bims-mibica Biomed News
on Mitochondrial bioenergetics in cancer
Issue of 2020‒05‒10
37 papers selected by
Kelsey Fisher-Wellman
East Carolina University

  1. Cell Rep. 2020 May 05. pii: S2211-1247(20)30555-6. [Epub ahead of print]31(5): 107606
      When O2 is plentiful, the mitochondrial electron transport chain uses it as a terminal electron acceptor. However, the mammalian retina thrives in a hypoxic niche in the eye. We find that mitochondria in retinas adapt to their hypoxic environment by reversing the succinate dehydrogenase reaction to use fumarate to accept electrons instead of O2. Reverse succinate dehydrogenase activity produces succinate and is enhanced by hypoxia-induced downregulation of cytochrome oxidase. Retinas can export the succinate they produce to the neighboring O2-rich retinal pigment epithelium-choroid complex. There, succinate enhances O2 consumption by severalfold. Malate made from succinate in the pigment epithelium can then be imported into the retina, where it is converted to fumarate to again accept electrons in the reverse succinate dehydrogenase reaction. This malate-succinate shuttle can sustain these two tissues by transferring reducing power from an O2-poor tissue (retina) to an O2-rich one (retinal pigment epithelium-choroid).
    Keywords:  ecosystem; hypoxia; metabolic flux; metabolism; mitochondria; oxygen; retina; retinal pigment epithelium; succinate; succinate dehydrogenase
  2. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2020 May 05. 5(1): 59
      Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) has an important role in regulating mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. Dysregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis has been implicated in various cancers. However, it remains unclear whether MCU regulates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake to promote cell growth in colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, in the present study the expression of MCU in CRC tissues and its clinical significance were examined. Following which, the biological function of MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in CRC cell growth and the underlying mechanisms were systematically evaluated using in in vitro and in vivo assays, which included western blotting, cell viability and apoptosis assays, as well as xenograft nude mice models. Our results demonstrated that MCU was markedly upregulated in CRC tissues at both the mRNA and protein levels. Upregulated MCU was associated with poor prognosis in patients with CRC. Our data reported that upregulation of MCU enhanced the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake to promote mitochondrial biogenesis, which in turn facilitated CRC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In terms of the underlying mechanism, it was identified that MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake inhibited the phosphorylation of transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM), and thus enhanced its stability to promote mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, our data indicated that increased mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake led to increased mitochondrial production of ROS via the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, which subsequently activated NF-κB signaling to accelerate CRC growth. In conclusion, the results indicated that MCU-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake promotes mitochondrial biogenesis by suppressing phosphorylation of TFAM, thus contributing to CRC cell growth. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying mitochondrial Ca2+-mediated CRC cell growth and may provide a potential pharmacological target for CRC treatment.
  3. Diabetes. 2020 May 04. pii: db191057. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cardiac glucose uptake and oxidation are reduced in diabetes despite hyperglycemia. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to heart failure in diabetes. It is unclear if these changes are adaptive or maladaptive. To directly evaluate the relationship between glucose delivery and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy we generated transgenic mice with inducible cardiomyocyte-specific expression of the glucose transporter (GLUT4). We examined mice rendered hyperglycemic following low-dose streptozotocin prior to increasing cardiomyocyte glucose uptake by transgene induction. Enhanced myocardial glucose in non-diabetic mice decreased mitochondrial ATP generation and was associated with echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction. Increasing myocardial glucose delivery after short-term diabetes onset, exacerbated mitochondrial oxidative dysfunction. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the largest changes, driven by glucose and diabetes, were in genes involved in mitochondrial function. This glucose-dependent transcriptional repression was in part mediated by O-GlcNAcylation of the transcription factor Sp1. Increased glucose uptake induced direct O-GlcNAcylation of many electron transport chain subunits and other mitochondrial proteins. These findings identify mitochondria as a major target of glucotoxicity. They also suggest reduced glucose utilization in diabetic cardiomyopathy might defend against glucotoxicity and caution that restoring glucose delivery to the heart in the context of diabetes could accelerate mitochondrial dysfunction by disrupting protective metabolic adaptations.
  4. Toxicol Sci. 2020 May 06. pii: kfaa059. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial toxicity drives several adverse health outcomes. Current high-throughput screening assays for chemically-induced mitochondrial toxicity typically measure changes to mitochondrial structure and may not detect known mitochondrial toxicants. We adapted a respirometric screening assay (RSA) measuring mitochondrial function to screen ToxCast chemicals in HepG2 cells using a tiered testing strategy. Of 1,042 chemicals initially screened at a single maximal concentration, 243 actives were identified and re-screened at seven concentrations. Concentration-response data for three respiration phases confirmed activity and indicated a mechanism for 193 mitochondrial toxicants: 149 electron transport chain inhibitors (ETCi), 15 uncouplers and 29 ATP synthase inhibitors. Subsequently, an electron flow assay (EFA) was used to identify the target complex for 84 of the 149 ETCi. Sixty reference chemicals were used to compare the RSA to existing ToxCast and Tox21 mitochondrial toxicity assays. The RSA was most predictive (accuracy = 90%) of mitochondrial toxicity. The Tox21 mitochondrial membrane potential assay was also highly predictive (accuracy = 87%) of bioactivity but underestimated the potency of well-known ETCi and provided no mechanistic information. The tiered RSA approach accurately identifies and characterizes mitochondrial toxicants acting through diverse mechanisms and at a throughput sufficient to screen large chemical inventories. The EFA provides additional confirmation and detailed mechanistic understanding for ETCi, the most common type of mitochondrial toxicants among ToxCast chemicals. The mitochondrial toxicity screening approach described herein may inform hazard assessment and the in vitro bioactive concentrations used to derive relevant doses for screening level chemical assessment using new approach methodologies.
    Keywords:  Seahorse; ToxCast; electron transport chain; high-throughput screening; mechanism; mitochondria; new approach methodologies; oxidative phosphorylation; respiration; uncoupling
  5. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020 4060769
      Brain aging is one of the major risk factors for the development of several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in processes of both, brain aging and neurodegeneration. Aged mice including NMRI mice are established model organisms to study physiological and molecular mechanisms of brain aging. However, longitudinal data evaluated in one cohort are rare but are important to understand the aging process of the brain throughout life, especially since pathological changes early in life might pave the way to neurodegeneration in advanced age. To assess the longitudinal course of brain aging, we used a cohort of female NMRI mice and measured brain mitochondrial function, cognitive performance, and molecular markers every 6 months until mice reached the age of 24 months. Furthermore, we measured citrate synthase activity and respiration of isolated brain mitochondria. Mice at the age of three months served as young controls. At six months of age, mitochondria-related genes (complex IV, creb-1, β-AMPK, and Tfam) were significantly elevated. Brain ATP levels were significantly reduced at an age of 18 months while mitochondria respiration was already reduced in middle-aged mice which is in accordance with the monitored impairments in cognitive tests. mRNA expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (creb-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1-α), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (Nrf-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), and synaptophysin 1 (SYP1)) and the antioxidative defense system (catalase (Cat) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)) was measured and showed significantly decreased expression patterns in the brain starting at an age of 18 months. BDNF expression reached, a maximum after 6 months. On the basis of longitudinal data, our results demonstrate a close connection between the age-related decline of cognitive performance, energy metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis during the physiological brain aging process.
  6. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Apr 30. pii: E1119. [Epub ahead of print]12(5):
      A defining hallmark of tumor phenotypes is uncontrolled cell proliferation, while fermentative glycolysis has long been considered as one of the major metabolic pathways that allows energy production and provides intermediates for the anabolic growth of cancer cells. Although such a vision has been crucial for the development of clinical imaging modalities, it has become now evident that in contrast to prior beliefs, mitochondria play a key role in tumorigenesis. Recent findings demonstrated that a full genetic disruption of the Warburg effect of aggressive cancers does not suppress but instead reduces tumor growth. Tumor growth then relies exclusively on functional mitochondria. Besides having fundamental bioenergetic functions, mitochondrial metabolism indeed provides appropriate building blocks for tumor anabolism, controls redox balance, and coordinates cell death. Hence, mitochondria represent promising targets for the development of novel anti-cancer agents. Here, after revisiting the long-standing Warburg effect from a historic and dynamic perspective, we review the role of mitochondria in cancer with particular attention to the cancer cell-intrinsic/extrinsic mechanisms through which mitochondria influence all steps of tumorigenesis, and briefly discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondrial metabolism for cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  Krebs cycle; Warburg effect; metabolism; mitochondria; oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS); therapy; tumor
  7. J Pharm Sci. 2020 May 03. pii: S0022-3549(20)30243-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial delivery of an anticancer drug targeting cancer cells would eventually result in cell death. To achieve this, a drug delivery system targeting mitochondria is needed. We recently developed a MITO-Porter, a liposome that delivers its cargo to mitochondria. We reported that such a MITO-Porter could deliver doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, to mitochondria in OS-RC-2 cells, a drug resistant cancer cell, resulting in inhibiting the cell growth, based in in vitro experiments. Herein, we report on validating the benefit of such a therapeutic strategy for treating drug resistant cancers by the in vivo targeting of mitochondria. We prepared a DOX-MITO-Porter, in which DOX was encapsulated in the MITO-Porter and optimized its retention in blood circulation. When the DOX-MITO-Porter was administered to mice bearing OS-RC-2 cells via tail vein injection, tumor size was significantly decreased, compared to DOX itself and to the DOX-encapsulated polyethylene glycol-modified liposome (DOX-PEG-LP). Intracellular observation confirmed that the DOX-MITO-Porter had accumulated in tumor mitochondria. It was also found a relationship between anti-tumor effect and the mitochondrial function, as indicated by the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. This study provides support for the utility of an in vivo mitochondrial delivery system in drug resistant cancer therapies.
  8. Mitochondrion. 2020 Apr 30. pii: S1567-7249(19)30259-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are critical organelles that provide energy as ATP to the cell. Besides 37 genes encoded by mitochondrial genome, it has been estimated that over 1500 nuclear genes are required for mitochondrial structure and function. Thus, mutations of many genes in the nuclear genome cause dysfunction of mitochondria that can lead to many severe conditions. Mitochondrial dysfunction often results in reduced ATP synthesis, higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics, and other detrimental effects. In addition to rare primary mitochondrial disorders, these mitochondrial-related genes are often associated with many common diseases. For example, in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington disease, mitochondrialand energy metabolism abnormalities can greatly affect brain function. Cancer cells are also known to exhibit repressed mitochondrial ATP production in favor of glycolysis, which fuels the aggressive proliferation and metastasis of tumor tissues, leading many to speculate on a possible relationship between compromised mitochondrial function and cancer. The association between mitochondrial dysfunction and diabetes is also unsurprising, given the organelle's crucial role in cellular energy utilization. Here, we will discuss the multiple lines of evidence connecting mitochondrial dysfunction associated with mitochondria-related nuclear genes to many of the well-known disease genes that also underlie common disease.
    Keywords:  Aging; Cancer; Diabetes; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial Genetics; Neurodegeneration
  9. EMBO Rep. 2020 May 08. e49117
      Cancer cells undergo changes in metabolic and survival pathways that increase their malignancy. Isoform 2 of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK2) enhances both glucose metabolism and resistance to death stimuli in many neoplastic cell types. Here, we observe that HK2 locates at mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites called MAMs (mitochondria-associated membranes). HK2 displacement from MAMs with a selective peptide triggers mitochondrial Ca2+ overload caused by Ca2+ release from ER via inositol-3-phosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and by Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane. This results in Ca2+ -dependent calpain activation, mitochondrial depolarization and cell death. The HK2-targeting peptide causes massive death of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells freshly isolated from patients, and an actionable form of the peptide reduces growth of breast and colon cancer cells allografted in mice without noxious effects on healthy tissues. These results identify a signaling pathway primed by HK2 displacement from MAMs that can be activated as anti-neoplastic strategy.
    Keywords:  Hexokinase 2; anti-neoplastic strategy; cancer; cell penetrating peptide; mitochondria-associated membranes
  10. Mol Carcinog. 2020 May 04.
      Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a common malignant tumor with poor prognosis. And different individuals respond to the same drug differently. Increasing evidence has confirmed that metabolism reprogramming was involved in the drug sensitivity of tumor cells. However, the potential molecular mechanism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitivity remains to be elucidated in ESCC cells. In this study, we found that the 5-FU sensitivity of TE1 cells was lower than that of EC1 and Eca109 cells. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis results showed that nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and tricarboxylic acid cycle were significantly different in these three cell lines. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), a key enzyme of nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, was significantly higher expressed in TE1 cells than that in EC1 and Eca109 cells. Therefore, the function of NNMT on 5-FU sensitivity was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. NNMT downregulation significantly increased 5-FU sensitivity in TE1 cells. Meanwhile, the glucose consumption and lactate production were decreased, and the expression of glycolysis-related enzymes hexokinase 2, lactate dehydrogenase A, and phosphoglycerate mutase 1 were downregulated in NNMT knockdown TE1 cells. Besides, overexpression of NNMT in EC1 and Eca109 cells caused the opposite effects. Moreover, when glycolysis was inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose, the roles of NNMT on 5-FU sensitivity was weakened. In vivo experiments showed that NNMT knockdown significantly increased the sensitivity of xenografts to 5-FU and suppressed the Warburg effect. Overall, these results demonstrated that NNMT decreases 5-FU sensitivity in human ESCC cells through promoting the Warburg effect, suggesting that NNMT may contribute to predict the treatment effects of the clinical chemotherapy in ESCC.
    Keywords:  5-fluorouracil; drug sensitivity; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; metabonomics; nicotinamide N-methyltransferase
  11. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020 1868764
      A more comprehensive understanding of the complexity of pancreatic cancer pathobiology, especially, and understanding of the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in disease progression should pave the way for therapies to improve patient response rates. Previous studies reported that caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive functions. However, the function of Cav-1 in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that coinjection of Cav-1-silenced pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) with pancreatic cancer cells increased tumor growth. To comprehensively characterize paracrine communication between pancreatic cancer cells and PSCs, PSCs were cultured with pancreatic cancer cell conditioned medium (CM) containing cytokines. We reveal that Cav-1-silenced PSCs facilitated the growth of pancreatic cancer cells via enhanced paracrine shh/MMP2/bFGF/IL-6 signaling. Specifically, Cav-1-silenced PSCs exhibited increased shh expression, which heterotypically activated the shh signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, Cav-1-deficient PSCs accumulated ROS to enhance the shh pathway and angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, overexpression of Nrf2 reversed the effects of Cav-1 knockdown on PSCs, increasing ROS production and enhancing paracrine shh/MMP2/bFGF/IL-6 signaling. Together, our findings show that stromal Cav-1 may mediate different mechanisms in the complex interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment though Nrf2-induced shh signaling activation during pancreatic cancer progression.
  12. Mol Biol Cell. 2020 May 06. mbcE19100560
      A metabolic transition from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation often associates with differentiation of many types of stem cells. However, the link between mitochondrial respiration and stem cells' behavior is not fully understood. we genetically disrupted electron transport chain (ETC) complexes in the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of Drosophila. We found that ISCs carrying impaired ETC proliferated much more slowly than normal, produced very few enteroblasts, which failed to further differentiate into enterocytes. One of the main impediments to ISC proliferation and lineage specification appeared to be abnormally elevated forkhead box O (FOXO) signaling in the ETC-deficient ISCs, as genetically suppressing the signaling pathway partially restored the number of enterocytes. Contrary to common belief, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation did not appear to mediate the ETC mutant phenotype. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial respiration is essential for Drosophila ISC proliferation and lineage specification in vivo and acts at least partially by repressing endogenous FOXO signaling.
  13. J Biol Chem. 2020 May 06. pii: jbc.RA120.012600. [Epub ahead of print]
      DEAD-box helicase 5 (DDX5) is a founding member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family, a group of enzymes that regulate ribonucleoprotein (RNP) formation and function in every aspect of RNA metabolism, ranging from synthesis to decay. Our lab previously found that DDX5 is involved in energy homeostasis, a process that is altered in many cancers. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an understudied cancer type for which effective treatments are currently unavailable. Using an array of methods, including shRNA-mediated gene silencing, RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq analyses, and metabolite profiling, we show here that DDX5 is overexpressed in SCLC cell lines and that its down-regulation results in various metabolic and cellular alterations. Depletion of DDX5 resulted in reduced growth and mitochondrial dysfunction in the chemoresistant SCLC cell line H69AR. The latter was evidenced by downregulation of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and by impaired oxygen consumption. Interestingly, DDX5 depletion specifically reduced intracellular succinate, a tricarboxcylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate that serves as a direct electron donor to mitochondrial complex II. We propose that the oncogenic role of DDX5, at least in part, manifests as upregulation of respiration supporting the energy demands of cancer cells.
    Keywords:  DEAD-box helicase 5 (DDX5); RNA helicase; bioenergetics; cell proliferation; gene expression; mitochondrial metabolism; respiration; small cell lung cancer; tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) (Krebs cycle)
  14. Cell Death Dis. 2020 May 07. 11(5): 332
      CR6-interacting factor 1 (Crif1) is a mitochondrial protein which is required for the assembly of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. Our bioinformatics analysis based on Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database revealed an aberrant overexpression of CRIF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the clinical significance and biological functions of CRIF1 are still unclear in this malignancy. Here, we report that CRIF1 is frequently overexpressed in HCC cells mainly due to the downregulation of miR-497-5p, which is associated with poor prognosis of patients with HCC. CRIF1-promoted HCC growth and metastasis by suppressing cell apoptosis and inducing cell cycle progression and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, increased mitochondrial ROS production and consequently activation of the NFκB signaling pathway was found to be involved in the promotion of growth and metastasis by CRIF1 in HCC cells. In summary, CRIF1 plays an oncogenic role in HCC progression through activating ROS/NFKB pathway, implying CRIF1 as a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target in HCC.
  15. Cell Death Dis. 2020 May 04. 11(5): 312
      Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, TPL), a nitroxide compound, inhibits proliferation and increases the vulnerability of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents. However, the molecular mechanism of TPL inhibiting cancer cell proliferation has not been fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic effect of TPL on cancer cells and explored its cancer therapeutic potential. Extracellular flow assays showed that TPL inhibited cellular basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates of mitochondrial. 13C metabolic flux analysis showed that TPL treatment had minimal effect on glycolysis. However, we found that TPL inhibits glutamine metabolism by interfering with the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) process and reductive glutamine process. We found that the inhibitory effect of TPL on metabolism occurs mainly on the step from citrate to α-ketoglutarate or vice versa. We also found that activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH1 and IDH2, the key enzymes in TCA, were inhibited by TPL treatment. In xenograft mouse model, TPL treatment reduced tumor growth by inhibiting cellular proliferation of xenograft tumors. Thus, we provided a mechanism of TPL inhibiting cancer cell proliferation by interfering with glutamine utilization that is important for survival and proliferation of cancer cells. The study may help the development of a therapeutic strategy of TPL combined with other anticancer medicines.
  16. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2020 May 04.
      Owing to the excellent antibacterial and antiviral activity, silver nanoparticles have a widespread use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the increase in the production and use of the related products, the potential hazard of silver nanoparticles has aroused public attention. The main purpose of this study is to explore the toxicity of silver nanoparticles and induction of lung inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we validated that small amounts of silver ions dissolved from silver nanoparticles caused the depolarization of plasma membrane, resulting in an overload of intracellular sodium and calcium, and eventually led to the cell necrosis. The blockers of calcium or sodium channels inversed the toxicity of silver ions. Then, we instilled silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate (50 μg per mouse) into the lungs of mice, and this induced pulmonary injury and mitochondrial content release, led to the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung tissue via p38 MAPK pathway. Altogether, these data show that released silver ions from nanoparticles induced cell necrosis through Na+ and Ca2+ influx and triggered pulmonary inflammation through elevating mitochondrial-related contents released from these necrotic cells.
    Keywords:  Necrosis; Pulmonary inflammation; Silver ions; Silver nanoparticles
  17. ACS Nano. 2020 May 08.
      Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondria contribute to resistance in cancer. But how to selectively target the mitochondria of cancer cells remains less explored. Here we show perimitochondrial enzymatic self-assembly for selectively targeting the mitochondria of liver cancer cells. Nanoparticles of a peptide-lipid conjugate, being a substrate of enterokinase (ENTK), encapsulate chloramphenicol (CLRP), a clinically used antibiotic that is deactivated by glucuronidases in cytosol, but not in mitochondria. Perimitochondrial ENTK cleaves the Flag-tag on the conjugate to deliver CLRP selectively into the mitochondria of cancer cells, thus inhibiting the mitochondrial protein synthesis, inducing the release of cytochrome c into cytosol, and resulting in cancer cell death. This strategy selectively targets liver cancer cells over normal liver cells. Moreover, blocking the mitochondrial protein synthesis sensitizes the cancer cells, relying on glycolysis and/or OXPHOS, to cisplatin. For the first time, this work illustrates a facile approach, selectively targeting mitochondria of cancer cells and repurposing clinically approved ribosome inhibitors, to interrupt the metabolism of cancer cells for cancer treatment.
  18. ACS Synth Biol. 2020 May 08.
      Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cellular energy currency, is essential for life. The ability to provide a constant supply of ATP is therefore crucial for the construction of artificial cells in synthetic biology. Here, we describe the bottom-up assembly and characterization of a minimal respiratory system that uses NADH as a fuel to produce ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate, and is thus capable of sustaining both upstream metabolic processes that rely on NAD+, and downstream energy-demanding processes that are powered by ATP hydrolysis. A detergent-mediated approach was used to co-reconstitute respiratory mitochondrial complex I and an F-type ATP synthase into nanosized liposomes. Addition of the alternative oxidase to the resulting proteoliposomes produced a minimal artificial 'organelle' that reproduces the energy-converting catalytic reactions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain: NADH oxidation, ubiquinone cycling, oxygen reduction, proton pumping, and ATP synthesis. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that our nanovesicles are capable of using an NAD+-linked substrate to drive cell-free protein expression. Our nanovesicles are both efficient and durable and may be applied to sustain artificial cells in future work.
  19. J Cell Biol. 2020 Jul 06. pii: e201905160. [Epub ahead of print]219(7):
      Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is prone to accumulate mutations and lacks conventional DNA repair mechanisms, deleterious mutations are exceedingly rare. How the transmission of detrimental mtDNA mutations is restricted through the maternal lineage is debated. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial fission, together with the lack of mtDNA replication, segregate mtDNA into individual organelles in the Drosophila early germarium. After mtDNA segregation, mtDNA transcription begins, which activates respiration. Mitochondria harboring wild-type genomes have functional electron transport chains and propagate more vigorously than mitochondria containing deleterious mutations in hetreoplasmic cells. Therefore, mtDNA expression acts as a stress test for the integrity of mitochondrial genomes and sets the stage for replication competition. Our observations support selective inheritance at the organelle level through a series of developmentally orchestrated mitochondrial processes. We also show that the Balbiani body has a minor role in mtDNA selective inheritance by supplying healthy mitochondria to the pole plasm. These two mechanisms may act synergistically to secure the transmission of functional mtDNA through Drosophila oogenesis.
  20. FASEB J. 2020 May 05.
      The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of autophagy inhibition on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and glucose homeostasis in young and aged mice. The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α regulates muscle oxidative phenotype which has been shown to be linked with basal autophagic capacity. Therefore, young and aged inducible muscle-specific PGC-1α knockout (iMKO) mice and littermate lox/lox controls were used in three separate experiments performed after either saline or colchicine injections on two consecutive days: (1) Euthanization in the basal state obtaining skeletal muscle for mitochondrial respirometry, (2) whole body glucose tolerance test, and (3) in vivo insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake into skeletal muscle. Muscle PGC-1α was not required for maintaining basal autophagy flux, regardless of age. Colchicine-induced inhibition of autophagy was associated with impairments of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, including reduced ADP sensitivity and altered mitochondrial redox balance in both young and aged mice. Colchicine treatment reduced the glucose tolerance in aged, but not young mice, and similarly in iMKO and lox/lox mice. Colchicine reduced insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake in soleus muscle in aged mice, independently of PGC-1α, and without affecting insulin-regulated phosphorylation of proximal or distal mediators of insulin signaling. In conclusion, the results indicate that autophagy regulates the mitochondrial ADP sensitivity and redox balance as well as whole body glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in aged mice, with no additional effects of inducible PGC-1α deletion.
    Keywords:  ADP sensitivity; ROS; aging; autophagy
  21. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jun 22. 375(1801): 20190414
      Lifespan in eukaryotic species can be prolonged by shifting from cellular states favouring growth to those favouring maintenance and stress resistance. For instance, perturbations in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) can shift cells into this latter state and extend lifespan. Because mitochondria rely on proteins synthesized from nuclear as well as mitochondrial DNA, they need to constantly send and receive messages from other compartments of the cell in order to function properly and maintain homeostasis, and lifespan extension is often dependent on this cross-compartmental signalling. Here, we describe the mechanisms of bi-directional mitochondrial cross-compartmental signalling resulting in proteostasis and longevity. These proteostasis mechanisms are highly context-dependent, governed by the origin and extent of stress. Furthermore, we discuss the translatability of these mechanisms and explore therapeutic developments, such as the antibiotic studies targeting mitochondria or mitochondria-derived peptides as therapies for age-related diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. This article is part of the theme issue 'Retrograde signalling from endosymbiotic organelles'.
    Keywords:  longevity; mitochondria; proteostasis; retrograde signalling
  22. Proteome Sci. 2020 ;18 4
      Background: Members of the family of NEK protein kinases (NIMA-related kinases) were described to have crucial roles in regulating different aspects of the cell cycle. NEK10 was reported to take part in the maintenance of the G2/M checkpoint after exposure to ultraviolet light. NEK1, NEK5, NEK2 and NEK4 proteins on the other hand have been linked to mitochondrial functions.Methods: HEK293T cells were transfected with FLAG empty vector or FLAG-NEK10 and treated or not with Zeocin. For proteomic analysis, proteins co-precipitated with the FLAG constructs were digested by trypsin, and then analyzed via LC-MS/MS. Proteomic data retrieved were next submitted to Integrated Interactome System analysis and differentially expressed proteins were attributed to Gene Ontology biological processes and assembled in protein networks by Cytoscape. For functional, cellular and molecular analyses two stable Nek10 silenced HeLa cell clones were established.
    Results: Here, we discovered the following possible new NEK10 protein interactors, related to mitochondrial functions: SIRT3, ATAD3A, ATAD3B, and OAT. After zeocin treatment, the spectrum of mitochondrial interactors increased by the proteins: FKBP4, TXN, PFDN2, ATAD3B, MRPL12, ATP5J, DUT, YWHAE, CS, SIRT3, HSPA9, PDHB, GLUD1, DDX3X, and APEX1. We confirmed the interaction of NEK10 and GLUD1 by proximity ligation assay and confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NEK10-depleted cells showed more fragmented mitochondria compared to the control cells. The knock down of NEK10 resulted further in changes in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, decreased citrate synthase activity, and culminated in inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, affecting particularly ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate and spare capacity. NEK10 depletion also decreased the ratio of mtDNA amplification, possibly due to DNA damage. However, the total mtDNA content increased, suggesting that NEK10 may be involved in the control of mtDNA content.
    Conclusions: Taken together these data place NEK10 as a novel regulatory player in mitochondrial homeostasis and energy metabolism.
    Keywords:  Interactomics; Mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism; NEK10; mtDNA
  23. FASEB J. 2020 May 04.
      Alpha intercalated cells (αICs) in the kidney collecting duct (CD) belong to a family of mitochondria rich cells (MRCs) and have a crucial role in acidifying the urine via apical V-ATPase pumps. The nature of metabolism in αICs and its relationship to transport was not well-understood. Here, using multiphoton live cell imaging in mouse kidney tissue, FIB-SEM, and other complementary techniques, we provide new insights into mitochondrial structure and function in αICs. We show that αIC mitochondria have a rounded structure and are not located in close proximity to V-ATPase containing vesicles. They display a bright NAD(P)H fluorescence signal and low uptake of voltage-dependent dyes, but are energized by a pH gradient. However, expression of complex V (ATP synthase) is relatively low in αICs, even when stimulated by metabolic acidosis. In contrast, anaerobic glycolytic capacity is surprisingly high, and sufficient to maintain intracellular calcium homeostasis in the presence of complete aerobic inhibition. Moreover, glycolysis is essential for V-ATPase-mediated proton pumping. Key findings were replicated in narrow/clear cells in the epididymis, also part of the MRC family. In summary, using a range of cutting-edge techniques to investigate αIC metabolism in situ, we have discovered that these mitochondria dense cells have a high glycolytic capacity.
    Keywords:  calcium; epididymis; mitochondria; multiphoton microscopy
  24. Cell Rep. 2020 May 05. pii: S2211-1247(20)30556-8. [Epub ahead of print]31(5): 107607
      The mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes are organized as individual complexes and supercomplexes, whose biogenesis remains to be fully understood. To disclose the role of the human Hypoxia Inducible Gene Domain family proteins HIGD1A and HIGD2A in these processes, we generate and characterize HIGD-knockout (KO) cell lines. We show that HIGD2A controls and coordinates the modular assembly of isolated and supercomplexed complex IV (CIV) by acting on the COX3 assembly module. In contrast, HIGD1A regulates CIII and CIII-containing supercomplex biogenesis by supporting the incorporation of UQCRFS1. HIGD1A also clusters with COX4-1 and COX5A CIV subunits and, when overexpressed, suppresses the CIV biogenesis defect of HIGD2A-KO cells. We conclude that HIGD1A and HIGD2A have both independent and overlapping functions in the biogenesis of respiratory complexes and supercomplexes. Our data illuminate the existence of multiple pathways to assemble these structures by dynamic HIGD-mediated CIV biogenesis, potentially to adapt to changing environmental and nutritional conditions.
    Keywords:  COX7A2L; HIGD1A; HIGD2A; OXPHOS; mitochondrial respiratory chain; respirasomes; supercomplexes
  25. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2020 May 05.
      Theoretical and experimental studies have revealed that that in the liver mitochondria an increase in the rate of free respiration in state 3 induced by protonophore uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol and сarbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone is equal to or slightly greater than the increase in respiration rate in state 4 induced by these uncouplers. In contrast to these protonophore uncouplers, the decoupler α,ω-tetradecanedioic acid, increasing the rate of respiration in state 4, does not significantly affect the rate of free respiration in state 3. We have proposed quantitative indicators that allow determining the constituent part of the rate of respiration in state 4, associated with the decoupling effect of the uncoupler. Using the example of palmitic acid, we have found out the fundamental possibility of the simultaneous functioning of uncouplers by two mechanisms: as protonophores and as decouplers. The data obtained contradict the delocalized version of Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, but are in complete agreement with its local version. It can be assumed that the F0F1-ATP synthase and nearby respiratory chain complexes form a local zone of coupled respiration and oxidative ATP synthesis (zones of oxidative phosphorylation). The uncoupler-induced stimulation of mitochondrial free respiration of mitochondria in state 3 is mainly due to the return of protons to the matrix in local zones, where the generation of a proton motive force (Δр) by respiratory chain complexes is associated with various transport processes, but not with ATP synthesis (zones of protonophore uncoupling). In contrast, respiratory stimulation in state 4 by decouplers is realized in local zones of oxidative phosphorylation by switching the respiratory chain complexes to the idle mode of operation in the absence of ATP synthesis.
    Keywords:  Chemiosmotic theory; Decoupling; Fatty acids; Mitochondria; Oxidative phosphorylation; Uncoupling
  26. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 180
      Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) has well-established roles in both mitochondrial fusion and apoptotic crista remodeling and is required for the maintenance and distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are essential for energy metabolism. However, the relationship between OPA1 and mitochondrial metabolism and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that OPA1-Exon4b modulates mitochondrial respiration and rescues inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), independent of mitochondrial fusion. OPA1-Exon4b is required for the maintenance of normal TFAM distribution and enhances mtDNA transcription by binding the D-loop of mtDNA. Finally, we show that mRNA levels of OPA1 isoforms containing Exon4b are specifically downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), leading to a reduction in Δψm. Thus, our study demonstrates a novel mitochondrial functional self-recovery pathway involving enhanced mtDNA transcription-mediated recovery of mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins. This mitochondrial fusion-independent pathway may contribute to mitochondrial multi-functional switches in tumorigenesis.
    Keywords:  Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1); hepatocellular carcinoma; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial fusion; mtDNA D-loop
  27. Genes Dev. 2020 May 07.
      Dysregulation of the DNA/RNA-binding protein FUS causes certain subtypes of ALS/FTD by largely unknown mechanisms. Recent evidence has shown that FUS toxic gain of function due either to mutations or to increased expression can disrupt critical cellular processes, including mitochondrial functions. Here, we demonstrate that in human cells overexpressing wild-type FUS or expressing mutant derivatives, the protein associates with multiple mRNAs, and these are enriched in mRNAs encoding mitochondrial respiratory chain components. Notably, this sequestration leads to reduced levels of the encoded proteins, which is sufficient to bring about disorganized mitochondrial networks, reduced aerobic respiration and increased reactive oxygen species. We further show that mutant FUS associates with mitochondria and with mRNAs encoded by the mitochondrial genome. Importantly, similar results were also observed in fibroblasts derived from ALS patients with FUS mutations. Finally, we demonstrate that FUS loss of function does not underlie the observed mitochondrial dysfunction, and also provides a mechanism for the preferential sequestration of the respiratory chain complex mRNAs by FUS that does not involve sequence-specific binding. Together, our data reveal that respiratory chain complex mRNA sequestration underlies the mitochondrial defects characteristic of ALS/FTD and contributes to the FUS toxic gain of function linked to this disease spectrum.
    Keywords:  ALS/FTD; FUS; respiratory chain complex mRNA
  28. Pancreatology. 2020 Apr 22. pii: S1424-3903(20)30143-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: /Objectives: We aimed to metabolically compare healthy primary human pancreatic epithelial cells (hPEC) to a pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1) and explore the effect on energy metabolism of exposing primary human myotubes to conditioned medium from hPEC and PANC-1 cells.METHODS: Differences in metabolism were examined with radiolabeled glucose, oleic acid and lactic acid, and by qPCR. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to study global protein secretion from the two cell types. Pathway analyses were performed.
    RESULTS: PANC-1 cells tended to have higher glucose uptake, production of lactic acid, and glucose oxidation compared to hPEC cells. PANC-1 cells had higher uptake but lower oxidation of oleic acid, and mitochondrial reserve capacity from oleic acid was lower in PANC-1 cells. These differences in energy metabolism were reflected by differences in gene expressions and pathway analyses of the secretome. Conditioned medium from PANC-1 cells attenuated oleic acid oxidation in primary human myotubes.
    CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic characterization of the PANC-1 cells revealed a glycolytic phenotype since they had an active glucose oxidation. Furthermore, PANC-1 cells showed a lower oleic acid oxidation and secreted a high amount of proteins into conditioned medium that also induced a reduced oleic acid oxidation in myotubes.
    Keywords:  Energy metabolism; Myotubes; Pancreatic cell models; Proteomics
  29. iScience. 2020 Apr 13. pii: S2589-0042(20)30246-7. [Epub ahead of print]23(5): 101061
      Despite advances in single-cell and molecular techniques, it is still unclear how to best quantify phenotypic heterogeneity in cancer cells that evolved beyond normal, known classifications. We present an approach to phenotypically characterize cells based on their activities rather than static classifications. We validated the detectability of specific activities (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, glycolysis) in single cells, using targeted RT-qPCR analyses and in vitro inductions. We analyzed 50 established activity signatures as a basis for phenotypic description in public data and computed cell-cell distances in 28,513 cells from 85 patients and 8 public datasets. Despite not relying on any classification, our measure correlated with standard diversity indices in populations of known structure. We identified bottlenecks as phenotypic diversity reduced upon colorectal cancer initiation. This suggests that focusing on what cancer cells do rather than what they are can quantify phenotypic diversity in universal fashion, to better understand and predict intra-tumor heterogeneity dynamics.
    Keywords:  Biological Sciences; Cancer; Cancer Systems Biology; Mathematical Biosciences
  30. Biomolecules. 2020 Apr 29. pii: E685. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      Several mitochondrial proteins, such as adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), aspartate/glutamate carrier, dicarboxylate carrier, and uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, are suggested to have dual transport functions. While the transport of charge (protons and anions) is characterized by an alteration in membrane conductance, investigating substrate transport is challenging. Currently, mainly radioactively labeled substrates are used, which are very expensive and require stringent precautions during their preparation and use. We present and evaluate a fluorescence-based method using Magnesium Green (MgGrTM), a Mg2+-sensitive dye suitable for measurement in liposomes. Given the different binding affinities of Mg2+ for ATP and ADP, changes in their concentrations can be detected. We obtained an ADP/ATP exchange rate of 3.49 ± 0.41 mmol/min/g of recombinant ANT1 reconstituted into unilamellar liposomes, which is comparable to values measured in mitochondria and proteoliposomes using a radioactivity assay. ADP/ATP exchange calculated from MgGrTM fluorescence solely depends on the ANT1 content in liposomes and is inhibited by the ANT-specific inhibitors, bongkrekic acid and carboxyatractyloside. The application of MgGrTM to investigate ADP/ATP exchange rates contributes to our understanding of ANT function in mitochondria and paves the way for the design of other substrate transport assays.
    Keywords:  fluorescence; magnesium greenTM fluorescent dye; mitochondria; model systems; radioactivity; recombinant adenine nucleotide translocase; reconstitution into liposomes
  31. J Biol Chem. 2020 May 05. pii: jbc.RA119.012127. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene expression is coordinately regulated both pre- and post-transcriptionally, and its perturbation can lead to human pathologies. Mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (mt-rRNAs) undergo a series of nucleotide modifications after release from polycistronic mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) precursors, which is essential for mitochondrial ribosomal biogenesis. Cytosine N4-methylation (m4C) at position 839 (m4C839) of the 12S small subunit (SSU) mt-rRNA was identified decades ago; however, its biogenesis and function have not been elucidated in detail. Here, using several approaches, including immunofluorescence, RNA immunoprecipitation and methylation assays, and bisulfite mapping, we demonstrate that human methyltransferase-like 15 (METTL15), encoded by a nuclear gene, is responsible for 12S mt-rRNA methylation at m4C839 both in vivo and in vitro We tracked the evolutionary history of RNA m4C methyltransferases and identified a difference in substrate preference between METTL15 and its bacterial ortholog rsmH. Additionally, unlike the very modest impact of a loss of m4C methylation in bacterial SSU rRNA on the ribosome, we found that METTL15 depletion results in impaired translation of mitochondrial protein-coding mRNAs and decreases mitochondrial respiration capacity. Our findings reveal that human METTL15 is required for mitochondrial function, delineate the evolution of methyltransferase substrate specificities and modification patterns in rRNA, and highlight a differential impact of m4C methylation on prokaryotic ribosomes and eukaryotic mitochondrial ribosomes.
    Keywords:  RNA methylation; RNA methyltransferase; RNA modification; m4C methylation; mito-ribosome biogenesis; mitochondria; mitochondrial translation; mt-12S rRNA; posttranscriptional modification; ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) (ribosomal RNA)
  32. JNCI Cancer Spectr. 2020 Apr;4(2): pkaa007
      Obesity confers an increased incidence and poorer clinical prognosis in more than 10 cancer types. Paradoxically, obesity may provide protection from poor outcomes in lung cancer. Mechanisms for the obesity-cancer links are not fully elucidated, with altered glucose metabolism being a promising candidate. Using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography/computed tomography images from The Cancer Imaging Archive, we explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and glucose metabolism in several cancers. In 188 patients (BMI mean [SD] = 27.7 [5.1], range = 17.4-49.3 kg/m2), higher BMI was associated with greater tumor glucose uptake in breast cancer (r = 0.36; P = .02) and with lower tumor glucose uptake in non-small cell lung cancer (r = -0.26; P = .048) using two-sided Pearson correlations. No relationship was observed in soft tissue sarcoma or squamous cell carcinoma. Harnessing the National Cancer Institute's open-access database, we demonstrate altered tumor glucose metabolism as a potential mechanism for the detrimental and protective effects of obesity on breast and lung cancer, respectively.
  33. Life Sci. 2020 May 03. pii: S0024-3205(20)30485-9. [Epub ahead of print] 117737
      Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), a molecular chaperone, is a major member of the mitochondrial heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) family. Studies have shown that TRAP1 can prevent hypoxia-induced damage to cardiomyocytes, maintain cardiomyocytes viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, and protect cardiomyocytes. In addition, it can also protect astrocytes from ischemic damage in vitro. In recent years, there have been many new discoveries in tumors. The abnormal expression of TRAP1 is closely related to the occurrence and development of various tumors. TRAP1 protein seems to be a central regulatory protein, involved in the activation of various oncogenic proteins and signaling pathways, and has a balanced function at tumor transformation and the intersection of different metabolic processes. Targeting its chaperone activity and molecular interactions can destroy the metabolism and survival adaptability of tumor cells, paving the way for the development of highly selective mitochondrial anti-tumor drugs. Moreover, the combination of TRAP1 inhibition and current traditional cancer therapies has shown promising applications. These findings have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Therefore, we reviewed the recently identified functions of the molecular chaperone TRAP1 in cancer development and progression, as well as the discovery and recent advances in selective TRAP1 inhibitors as anticancer drug therapies, opening up new attractive prospects for exploring strategies for targeting TRAP1 as a tumor cell target.
    Keywords:  Chemoresistance; Metabolic reprogramming; TRAP1; TRAP1 inhibitors; Tumorgenesis
  34. Mol Med Rep. 2020 May 05.
      Data for p53 mutation in prostate cancer in The Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that >85% of p53 mutations occurred in the p53 DNA binding domain. These mutations not only severely damage the function of the p53 protein, but also reduce the disease‑free survival of patients. Peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ coactivator‑1α (PGC‑1α) is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function and is highly expressed in prostate cancer PC3 and DU145 cells with p53 deletion or mutation. However, whether p53 negatively regulates PGC‑1α in prostate cancer cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, p53 overexpression was induced in prostate cancer PC3 cells. Subsequently, the expression levels of PGC‑1α and alterations to mitochondrial function were assessed. Moreover, PGC‑1α was activated in prostate cancer PC3 cells using ZLN005 to investigate alterations to mitochondrial function and cell apoptosis. The present study revealed that p53 decreased the expression and nuclear localization of the PGC‑1α protein and induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Activation of PGC‑1α partially reversed p53‑mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of the p53/PGC‑1α pathway on mitochondrial biogenesis and fission‑/fusion‑associated gene and protein expression were associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. p53/PGC‑1α‑mediated mitochondrial dysfunction promoted apoptosis of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results indicated that PGC‑1α is an essential target of p53‑induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and indicated that targeting PGC‑1α may provide a new therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.
  35. Biomolecules. 2020 Apr 30. pii: E696. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) has emerged as an effective drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma even though many patients relapse from BTZ therapy. The present study investigated the metabolic pathways underlying the acquisition of bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma. We used two different clones of multiple myeloma cell lines exhibiting different sensitivities to BTZ (U266 and U266-R) and compared them in terms of metabolic profile, mitochondrial fitness and redox balance homeostasis capacity. Our results showed that the BTZ-resistant clone (U266-R) presented increased glycosylated UDP-derivatives when compared to BTZ-sensitive cells (U266), thus also suggesting higher activities of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), regulating not only protein O- and N-glycosylation but also mitochondrial functions. Notably, U266-R displayed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial dynamics associated with stronger antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, U266-R maintained a significantly higher concentration of substrates for protein glycosylation when compared to U266, particularly for UDP-GlcNac, thus further suggesting the importance of glycosylation in the BTZ pharmacological response. Moreover, BTZ-treated U266-R showed significantly higher ATP/ADP ratios and levels of ECP and also exhibited increased mitochondrial fitness and antioxidant response. In conclusions, our findings suggest that the HBP may play a major role in mitochondrial fitness, driving BTZ resistance in multiple myeloma and thus representing a possible target for new drug development for BTZ-resistant patients.
    Keywords:  bortezomib; hexosamine biosynthetic pathway; metabolism; multiple myeloma; oxidative stress
  36. Br J Cancer. 2020 May 05.
      BACKGROUND: Antioxidase alleviates the accumulation of radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore has strong connections with radioresistance. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) facilitates the turnover of antioxidase, but its role in radiotherapeutic efficiency in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) still remains elusive.METHODS: The involvement of IDH2 in radiotherapeutic efficacy in ESCC was investigated in vitro and vivo by IDH2 knockdown. IDH2 expression in biopsy specimens of 141 patients was identified to evaluate its clinical significance.
    RESULTS: We found that Kyse510 and Kyse140 cells were more radioresistant and had higher IDH2 expression. In these two cell lines, IDH2 knockdown intensified the radiation-induced ROS overload and oxidative damage on lipid, protein, and nucleic acids. In addition, IDH2 silencing aggravated the radiation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis and ultimately promoted radiosensitisation via inhibiting AKT phosphorylation in a ROS-dependent manner. Furthermore, IDH2 depletion facilitated the radiation-induced growth inhibition and cell apoptosis in murine xenografts. Finally, IDH2 expression was correlated with definite chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) efficacy and served as an independent prognostic factor for survival of ESCC patients.
    CONCLUSIONS: IDH2 plays a key role in the radioresistance of ESCC. Targeting IDH2 could be a promising regimen to improve radiotherapeutic efficiency in ESCC patients.
  37. JCI Insight. 2020 May 07. pii: 132747. [Epub ahead of print]5(9):
      Doxorubicin (DOX), a chemotherapeutic agent, induces a cardiotoxicity referred to as doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy (DIC). This cardiotoxicity often limits chemotherapy for malignancies and is associated with poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this cardiotoxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that DOX downregulated glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) and induced excessive lipid peroxidation through DOX-Fe2+ complex in mitochondria, leading to mitochondria-dependent ferroptosis; we also show that mitochondria-dependent ferroptosis is a major cause of DOX cardiotoxicity. In DIC mice, the left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly impaired, and fibrosis and TUNEL+ cells were induced at day 14. Additionally, GPx4, an endogenous regulator of ferroptosis, was downregulated, accompanied by the accumulation of lipid peroxides, especially in mitochondria. These cardiac impairments were ameliorated in GPx4 Tg mice and exacerbated in GPx4 heterodeletion mice. In cultured cardiomyocytes, GPx4 overexpression or iron chelation targeting Fe2+ in mitochondria prevented DOX-induced ferroptosis, demonstrating that DOX triggered ferroptosis in mitochondria. Furthermore, concomitant inhibition of ferroptosis and apoptosis with ferrostatin-1 and zVAD-FMK fully prevented DOX-induced cardiomyocyte death. Our findings suggest that mitochondria-dependent ferroptosis plays a key role in progression of DIC and that ferroptosis is the major form of regulated cell death in DOX cardiotoxicity.
    Keywords:  Cardiology; Cardiovascular disease