bims-metalz Biomed News
on Metabolic causes of Alzheimer’s disease
Issue of 2023‒06‒18
four papers selected by
Mikaila Chetty
Goa University

  1. Front Aging Neurosci. 2023 ;15 1145241
      A progressive degradation of the brain's structure and function, which results in a reduction in cognitive and motor skills, characterizes neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD). The morbidity linked to NDs is growing, which poses a severe threat to human being's mental and physical ability to live well. The gut-brain axis (GBA) is now known to have a crucial role in the emergence of NDs. The gut microbiota is a conduit for the GBA, a two-way communication system between the gut and the brain. The myriad microorganisms that make up the gut microbiota can affect brain physiology by transmitting numerous microbial chemicals from the gut to the brain via the GBA or neurological system. The synthesis of neurotransmitters, the immunological response, and the metabolism of lipids and glucose have all been demonstrated to be impacted by alterations in the gut microbiota, such as an imbalance of helpful and harmful bacteria. In order to develop innovative interventions and clinical therapies for NDs, it is crucial to comprehend the participation of the gut microbiota in these conditions. In addition to using antibiotics and other drugs to target particular bacterial species that may be a factor in NDs, this also includes using probiotics and other fecal microbiota transplantation to maintain a healthy gut microbiota. In conclusion, the examination of the GBA can aid in understanding the etiology and development of NDs, which may benefit the improvement of clinical treatments for these disorders and ND interventions. This review indicates existing knowledge about the involvement of microbiota present in the gut in NDs and potential treatment options.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Huntington’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; gut-brain axis; microbiota; neurodegenerative diseases
  2. Sci Transl Med. 2023 Jun 14. 15(700): eabo2984
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is thought to progress from normal cognition through preclinical disease and ultimately to symptomatic AD with cognitive impairment. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome of symptomatic patients with AD has an altered taxonomic composition compared with that of healthy, cognitively normal control individuals. However, knowledge about changes in the gut microbiome before the onset of symptomatic AD is limited. In this cross-sectional study that accounted for clinical covariates and dietary intake, we compared the taxonomic composition and gut microbial function in a cohort of 164 cognitively normal individuals, 49 of whom showed biomarker evidence of early preclinical AD. Gut microbial taxonomic profiles of individuals with preclinical AD were distinct from those of individuals without evidence of preclinical AD. The change in gut microbiome composition correlated with β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau pathological biomarkers but not with biomarkers of neurodegeneration, suggesting that the gut microbiome may change early in the disease process. We identified specific gut bacterial taxa associated with preclinical AD. Inclusion of these microbiome features improved the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of machine learning classifiers for predicting preclinical AD status when tested on a subset of the cohort (65 of the 164 participants). Gut microbiome correlates of preclinical AD neuropathology may improve our understanding of AD etiology and may help to identify gut-derived markers of AD risk.
  3. J Hazard Mater. 2023 Jun 08. pii: S0304-3894(23)01099-3. [Epub ahead of print]457 131816
      It is established that gut microbiota dysbiosis is implicated in arsenic (As)-induced neurotoxic process, however, the underlying mode of action remains largely unclear. Here, through remodeling gut microbiota on As-intoxicated pregnancy rats using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from Control rats, neuronal loss and neurobehavioral deficits in offspring prenatally exposed to As were significantly alleviated after maternal FMT treatment. In prenatal As-challenged offspring after maternal FMT treatment, remarkably, suppressed expression of inflammatory cytokines in tissues (colon, serum, and striatum) were observed along with reversed mRNA and protein expression of tight junction related molecules in intestinal barrier and blood-brain barrier (BBB); Further, expression of serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) in colonic and striatal tissues were repressed with activation of astrocytes and microglia inhibited. In particular, tightly correlated and enriched microbiomes were identified such as higher-expressed g_Prevotella, g_UCG_005, and lower-expressed p_Desulfobacterota, g_Eubacterium_xylanophilum_group. Collectively, our results first demonstrated that reconstruction of normal gut microbiota by maternal FMT treatment alleviated prenatal As-induced overall inflammatory state and impairments of intestinal barrier and BBB integrity by impeding LPS-mediated TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB signaling pathway through microbiota-gut-brain axis, which provides a novel therapeutic avenue for developmental arsenic neurotoxicity.
    Keywords:  Maternal FMT treatment; Microbiota-gut-brain axis; Neurobehavioral deficits; Prenatal arsenic exposure
  4. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 May 31. pii: 9577. [Epub ahead of print]24(11):
      The human gut microbiome contains the largest number of bacteria in the body and has the potential to greatly influence metabolism, not only locally but also systemically. There is an established link between a healthy, balanced, and diverse microbiome and overall health. When the gut microbiome becomes unbalanced (dysbiosis) through dietary changes, medication use, lifestyle choices, environmental factors, and ageing, this has a profound effect on our health and is linked to many diseases, including lifestyle diseases, metabolic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and neurological diseases. While this link in humans is largely an association of dysbiosis with disease, in animal models, a causative link can be demonstrated. The link between the gut and the brain is particularly important in maintaining brain health, with a strong association between dysbiosis in the gut and neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases. This link suggests not only that the gut microbiota composition can be used to make an early diagnosis of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases but also that modifying the gut microbiome to influence the microbiome-gut-brain axis might present a therapeutic target for diseases that have proved intractable, with the aim of altering the trajectory of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, among others. There is also a microbiome-gut-brain link to other potentially reversible neurological diseases, such as migraine, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and long COVID, which might be considered models of therapy for neurodegenerative disease. The role of traditional methods in altering the microbiome, as well as newer, more novel treatments such as faecal microbiome transplants and photobiomodulation, are discussed.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; autism spectrum disorder; faecal microbiome transplants; microbiome; neurodegenerative disease; neurodevelopmental disease; photobiomodulation