bims-metalz Biomed News
on Metabolic causes of Alzheimer’s disease
Issue of 2023‒07‒16
four papers selected by
Mikaila Chetty
Goa University

  1. Nutrients. 2023 Apr 25. pii: 2067. [Epub ahead of print]15(9):
      Trace elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) are absorbed from food via the gastrointestinal tract, transported into the brain, and play central roles in normal brain functions. An excess of these trace elements often produces reactive oxygen species and damages the brain. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that the dyshomeostasis of these metals is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, and Lewy body diseases. The disease-related amyloidogenic proteins can regulate metal homeostasis at the synapses, and thus loss of the protective functions of these amyloidogenic proteins causes neurodegeneration. Meanwhile, metal-induced conformational changes of the amyloidogenic proteins contribute to enhancing their neurotoxicity. Moreover, excess Zn and Cu play central roles in the pathogenesis of vascular-type senile dementia. Here, we present an overview of the intake, absorption, and transport of four essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) and one non-essential element (aluminum: Al) in food and their connections with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases based on metal-protein, and metal-metal cross-talk.
    Keywords:  amyloid; conformation; gastrointestinal absorption; neurotoxicity; reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  2. EMBO J. 2023 Jul 10. e111515
      Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In contrast, the influence of gut microbiota on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier has not yet been studied. Here, we report that mice lacking gut microbiota display increased blood-CSF barrier permeability associated with disorganized tight junctions (TJs), which can be rescued by recolonization with gut microbiota or supplementation with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Our data reveal that gut microbiota is important not only for the establishment but also for the maintenance of a tight barrier. Also, we report that the vagus nerve plays an important role in this process and that SCFAs can independently tighten the barrier. Administration of SCFAs in AppNL-G-F mice improved the subcellular localization of TJs at the blood-CSF barrier, reduced the β-amyloid (Aβ) burden, and affected microglial phenotype. Altogether, our results suggest that modulating the microbiota and administering SCFAs might have therapeutic potential in AD via blood-CSF barrier tightening and maintaining microglial activity and Aβ clearance.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's disease; blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier; gut microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; vagus nerve
  3. Aging Brain. 2023 ;4 100084
      Amyloid-beta (Aβ) is produced from amyloid precursor protein (APP) primarily after APP is internalised by endocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytic processes are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is also evidence that cholesterol and flotillin affect APP endocytosis. We hypothesised that endocytic protein expression would be altered in the brains of people with AD compared to non-diseased subjects which could be linked to increased Aβ generation. We compared protein expression in frontal cortex samples from men with AD compared to age-matched, non-diseased controls. Soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42, the soluble Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, βCTF, BACE1, presenilin-1 and the ratio of phosphorylated:total GSK3β were significantly increased while the insoluble Aβ42:Aβ40 ratio was significantly decreased in AD brains. Total and phosphorylated tau were markedly increased in AD brains. Significant increases in clathrin, AP2, PICALM isoform 4, Rab-5 and caveolin-1 and 2 were seen in AD brains but BIN1 was decreased. However, using immunohistochemistry, caveolin-1 and 2 were decreased. The results obtained here suggest an overall increase in endocytosis in the AD brain, explaining, at least in part, the increased production of Aβ during AD.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid precursor protein; Amyloid-beta; Endocytosis; Human brain; Male sex
  4. Mol Psychiatry. 2023 Jul 14.
      While our understanding of the molecular biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has grown, the etiology of the disease, especially the involvement of peripheral infection, remains a challenge. In this study, we hypothesize that peripheral infection represents a risk factor for AD pathology. To test our hypothesis, APP/PS1 mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery to develop a polymicrobial infection or non-CLP surgery. Mice were euthanized at 3, 30, and 120 days after surgery to evaluate the inflammatory mediators, glial cell markers, amyloid burden, gut microbiome, gut morphology, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels. The novel object recognition (NOR) task was performed 30 and 120 days after the surgery, and sepsis accelerated the cognitive decline in APP/PS1 mice at both time points. At 120 days, the insoluble Aβ increased in the sepsis group, and sepsis modulated the cytokines/chemokines, decreasing the cytokines associated with brain homeostasis IL-10 and IL-13 and increasing the eotaxin known to influence cognitive function. At 120 days, we found an increased density of IBA-1-positive microglia in the vicinity of Aβ dense-core plaques, compared with the control group confirming the predictable clustering of reactive glia around dense-core plaques within 15 μm near Aβ deposits in the brain. In the gut, sepsis negatively modulated the α- and β-diversity indices evaluated by 16S rRNA sequencing, decreased the levels of SCFAs, and significantly affected ileum and colon morphology in CLP mice. Our data suggest that sepsis-induced peripheral infection accelerates cognitive decline and AD pathology in the AD mouse model.