bims-metalz Biomed News
on Metabolic causes of Alzheimer’s disease
Issue of 2023‒06‒11
three papers selected by
Mikaila Chetty
Goa University

  1. Front Aging Neurosci. 2023 ;15 1171955
    Keywords:  Aducanumab; Alzheimer's; amyloid; dementia; microbiota
  2. Mitochondrion. 2023 Jun 01. pii: S1567-7249(23)00051-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      Misfolded proteins in the central nervous system can induce oxidative damage, which can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases in the mitochondria. Neurodegenerative patients face early mitochondrial dysfunction, impacting energy utilization. Amyloid-ß and tau problems both have an effect on mitochondria, which leads to mitochondrial malfunction and, ultimately, the onset of Alzheimer's disease. Cellular oxygen interaction yields reactive oxygen species within mitochondria, initiating oxidative damage to mitochondrial constituents. Parkinson's disease, linked to oxidative stress, α-synuclein aggregation, and inflammation, results from reduced brain mitochondria activity. Mitochondrial dynamics profoundly influence cellular apoptosis via distinct causative mechanisms. The condition known as Huntington's disease is characterized by an expansion of polyglutamine, primarily impactingthe cerebral cortex and striatum. Research has identified mitochondrial failure as an early pathogenic mechanism contributing to HD's selective neurodegeneration. The mitochondria are organelles that exhibit dynamism by undergoing fragmentation and fusion processes to attain optimal bioenergetic efficiency. They can also be transported along microtubules and regulateintracellular calcium homeostasis through their interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, the mitochondria produce free radicals. The functions of eukaryotic cells, particularly in neurons, have significantly deviated from the traditionally assigned role of cellular energy production. Most of them areimpaired in HD, which may lead to neuronal dysfunction before symptoms manifest. This article summarises the most important changes in mitochondrial dynamics that come from neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Finally, we discussed about novel techniques that can potentially treat mitochondrial malfunction and oxidative stress in four most dominating neuro disorders.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's diseases; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Huntington's diseases; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Parkinson's diseases
  3. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2023 Jun 07.
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia and the accumulation of amyloid beta in the brain. Recently, microbial dysbiosis has been identified as one of the major factors involved in the onset and progression of AD. Imbalance in gut microbiota is known to affect central nervous system (CNS) functions through the gut-brain axis and involves inflammatory, immune, neuroendocrine and metabolic pathways. An altered gut microbiome is known to affect the gut and BBB permeability, resulting in imbalance in levels of neurotransmitters and neuroactive peptides/factors. Restoration of levels of beneficial microorganisms in the gut has demonstrated promising effects in AD in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The current review enlists the important beneficial microbial species present in the gut, the effect of their metabolites on CNS, mechanisms involved in dysbiosis related to AD and the beneficial effects of probiotics on AD. It also highlights challenges involved in large-scale manufacturing and quality control of probiotic formulations.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Dysbiosis; Gut microbiota; Probiotics