bims-metlip Biomed News
on Methods and protocols in metabolomics and lipidomics
Issue of 2022‒07‒17
25 papers selected by
Sofia Costa

  1. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2022 Jul 06. pii: S0731-7085(22)00351-X. [Epub ahead of print]219 114930
      Metabolomics is an omics strategy to study the metabolite alteration in the biological system. Unbiased observation of the metabolite level is essential for targeted metabolite quantification and untargeted metabolic profiling. State-of-the-art instruments and versatile tools have been developed for accurate observation of metabolic alterations in various studies. Several analytical pitfalls, such as sample overloading and signal-saturation-induced bias, have been revealed and addressed. In this study, we proposed incomplete-metabolite-extraction-caused bias is also an important issue that results in biased observation when performing metabolomics. In the demonstration example, numerous metabolites exhibited no significant difference between extracted plasma samples with different plasma contents, which is attributed to incomplete-metabolite-extraction-caused bias and matrix effect. Matrix effect is a well-known factor that result in biased observation, it can be reduced by sample dilution and compensated by using stable isotope labelled internal standards. The detection of metabolite signals in the following consecutive extractions provided further evidence of incomplete metabolite extraction. The completeness of metabolite extraction is crucial for unbiased observation of metabolic profile changes. To address this issue, we optimized the extraction time and methanol volume to reduce the incomplete-metabolite-extraction-caused bias and evaluated the metabolite signals in consecutive extractions. Methanol extraction performed with a plasma-to-methanol ratio of 1:14 resulted in metabolite responses of less than 18.1 % in the second extractions observed by metabolomic profiling. Finally, the optimized sample preparation procedure and untargeted profiling platform were applied to detect metabolite alterations associated with patients with cerebrovascular diseases and several features with significant difference were successfully identified. This study revealed and evaluated the bias caused by incomplete metabolite extraction and matrix effect in the commonly used methanol extraction method for human plasma sample preparation for metabolomics. We anticipate the proposed metabolite extraction evaluation method could benefit more clinical and biological metabolomics studies.
    Keywords:  Cerebrovascular diseases; Incomplete metabolite extraction; Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry; Metabolomics; Plasma
  2. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2022 Jul 16.
      Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the end products of the fermentation of complex carbohydrates by the gut microbiota. Although SCFAs are recognized as important markers to elucidate the link between gut health and disease, it has been difficult to analyze SCFAs with mass spectrometry technologies due to their poor ionization efficiency and high volatility. Here, we present a novel and sensitive method for the quantification of SCFAs, including C2-C6 SCFAs and their hydroxy derivatives, by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) upon N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMED) derivatization with a run time of 10 min. Moreover, the quantification method of DMED-derivatized SCFAs in intestinal contents using isotope-labeled internal standards was also established. The method validation was performed by analyzing spiked intestinal samples; the limits of detection and quantification of SCFAs with this method were found to be 0.5 and 5 fmol, respectively; the recovery was greater than 80% and good linearity (0.9932 to 0.9979) of calibration curves was obtained over the range from 0.005 to 5000 pmol/μL; the intraday and interday precisions were achieved in the range of 1-5%. Furthermore, the validated method was applied to analyze SCFAs in the cecum and colon contents of mice infected with the influenza virus. The results showed that the concentration of most of the SCFAs tested here decreased significantly in a time-dependent manner after the infection, suggesting a possibility that SCFAs in intestinal samples could be used as severe disease markers. Overall, we here successfully developed a simple, fast, and sensitive method for SCFA analysis by LC-MS/MS combined with DMED derivatization. The method for the quantification of SCFAs will be a useful tool for both basic research and clinical studies.
    Keywords:  Colon and cecum contents; DMED derivatization; Influenza infection; Liquid chromatography; Mass spectrometry; SCFAs
  3. Mass Spectrom Rev. 2022 Jul 13. e21794
      Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has become a widespread analytical technique to perform nonlabeled spatial molecular identification. The Achilles' heel of MSI is the annotation and identification of molecular species due to intrinsic limitations of the technique (lack of chromatographic separation and the difficulty to apply tandem MS). Successful strategies to perform annotation and identification combine extra analytical steps, like using orthogonal analytical techniques to identify compounds; with algorithms that integrate the spectral and spatial information. In this review, we discuss different experimental strategies and bioinformatics tools to annotate and identify compounds in MSI experiments. We target strategies and tools for small molecule applications, such as lipidomics and metabolomics. First, we explain how sample preparation and the acquisition process influences annotation and identification, from sample preservation to the use of orthogonal techniques. Then, we review twelve software tools for annotation and identification in MSI. Finally, we offer perspectives on two current needs of the MSI community: the adaptation of guidelines for communicating confidence levels in identifications; and the creation of a standard format to store and exchange annotations and identifications in MSI.
    Keywords:  identification confidence levels; mass spectrometry imaging; metabolomics; molecular annotation; molecular identification; software
  4. Nat Protoc. 2022 Jul 13.
      Lipidomics studies suffer from analytical and annotation challenges because of the great structural similarity of many of the lipid species. To improve lipid characterization and annotation capabilities beyond those afforded by traditional mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods, multidimensional separation methods such as those integrating liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, collision-induced dissociation and MS (LC-IMS-CID-MS) may be used. Although LC-IMS-CID-MS and other multidimensional methods offer valuable hydrophobicity, structural and mass information, the files are also complex and difficult to assess. Thus, the development of software tools to rapidly process and facilitate confident lipid annotations is essential. In this Protocol Extension, we use the freely available, vendor-neutral and open-source software Skyline to process and annotate multidimensional lipidomic data. Although Skyline ( ) was established for targeted processing of LC-MS-based proteomics data, it has since been extended such that it can be used to analyze small-molecule data as well as data containing the IMS dimension. This protocol uses Skyline's recently expanded capabilities, including small-molecule spectral libraries, indexed retention time and ion mobility filtering, and provides a step-by-step description for importing data, predicting retention times, validating lipid annotations, exporting results and editing our manually validated 500+ lipid library. Although the time required to complete the steps outlined here varies on the basis of multiple factors such as dataset size and familiarity with Skyline, this protocol takes ~5.5 h to complete when annotations are rigorously verified for maximum confidence.
  5. STAR Protoc. 2022 Jul 11. pii: S2666-1667(22)00411-7. [Epub ahead of print]3(3): 101531
      Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) can measure the intracellular amount of highly polar and charged metabolites; liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can quantify hydrophobic metabolites. A comprehensive metabolome analysis requires independent sample preparation for LC-MS and CE-MS. Here, we present a protocol to prepare for sequentially analyzing the metabolites from one sample. Here we describe the steps for breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 cells, but the protocol can be applied to other cell types.
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Cell culture; Mass Spectrometry; Metabolism; Metabolomics
  6. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2022 Jul 12. 23(6): 192
      The purpose of this study was to develop a validated LC-MS/MS analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of a large cassette containing a wide range of drug substances with positive, negative, or neutral charge and further apply the method to assess octanol partition coefficient and eye tissue recovery of the drug cassette. A twenty-seven-drug cassette (N-in-one) including beta blockers, NSAIDs, and corticosteroids that range from extremely hydrophilic (sotalol) to very hydrophobic (triamcinolone hexacetanide) was used to develop an LC-MS/MS assay using QTrap 4500. An LC-MS/MS method based on gradient elution, with an eighteen-minute run time including equilibration time, was developed and validated for the rapid and simultaneous quantitation of drugs with a wide range of lipophilicities. Scheduled multiple reaction monitoring was used to maximize the scan time for each peak, ensuring sufficient scans. Method validation included lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) and intra- and inter-day reproducibility. The LLOQ ranged from 0.5 (sotalol) to 40 fmols (dexamethasone) on column with a %RSD < 20%. The method was tested by measuring octanol:water and octanol:buffer (PBS, pH 7.4) partition coefficients and by quantitation of the drug cassette extracted from rabbit aqueous humor and cornea. Measured partition coefficients correlated positively with predicted values (r2=0.5-0.7). Drug recovery was ≥ 79% from aqueous humor and between 61 and 67% on average from cornea. A rapid, sensitive LC-MS/MS method suitable for N-in-one drug delivery screening was developed for simultaneous quantification of twenty-seven drugs in aqueous solutions and eye tissues.
    Keywords:  Beta blockers; Corticosteroids; Drug cassette; LC-MS/MS method; NSAIDs; Ocular drug delivery; Reproducibility
  7. J Chromatogr A. 2022 Jul 01. pii: S0021-9673(22)00489-7. [Epub ahead of print]1677 463296
      Nucleotide sugars and more specifically UDP-sugars, represent a major source of energy, key components of extracellular matrix, glycosylation and glucuronidation reactions, and emerge as important signaling molecules through P2Y14 purinergic receptor. Despite their pivotal role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes and their potential as biomarkers, UDP-sugar composition of biological fluids remains poorly studied. We developed a liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode for the simultaneous quantification of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in human blood and urine. Relative to existing methods, UDP-sugar recovery was enhanced with perchloric acid and ammonium formate during sample preparation that also significantly improved chromatographic stability. Performance of the assay was validated and allowed the absolute quantification of UDP-sugars with a wide dynamic range (0.1 to 200 ng/mL) using stable deuterated isotopes as internal standards. We report a fast (13 min run) and sensitive method (limit of detection: 10-30 pg/mL; lower limit of quantification ≤ 0.2 ng/ml) to simultaneously quantify five UDP-sugars in a low volume (100 µL) of plasma and urine. Findings identified sex-specific profiles in both plasma and urine of healthy subjects. Applicability was also successfully demonstrated in specimens collected from individuals displaying a variety of medical conditions. This validated method was optimized for a high-throughput assessment of UDP-sugars in specimens of clinical importance and enabled an accurate and reliable absolute quantification of important UDP-sugars in diverse clinical contexts.
    Keywords:  Biomarker; Mass spectrometry; UDP-glucose; UDP-glucuronic acid; UDP-sugars
  8. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2022 May 05. pii: S1570-0232(22)00183-0. [Epub ahead of print]1206 123279
      Routine toxicological analysis requires broad screening for a large number of therapeutically prescribed and other compounds, and/or their metabolites. This article specifically focuses on three classes of psychoactive substances: antidepressants (ADs), antipsychotics (APs) and benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (BZDs). Two screening methods were compared for their ease-of-use in a routine setting, based upon the analysis of 105 medico-legal case samples. Analytes of interest were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and separated using liquid chromatography with a total run time of 12 min per sample. A first detection method used targeted triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, operated in triggered multiple reaction monitoring mode (tMRM). False negative results were noted for 15% of the total number of detected analytes only, the majority of which were either present at sub- to low therapeutic levels or were metabolites of other analytes in the samples. The occurrence of false positive results was rare. A second screening method used quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF) for untargeted data acquisition. Data analysis was facilitated by the creation of an in-house, subset mass spectral database. As was seen for the tMRM screening, false negative results were observed in less than 20% of the total number of detected analytes, either for compounds at low concentrations or of which metabolites could be identified in the samples. More false positive results were observed due to an observed bias for prothipendyl. Determination of the exact concentration in a sample may only be required depending on the specific case circumstances. For this purpose, semi-quantification using each of the screening methods was investigated. Excellent results were observed using the tMRM method in combination with a small number of labelled internal standards (n = 12). Semi-quantification using the QTOF screening method was more laborious, but limited results on selected compounds indicated equally good results. Overall, the developed semi-quantitative screening methods performed well and - following further validation on case samples - could be implemented for most compounds in routine toxicological analysis without the need for highly trained or specialised personnel.
    Keywords:  Forensic toxicological screening; High-resolution mass spectrometry; Liquid chromatography; Psychoactive pharmaceuticals; Semi-quantification; Triggered multiple reaction monitoring
  9. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2022 Jul 13.
      Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, with an increasing incidence in recent years due to the aging population. Genetic mutations alone only explain <10% of PD cases, while environmental factors, including small molecules, may play a significant role in PD. In the present work, 22 plasma (11 PD, 11 control) and 19 feces samples (10 PD, 9 control) were analyzed by non-target high-resolution mass spectrometry (NT-HRMS) coupled to two liquid chromatography (LC) methods (reversed-phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)). A cheminformatics workflow was optimized using open software (MS-DIAL and patRoon) and open databases (all public MSP-formatted spectral libraries for MS-DIAL, PubChemLite for Exposomics, and the LITMINEDNEURO list for patRoon). Furthermore, five disease-specific databases and three suspect lists (on PD and related disorders) were developed, using PubChem functionality to identifying relevant unknown chemicals. The results showed that non-target screening with the larger databases generally provided better results compared with smaller suspect lists. However, two suspect screening approaches with patRoon were also good options to study specific chemicals in PD. The combination of chromatographic methods (RP and HILIC) as well as two ionization modes (positive and negative) enhanced the coverage of chemicals in the biological samples. While most metabolomics studies in PD have focused on blood and cerebrospinal fluid, we found a higher number of relevant features in feces, such as alanine betaine or nicotinamide, which can be directly metabolized by gut microbiota. This highlights the potential role of gut dysbiosis in PD development.
    Keywords:  Exposomics; Gut dysbiosis; Liquid chromatography (LC); Metabolomics; Non-target high-resolution mass spectrometry (NT-HRMS); Parkinson’s disease
  10. BMC Bioinformatics. 2022 Jul 10. 23(1): 270
      BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a primary omics topic, which occupies an important position in both clinical applications and basic researches for metabolic signatures and biomarkers. Unfortunately, the relevant studies are challenged by the batch effect caused by many external factors. In last decade, the technique of deep learning has become a dominant tool in data science, such that one may train a diagnosis network from a known batch and then generalize it to a new batch. However, the batch effect inevitably hinders such efforts, as the two batches under consideration can be highly mismatched.RESULTS: We propose an end-to-end deep learning framework, for joint batch effect removal and then classification upon metabolomics data. We firstly validate the proposed deep learning framework on a public CyTOF dataset as a simulated experiment. We also visually compare the t-SNE distribution and demonstrate that our method effectively removes the batch effects in latent space. Then, for a private MALDI MS dataset, we have achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy, with about 5.1 ~ 7.9% increase on average over state-of-the-art methods.
    CONCLUSIONS: Both experiments conclude that our method performs significantly better in classification than conventional methods benefitting from the effective removal of batch effect.
    Keywords:  Batch effect; Deep learning; Diagnostic accuracy; Metabolomics
  11. Front Aging. 2022 ;3 851073
      Lipids participate in all cellular processes. Diverse methods have been developed to investigate lipid composition and distribution in biological samples to understand the effect of lipids across an organism's lifespan. Here, we summarize the advanced techniques for studying lipids, including mass spectrometry-based lipidomics, lipid imaging, chemical-based lipid analysis and lipid engineering and their advantages. We further discuss the limitation of the current methods to gain an in-depth knowledge of the role of lipids in aging, and the possibility of lipid-based therapy in aging-related diseases.
    Keywords:  aging; lipidomic; lipids; review; technology
  12. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2022 Jul 12.
      The multiclass determination of antibiotic residues in the soil is challenging because of its complex physicochemical properties. In this study, a simple analytical method was developed to simultaneously extract and determine 58 antibiotics from the soil. A novel acidity-regulated extraction-partition-concentration protocol was established for the simultaneous extraction of five classes (23 sulfonamides, 18 quinolones, five tetracyclines, eight macrolides, and four chloramphenicols) of antibiotics from the soil. Compared to traditional methods, the sample preparation efficiency was significantly improved by four times (45 min vs. 230 min) by optimizing the extraction method and omitting the time-consuming solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized to determine the 58 antibiotics in a single run by applying positive/negative switching acquisition mode in less than 10 min with the baseline separation of sulfameter and sulfamethoxypyridazine. Suitable recoveries, ranging between 60 and 120%, were obtained for most antibiotics, with RSD <20%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method were 2 μg/kg and 5 μg/kg. Thus, this study provides a simple, reliable, and economical method for accurately and rapidly determining a multiclass of antibiotics in the soil.
    Keywords:  Acidity regulation; Antibiotics; Soil; UHPLC-MS/MS
  13. J Chromatogr A. 2022 Jun 27. pii: S0021-9673(22)00481-2. [Epub ahead of print]1677 463288
      In this study, a new rapid and inexpensive filter solid-phase extraction method (FSPE) was developed for the extraction and separation of five perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (namely, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanic acid) from milk samples. Commercial nylon 66 syringe filters were used as adsorbents without additional modification. The proposed method could achieve the fast adsorption of analytes by benefitting from the advantages of using the nylon 66 filter membrane on PFCAs with multiple adsorption interactions, namely, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. The FSPE was designed to achieve the rapid isolation of analytes based on the rapid solid-liquid separation while using the solid-phase extraction disk. PFCAs residues in milk were extracted by first flowing the samples through a nylon 66 syringe filter from top to bottom. Double contact desorption with methanol was then accomplished by pulling and pushing the syringe, followed by derivatization with acetyl chloride-methanol. Finally, the extracted PFCAs residues were monitored using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) quantification. Under optimal conditions, the established method presented good linearity (correlation coefficient ≥ 0.9996), precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 13%), accuracy (81-105%), sensitivity (limits of quantification: 4-18 ng kg-1) and extraction performance (10 min).
    Keywords:  Filter solid-phase extraction; GC-MS/MS analysis; Milk sample; Perfluorinated carboxylic acids
  14. J Chromatogr Sci. 2022 Jul 14. pii: bmac059. [Epub ahead of print]
      A sensitive and robust method for determination and quantification of potential genotoxic impurities in sartans has been developed. These impurities need to be controlled at trace levels during quantification in drug substances and drug products for safe consumption. Recent regulatory requirements also suggested the need to have highly sensitive analytical method for trace level quantification of nitrosamine impurities. In this paper, we have described a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for six potential genotoxic nitrosamine impurities: N-Nitroso dimethyl amine (NDMA), N-Nitroso diethyl amine (NDEA), N-Nitroso Ethyl Iso propylamine (NIPEA), N-Nitroso-Nmethyl-4-aminobutyric acid (NMBA) N-Nitroso diisopropylamino (NDIPA) and N-Nitroso dibutyl amine (NDBA) in Azilsartan (AZL), Valsartan (VAL), Telmisartan (TEL), Olmesartan (OLM), Losartan (LOS) and Irbesartan (IRB) with a limit of quantification of less than 0.003 ppm. Chromatographic separation is achieved using Poroshell HPH- C18, 150 × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm column with 0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase A and 0.1% formic acid in methanol as mobile phase B at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min using gradient mode of elution at a total run time of 20 min. Six nitrosamine impurities are ionized and quantified in positive mode of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization using multiple reaction monitoring. As per ICH guidelines, method validation is performed and evaluated the limit of quantification and detection and found to give good S/N ratios with good linearity range of 0.003-0.045 ppm with regression coefficient > 0.999 for all the six nitrosamine impurities. Method recoveries are also established using three-step sample preparation and are found to be satisfactory within 80-120%. The single method can be used routinely applied for the detection of nitrosamines in AZL, VAL, TEL, OLM, LOS and IRB.
  15. Anal Lett. 2022 ;55(5): 796-811
      Many environmental chemicals are known to disrupt thyroid function. Measurement of thyroid hormones in animal studies provides useful information to understand the effects of environmental chemicals on thyroid hormone metabolism. We report an efficient method, utilizing a protein precipitation followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, to quantitate total 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (triiodothyronine, T3) and total 3,3',5,5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (thyroxine, T4) in rodent serum. The use of synthetic serum for calibration standards eliminated the interferences from endogenous total T3 and T4 and allowed the experimental lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) to be set at the required concentration (T3, 20 ng/dL; T4, 0.5 μg/dL) to allow quantitation of endogenous concentrations. The method was linear (r>0.99; range 20.0-600 ng/dL T3, 0.500-15 μg/dL T4) with good assay recoveries (90.4-107%) for both analytes. Intra- and inter-day accuracy, estimated as percent relative error, were ≤ ±7.6% and intra- and inter-day precision, estimated as the relative standard deviation, were ≤ 5.3% for both analytes. The method may easily be adapted to a well-plate format thereby further improving the efficiency. Total T3 and T4 concentrations were stable in male and female rat and mouse serum when stored in the freezer (~ -70 °C) for up to 62 d with determined values within 92.8-111% of day 0 for both analytes. The method can be extended to quantitate total T3 and T4 concentrations in humans or other species with minimal optimization.
    Keywords:  3,3’,5-triiodo-L-thyronine; 3’,5,5’-tetraiodo-L-thyronine; rodent; serum; thyroxine; triiodothyronine; ultraperformance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)
  16. Anal Sci. 2022 Jul 16.
      Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Due to the narrow therapeutic index of vancomycin, it is necessary to develop a sensitive and reliable analytical method to monitor the drug concentration in plasma. A novel method based on surface molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of vancomycin in plasma sample was developed. The plasma sample was cleaned up through the solid-phase extraction process before the analysis. The calibration standard of vancomycin in plasma ranged between 1 and 100 ng/mL, and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9993. The average recoveries were from 94.3 to 104.0%, and the precision was less than 10.5%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.5 ng/mL and 1 ng/mL, respectively. The method validated was successfully used for the detection of vancomycin in mice after oral administration.
    Keywords:  LC–MS/MS; Plasma; Solid-phase extraction; Surface molecularly imprinted polymers; Vancomycin
  17. Front Nutr. 2022 ;9 906859
      A chiral separation method of naringenin in citrus pulp and peel was established using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in this study. The liquid-phase conditions for separation were Chiralpak IG-3 column at 40°C, mobile phase of methanol, and 0.1% formic acid solution (85/15; v/v). Isovolumetric elution can complete the detection within 5 min. Considering the matrix effect, the matrix standard calibration curve was used for sample quantification. Quantitation was achieved by fitting a calibration curve using a standard matrix. The mean overall recoveries of the two enantiomers from orange pulp were 91.0-110.0% and orange peel were 85.3-110.3%, with relative standard deviations of 1.5-3.8 and 0.9-3.6% at the 0.5, 2.5, 50, and 250 μg/kg levels, respectively. The limit of quantification for all enantiomers in the citrus matrix did not exceed 0.5 μg/kg. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of the naringenin enantiomer was determined by combining experimental and predicted electron circular dichroism spectroscopy, and it was confirmed on a Chiralpak IG-3 column that the first eluting enantiomer was (S)-naringenin. The determination of chiral naringenin content in actual citrus samples showed that the naringenin content in hybrid citrus and citrus pulp was significantly higher than that in pomelo. The method established in this study can be used for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in citrus, which is beneficial to variety selection.
    Keywords:  absolute configuration; chiral analysis; citrus; naringenin; ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
  18. Talanta. 2022 Jul 11. pii: S0039-9140(22)00531-8. [Epub ahead of print]250 123735
      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are regulated contaminants usually investigated in sediments. Conventional approaches often use GC-MS to analyse them with a preliminary extraction step which can be solvent- and time-consuming. Here two extraction methodologies were optimized using experimental designs, and compared: microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and thermal desorption (TD); the latter was rarely used for sediments analyses. Several factors that may influence extraction recoveries were studied including matrix parameters (mass, organic matter (OM) content) and processing parameters. A definitive screening design DSD was performed to screen the 6 most influencing factors and model the extraction recoveries using TD. Whatever the OM content, a minimum sediment mass (5 mg) was better for an optimal extraction, with a minimum temperature rate (15 °C min-1), a maximum final temperature (350 °C) associated with a minimum hold time (5 min), and a maximum vent flow (150 mL min-1) between the TD unit and the cryogenic trap. Thereafter matrix effects were evaluated using standard addition, and quality assurance and control were implemented for comparing MAE and TD. TD-GC-MS/MS sensitivity was higher than MAE-GC-MS with detection limits in the range 5-1160 pg and 20-125 pg for PAHs and PCBs, respectively. When considering the appropriate strategy for quantification, TD was also reliable for sediments analysis. Although MAE was less sensitive to matrix effects, TD could significantly improve the analytical process, due to direct coupling with GC-MS/MS and complete automation. Moreover, TD offered possible higher spatial resolution than MAE, particularly for sediment cores analysis, due to the 1000-times lower sample size. At last, TD-GC-MS/MS appeared as a greener analytical procedure.
    Keywords:  Experimental designs; Matrix effects; Polyaromatic compounds; Quantification strategy; Sediments; Thermodesorption GC-MS
  19. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2022 Jul 04. pii: S1570-0232(22)00258-6. [Epub ahead of print]1206 123354
      Amphotericin B is an antifungal and antiparasitic drug used in first-line treatment of the parasitic neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Liposomal amphotericin B is currently studied for the treatment of cutaneous and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, where the dermis of the skin is infected with Leishmania parasites. For the optimization of known treatment regimens, accurate target-site concentrations of the drug are required. To date, no assay was available to assess human skin concentrations of amphotericin B. We here present a bioanalytical assay for the quantification of amphotericin B in 4-mm human skin biopsies. Human skin biopsies were homogenized by overnight digestion using collagenase A and were processed afterwards by simple protein precipitation using methanol. Separation and detection were achieved using a Gemini C18 column with slightly acidic chromatographic conditions and a quadrupole - linear ion trap mass spectrometer, respectively. The method was validated in digestion solution over a range of 10-2,000 ng/mL using natamycin as internal standard, with a correlation coefficient (r2) of at least 0.9974. The assay performance, accuracy and precision, were acceptable over the validated range, using international (EMA and FDA) acceptance criteria. In the skin tissue extracts, amphotericin B ion enhancement was observed, however, the internal standard (IS) corrected for this effect hence calibration standards in digestion solvent could be used as a surrogate matrix for the quantification in skin tissue. Sample preparation recoveries were low (around 27%) because of degradation of amphotericin B during digestion and sample preparation processes, albeit highly reproducible, without compromising the accuracy and precision of the method. Using this assay, amphotericin B could be detected and quantified in skin biopsies originating from treated Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis patients.
    Keywords:  Amphotericin B; Assay: Bioanalytical validation; Human skin tissue; Leishmaniasis; Tandem mass spectrometry
  20. Anal Chem. 2022 Jul 12.
      Nuclear medicine plays a key role in modern diagnosis and cancer therapy. The development of tumor-targeting radionuclide conjugates (also named small molecule-radio conjugates (SMRCs)) represents a significant improvement over the clinical use of metabolic radiotracers (e.g., [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose) for imaging and over the application of biocidal external beam radiations for therapy. During the discovery of SMRCs, molecular candidates must be carefully evaluated typically by performing biodistribution assays in preclinical tumor models. Quantification methodologies based on radioactive counts are typically demanding due to safety concerns, availability of radioactive materials, and infrastructures. In this article, we report the development of a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method for the detection and quantification of small molecule-metal conjugates (SMMCs) as cold surrogates of SMRCs. We applied this methodology for the evaluation of the biodistribution of a particular class of tumor-targeting drug candidates based on natLu, natGa, and natF and directed against fibroblast activation protein (FAP). The reliability of the liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) analysis was validated by a direct comparison of MS-based and radioactivity-based biodistribution data. The results show that MS biodistribution of stable isotope metal conjugates is an orthogonal tool for the preclinical characterization of different classes of radiopharmaceuticals.
  21. J Chromatogr A. 2022 Jun 28. pii: S0021-9673(22)00469-1. [Epub ahead of print]1677 463276
      The measurement of VOSCs in complex matrices is challenging due to their volatile and reactive nature. A straightforward method using headspace chromatography was developed for routine analyses of organosulfur compounds in a high saline liquid matrix with a pH of 8.4. Direct sample acidification with a 1M acetate buffer (pH 3.6) showed an increased response for methanethiol, ethanethiol, propanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide and diethyl disulfide. A good quadratic fit (R2 <0.995) was obtained for each compound over a calibration range of 5 µM-S until 125 µM-S (µmol sulfur/L). Gas standards were measured using the same chromatographic conditions over a calibration range of 0.08 µM-S until 1.85 µM-S (R2 <0.999). Gas standards could also be used to calibrate the liquid phase with a response ratio of 105.2% for ET, 107% for DMS, 105.7% for PT, 108.9% for DMDS and 106% for DEDS. This alternative calibration strategy reduced the preparation time and does not rely on liquid standards, which were unstable over time. This method was used to determine Henry constants for the organosulfur compounds both in demineralized water and the high saline liquid matrix and to analyze samples from a bio electrochemical experiment that treated methanethiol. This new method allows for routine analysis of samples originating from natural gas desulfurization plants and can potentially also be used to analyze organosulfur compounds in other complex waste streams.
    Keywords:  Disulfide; Flame Photometric Detector (FPD); Gas chromatography (GC); Henry coefficient; Thiol; Volatile organosulfur compound (VOSC)
  22. Mycotoxin Res. 2022 Jul 14.
      Chilli powder, a popular spice, is predominantly contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA), posing a menace to public health. As no validated method exists for the simultaneous and direct analysis of AFs and OTA in chilli powder, it was imperative to develop one to ensure their effective monitoring and promote trade. In this research, we developed and validated a multi-mycotoxin analysis method that allows the simultaneous determination of AFs (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and OTA in chilli powder with high sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The optimised sample preparation workflow started with the extraction of chilli powder (25 g) with methanol-water (100 mL, 80:20). An aliquot (3 mL) was cleaned on a multi-mycotoxin, immunoaffinity column (AFLAOCHRA PREP®) and analysed using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence (UHPLC-FLD) and tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection in a single chromatographic run. The method performance was evaluated through intra- and inter-laboratory validation (ILV) studies, and also by analysing a certified reference material. A direct analysis using UHPLC-FLD (without derivatisation) provided the limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.25 and 1 ng/g for AFs and OTA, respectively, while the LOQ for all these mycotoxins in LC-MS/MS was 0.5 ng/g. These LOQs are much lower than the maximum levels (MLs) specified by the European Commission. The recoveries of these analytes at LOQ and higher levels were above 75% (RSDr < 12%). The ILV study demonstrated satisfactory method-reproducibility (RSDR < 25%). The analysis of the certified reference material provided accuracies of AFs and OTA in the range of 83-101%. The analysis by UHPLC-FLD and LC-MS/MS provided very similar results. The incurred levels of B1 in market samples were estimated with a precision-RSD of < 6%. Considering its efficiency and alignment with the regulatory requirements, this method can be implemented for the routine analysis of AFs and OTA in chilli powder.
    Keywords:  Aflatoxins; Chilli powder; LC–MS/MS; Method validation; Ochratoxin A; UHPLC-fluorescence
  23. Front Pharmacol. 2022 ;13 915004
      Cannabidiol is a novel antiseizure medication approved in Europe and the US for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, Dravet syndrome and tuberous sclerosis complex. We describe in this article a new and simple liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of cannabidiol and its active metabolite 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol in microvolumes of serum and saliva (50 μl), to be used as a tool for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and pharmacokinetic studies. After on-line solid phase extraction cannabidiol, 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol and the internal standard cannabidiol-d3 are separated on a monolithic C18 column under gradient conditions. Calibration curves are linear within the validated concentration range (10-1,000 ng/ml for cannabidiol and 5-500 ng/ml for 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol). The method is accurate (intraday and interday accuracy within 94-112% for cannabidiol, 91-109% for 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol), precise (intraday and interday precision <11.6% for cannabidiol and <11.7% for 7- hydroxy-cannabidiol) and sensitive, with a LOQ of 2.5 ng/ml for cannabidiol and 5 ng/ml for 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol. The stability of the analytes was confirmed under different storage conditions. Extraction recoveries were in the range of 81-129% for cannabidiol and 100-113% for 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol. The applicability of the method to TDM was demonstrated by analysis of human serum and saliva samples obtained from patients with epilepsy treated with cannabidiol.
    Keywords:  7-hydroxy-cannabidiol; HPLC-MS/MS; antiseizure medications; cannabidiol; on-line solid phase extraction; saliva; serum
  24. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2022 Jun 28. pii: S1570-0232(22)00209-4. [Epub ahead of print]1207 123305
      BMS-986205 (Linrodostat) is a small molecule inhibitor of Indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) that is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for the oral treatment of advanced cancer. Initially, there were concerns regarding possible toxicity following administration, since BMS-986205 undergoes metabolism to form 4-chloroaniline. However, it was later determined that the downstream metabolites of 4-chloroaniline might be a greater concern. To evaluate the potential toxicity of these metabolites, a sensitive LC-MS/MS analytical method was needed to quantify both the parent compound and multiple metabolites. This presented a challenge since the method required the analysis of multiple analytes while still retaining the analytical sensitivity required to support studies. By utilizing a multi-function analytical method, we were able to quantify the necessary analytes using a complex LC-MS/MS-based method including the application of both negative and positive electrospray ionization.
    Keywords:  4-chloroaniline; IDO; LC-MS/MS
  25. J Chromatogr Sci. 2022 Jul 12. pii: bmac054. [Epub ahead of print]
      A biosensitive analysis method development and validation was performed for accurate and rapid quantification of cefdinir (CDR) in human plasma by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique coupled with electrospray ionization. Analysis was carried out using a C18 column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and operating temperature of 30.0 ± 1°C. The drug was eluted by optimizing the m/z ratios of 396.20 → 227.20 and 428.17 → 241.10, for cefdinir and IS (internal standard), respectively. The intraday precision (%CV) for Cefdinir ranged from 2.8% and 6.7% as lower limit of quantification of quality control (LLOQ QC) and higher level of quantification of quality control (HQC QC), respectively, whereas these value were found to be as 3.0% and 5.6% for LLOQ and HQC, respectively after interday precision. Moreover, accuracy ranged from 107.70% (HQC QC) to 95.5% (LLOQ QC). The extraction mean recovery was found to be 83.91 ± 6.0% for cefdinir and 76.7 ± 6.23% for IS. The drug was stable throughout the analysis period. It was possible to analyze several plasma samples every day since each sample took <2.5 min to run. The method demonstrated successful quantification of CDR in human plasma, followed by pharmacokinetic profiles that were simple, accurate, sensitive and cost-effective.