bims-metalz Biomed News
on Metabolic causes of Alzheimer’s disease
Issue of 2023‒07‒23
five papers selected by
Mikaila Chetty
Goa University

  1. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2023 Jul 18.
      Heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and others, have a significant impact on the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases in the human brain. This comprehensive review aims to consolidate the recent research on the harmful effects of different metals on specific brain cells such as neurons, microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Understanding the potential influence of these metals in neurodegeneration is crucial for effectively combating the ongoing advancement of these diseases. Metal-induced neurodegeneration involves molecular mechanisms such as apoptosis induction, dysregulation of metabolic and signaling pathways, metal imbalance, oxidative stress, loss of synaptic transmission, pathogenic peptide aggregation, and neuroinflammation. This review provides valuable insights by compiling the supportive evidence from recent research findings. Additionally, we briefly discuss the modes of action of natural neuroprotective compounds. While this comprehensive review aims to consolidate the recent research on the harmful effects of various metals on specific brain cells, it may not cover all studies and findings related to metal-induced neurodegeneration. Studies that are done using bioinformatics tools, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, emerging disease models, and studies based on the modes of exposure to toxic metals are a future prospect to be explored.
  2. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2023 Jul 13. 14(7): 886-888
      Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by symptoms like resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability, mainly due to dopamine depletion and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the disease's progression, while amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by significant motor neuron loss in the primary motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. This loss results in impaired movements such as breathing, leading to death within 2-5 years of diagnosis. Patients experience muscle weakness in the hands, arms, legs, and swallowing muscles and may require breathing aids. This Patent Highlight describes blends, such as microbiome compositions, that can be used to treat various diseases or conditions, particularly those affecting the nervous system, like neurodegenerative diseases (PD and ALS).
  3. Eur J Immunol. 2023 Jul 20. e2250229
      Intestinal microbiota can influence the phenotype and function of immune cell responses through the dissemination of bacterial antigens or metabolites. Diet is one of the major forces shaping the microbiota composition and metabolism, contributing to host homeostasis and disease susceptibility. Currently, nutrition is a complementary and alternative approach to the management of metabolic and neurological diseases and cancer. However, the knowledge of the exact mechanism of action of diet and microbiota on the gut-brain communication is only developing in recent years. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge on the effect of diet and microbiota on the gut-brain axis in patients with two different central nervous system diseases, multiple sclerosis and stroke. We have also highlighted the open questions in the field that we believe are important to address to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which diet can directly or indirectly affect the host via the microbiota. We think this will open up new approaches to the treatment, diagnosis, and monitoring of various diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  acute stroke; diet; gut-brain axis; microbiota; multiple sclerosis
  4. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2023 Jul 18.
      In recent years, gut microbiome alterations have been linked with complex underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The gut microbiota modulates gut brain axis by facilitating development of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and synthesis of neuromodulators. The study was designed to unravel the effect of combined consumption of probiotics; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium BB-12 (BB-12®) (1 × 109 CFU) on AlCl3-induced AD mouse model in comparison with potent acetylcholine esterase inhibitor drug for AD, donepezil. Mice were randomly allocated to six different study groups (n = 8). Behavioral tests were conducted to assess effect of AlCl3 (300 mg/kg) and probiotics treatment on cognition and anxiety through Morris Water Maze (MWM), Novel Object Recognition (NOR), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and Y-maze. The results indicated that the combined probiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced anxiety-like behavior post AlCl3 exposure. The AlCl3 + LGG® and BB-12®-treated group showed significantly improved spatial (p < 0.0001) and recognition memory (p < 0.0001) in comparison to AlCl3-treated group. The expression status of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) was also normalized upon treatment with LGG® and BB-12® post AlCl3 exposure. Our findings indicated that the probiotics LGG® and BB-12® have strong potential to overcome neuroinflammatory imbalance, cognitive deficits and anxiety-like behavior, therefore can be considered as a combination therapy for AD through modulation of gut brain axis. KEY POINTS: • Bifidobacterium BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were fed to AlCl3-induced Alzheimer's disease mice. • This combination of probiotics had remarkable ameliorating effects on anxiety, neuroinflammation and cognitive deficits. • These effects may suggest that combined consumption of these probiotics instigate potential mitigation of AD associated consequences through gut brain axis modulation.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Bifidobacterium BB-12; Gut Microbiota-Brain axis; Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG; Probiotics
  5. World J Clin Cases. 2023 Jul 06. 11(19): 4458-4476
      Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder which alters gastrointestinal (GI) functions, thus leading to compromised health status. Pathophysiology of IBS is not fully understood, whereas abnormal gut brain axis (GBA) has been identified as a major etiological factor. Recent studies are suggestive for visceral hyper-sensitivity, altered gut motility and dysfunctional autonomous nervous system as the main clinical abnormalities in IBS patients. Bidirectional signalling interactions among these abnormalities are derived through various exogenous and endogenous factors, such as microbiota population and diversity, microbial metabolites, dietary uptake, and psychological abnormalities. Strategic efforts focused to study these interactions including probiotics, antibiotics and fecal transplantations in normal and germ-free animals are clearly suggestive for the pivotal role of gut microbiota in IBS etiology. Additionally, neurotransmitters act as communication tools between enteric microbiota and brain functions, where serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) plays a key role in pathophysiology of IBS. It regulates GI motility, pain sense and inflammatory responses particular to mucosal and brain activity. In the absence of a better understanding of various interconnected crosstalks in GBA, more scientific efforts are required in the search of novel and targeted therapies for the management of IBS. In this review, we have summarized the gut microbial composition, interconnected signalling pathways and their regulators, available therapeutics, and the gaps needed to fill for a better management of IBS.
    Keywords:  Gut brain axis; Irritable bowel syndrome; Microbiota; Serotonin; Stress