mitochondrial disease with a G625A heteroplasmic mutation in the tRNAPhe of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). It has been reported that some mitochondrial gene diseases are caused by heteroplasmic mutations, in which both mutated and wild-type (WT) genes are present, and the accumulation of pathological mutations leads to serious, intractable, multi-organ diseases. Therefore, the decrease of the mutated gene rate is considered to be a useful gene therapy strategy. To accomplish this, wild-type mitochondrial pre-tRNAPhe (pre-WT-tRNAPhe), prepared by in vitro transcription, was encapsulated in the MITO-Porter. The pre-WT-tRNAPhe encapsulated in the MITO-Porter was transfected into diseased mitochondrial cells, and the resulting mutant levels were examined by an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-quantitative PCR. The mutation rate of tRNAPhe was decreased, and this therapeutic effect was sustained even on the 8th day after transfection. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiratory activity of the disease cells was increased after the transfection of therapeutic pre-WT-tRNAPhe. These results support the conclusion that the mitochondrial delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids represents a viable strategy for mitochondrial gene therapy.
    Keywords:  MITO-Porter; heteroplasmic mutation; mitochondrial delivery; mitochondrial gene therapy; nucleic acids medicine
  35. Cell Death Dis. 2020 May 11. 11(5): 357
      In recent years, micropeptides have been increasingly identified as important regulators in various biological processes. However, whether micropeptides are functionally conserved remains largely unknown. Here, we uncovered a micropeptide with evolutionarily conserved roles in myogenesis. RNA-seq data analysis of proliferating mouse satellite cells (SCs) and differentiated myotubes identified a previously annotated lncRNA, MyolncR4 (1500011K16RIK), which is upregulated during muscle differentiation. Significantly, MyolncR4 is highly conserved across vertebrate species. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that MyolncR4 encodes a 56-aa micropeptide, which was named as LEMP (lncRNA encoded micropeptide). LEMP promotes muscle formation and regeneration in mouse. In zebrafish, MyolncR4 is enriched in developing somites and elimination of LEMP results in impaired muscle development, which could be efficiently rescued by expression of the mouse LEMP. Interestingly, LEMP is localized at both the plasma membrane and mitochondria, and associated with multiple mitochondrial proteins, suggestive of its involvement in mitochondrial functions. Together, our work uncovers a micropeptide that plays an evolutionarily conserved role in skeletal muscle differentiation, pinpointing the functional importance of this growing family of small peptides.
  36. Sci Rep. 2020 May 12. 10(1): 7838
      One-carbon metabolism fuels the high demand of cancer cells for nucleotides and other building blocks needed for increased proliferation. Although inhibitors of this pathway are widely used to treat many cancers, their global impact on anabolic and catabolic processes remains unclear. Using a combination of real-time bioenergetics assays and metabolomics approaches, we investigated the global effects of methotrexate on cellular metabolism. We show that methotrexate treatment increases the intracellular concentration of the metabolite AICAR, resulting in AMPK activation. Methotrexate-induced AMPK activation leads to decreased one-carbon metabolism gene expression and cellular proliferation as well as increased global bioenergetic capacity. The anti-proliferative and pro-respiratory effects of methotrexate are AMPK-dependent, as cells with reduced AMPK activity are less affected by methotrexate treatment. Conversely, the combination of methotrexate with the AMPK activator, phenformin, potentiates its anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells. These data highlight a reciprocal effect of methotrexate on anabolic and catabolic processes and implicate AMPK activation as a metabolic determinant of methotrexate response.
  37. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 May 10. pii: E3374. [Epub ahead of print]21(9):
      Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorders are extremely heterogeneous conditions. Their clinical and genetic variability makes the identification of reliable and specific biomarkers very challenging. Until now, only a few studies have focused on the effect of a defective oxidative phosphorylation functioning on the cell's secretome, although it could be a promising approach for the identification and pre-selection of potential circulating biomarkers for mitochondrial diseases. Here, we review the insights obtained from secretome studies with regard to oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction, and the biomarkers that appear, so far, to be promising to identify mitochondrial diseases. We propose two new biomarkers to be taken into account in future diagnostic trials.
    Keywords:  biomarkers; fibroblast growth factor 21; growth differentiation factor 15; interleukine-6; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial diseases; oxidative phosphorylation system; secretome; vascular endothelial growth factor
  38. Cardiovasc Res. 2020 May 13. pii: cvaa143. [Epub ahead of print]
      AIMS: Ketones have been proposed to be a "thrifty" fuel for the heart and increasing cardiac ketone oxidation can be cardioprotective. However, it is unclear how much ketone oxidation can contribute to energy production in the heart, nor whether increasing ketone oxidation increases cardiac efficiency. Therefore, our goal was to determine to what extent high levels of the ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), contributes to cardiac energy production, and whether this influences cardiac efficiency.METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated working mice hearts were aerobically perfused with palmitate (0.8mM or 1.2mM), glucose (5mM) and increasing concentrations of βOHB (0, 0.6, 2.0mM). Subsequently, oxidation of these substrates, cardiac function and cardiac efficiency were assessed. Increasing βOHB concentrations increased myocardial ketone oxidation rates without affecting glucose or fatty acid oxidation rates where normal physiological levels of glucose (5mM) and fatty acid (0.8mM) are present. Notably, ketones became the major fuel source for the heart at 2.0mM βOHB (at both low or high fatty acid concentrations), with the elevated ketone oxidation rates markedly increasing TCA cycle activity, producing a large amount of reducing equivalents and finally, increasing myocardial oxygen consumption. However, the marked increase in ketone oxidation at high concentrations of βOHB was not accompanied by an increase in cardiac work, suggesting that a mismatch between excess reduced equivalents production from ketone oxidation and cardiac ATP production. Consequently, cardiac efficiency decreased when the heart was exposed to higher ketone levels.
    CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that while ketones can become the major fuel source for the heart, they do not increase cardiac efficiency, which also underscores the importance of recognizing ketones as a major fuel source for the heart in times of starvation, consumption of a ketogenic diet or poorly controlled diabetes.
    TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Recent clinical interest has focused on ketones as a potential fuel source for the failing heart, primarily because ketones have been popularized as a "thrifty" fuel that may increase cardiac efficiency. However, we have directly assessed cardiac ketone oxidation rates alongside their competing energy substrates and found that: not only can ketones become the major fuel of the heart with no inhibitory effect on cardiac glucose oxidation, but they can provide the healthy heart with an excess energy supply, with no changes to cardiac function, resulting in a mismatch between reducing equivalents supply and cardiac ATP production, ultimately contributing to a decrease in cardiac efficiency.
  39. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2020 May 14.
      WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Metformin has received increasing attention owing to its potential protective effect against cancer. We aimed to summarize evidence regarding the association between metformin and the risk or survival in lung cancer patients with type 2 diabetes.METHODS: We selected observational studies examining the association between exposure to metformin and the risk or survival in lung cancer. Available publications were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Wiley and SpringerLink databases. Meta-analysis was performed with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) as effect measures for risk or survival in lung cancer.
    RESULTS: Eighteen studies (eight on lung cancer risk and ten on lung cancer survival) were included. Metformin treatment was associated with decreased lung cancer incidence (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.70-0.86) and increased lung cancer survival (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.55-0.77). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant protective effect of metformin use on lung cancer risk was observed among Asian patients (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.56-0.76), but not in European patients. On the other hand, the protective effect of metformin use on lung cancer survival was observed in both Asian (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.49-0.66) and non-Asian (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.71-0.88) patients. In the subgroup analysis by histology, a protective effect of metformin on lung cancer survival was observed in both non-small-cell lung cancer (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.54-0.84) and small-cell lung cancer (HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.39-0.69). Funnel plot showed that no significant publication bias existed.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that metformin is significantly associated with a decreased risk and increased survival in lung cancer.
    Keywords:  lung cancer incidence; lung cancer survival; meta-analysis; metformin; type 2 diabetes mellitus
  40. Nat Commun. 2020 May 11. 11(1): 2332
      Fasting-mimicking diets delay tumor progression and sensitize a wide range of tumors to chemotherapy, but their therapeutic potential in combination with non-cytotoxic compounds is poorly understood. Here we show that vitamin C anticancer activity is limited by the up-regulation of the stress-inducible protein heme-oxygenase-1. The fasting-mimicking diet selectivity reverses vitamin C-induced up-regulation of heme-oxygenase-1 and ferritin in KRAS-mutant cancer cells, consequently increasing reactive iron, oxygen species, and cell death; an effect further potentiated by chemotherapy. In support of a potential role of ferritin in colorectal cancer progression, an analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas Database indicates that KRAS mutated colorectal cancer patients with low intratumor ferritin mRNA levels display longer 3- and 5-year overall survival. Collectively, our data indicate that the combination of a fasting-mimicking diet and vitamin C represents a promising low toxicity intervention to be tested in randomized clinical trials against colorectal cancer and possibly other KRAS mutated tumors.