bims-metalz Biomed News
on Metabolic causes of Alzheimer’s disease
Issue of 2023‒01‒22
five papers selected by
Mikaila Chetty
Goa University

  1. Ageing Res Rev. 2023 Jan 17. pii: S1568-1637(23)00016-8. [Epub ahead of print] 101857
      Neurodegenerative diseases, in particular for Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS), are a category of diseases with progressive loss of neuronal structure or function (encompassing neuronal death) leading to neuronal dysfunction, whereas the underlying pathogenesis remains to be clarified. As the microbiological ecosystem of the intestinal microbiome serves as the second genome of the human body, it is strongly implicated as an essential element in the initiation and/or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Nevertheless, the precise underlying principles of how the intestinal microflora impact on neurodegenerative diseases via gut-brain axis by modulating the immune function are still poorly characterized. Consequently, an overview of initiating the development of neurodegenerative diseases and the contribution of intestinal microflora on immune function is discussed in this review.
    Keywords:  Gut-brain axis; Immunity; Intestinal microbiota; Neurodegenerative diseases
  2. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Jan 12. pii: 180. [Epub ahead of print]12(1):
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Although substantial research has been conducted to elucidate the complex pathophysiology of AD, the therapeutic approach still has limited efficacy in clinical practice. Oxidative stress (OS) has been established as an early driver of several age-related diseases, including neurodegeneration. In AD, increased levels of reactive oxygen species mediate neuronal lipid, protein, and nucleic acid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic damage, and inflammation. Thus, the identification of novel antioxidant molecules capable of detecting, preventing, and counteracting AD onset and progression is of the utmost importance. However, although several studies have been published, comprehensive and up-to-date overviews of the principal anti-AD agents harboring antioxidant properties remain scarce. In this narrative review, we summarize the role of vitamins, minerals, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, mitochondria-targeting molecules, organosulfur compounds, and carotenoids as non-enzymatic antioxidants with AD diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic potential, thereby offering insights into the relationship between OS and neurodegeneration.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; antioxidants; diagnosis; flavonoids; minerals; oxidative stress; prevention; treatment; vitamins
  3. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Jan 05. pii: 131. [Epub ahead of print]12(1):
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been described to induce a broad range of redox-dependent signaling reactions in physiological conditions. Nevertheless, an excessive accumulation of ROS leads to oxidative stress, which was traditionally considered as detrimental for cells and organisms, due to the oxidative damage they cause to biomolecules. During ageing, elevated ROS levels result in the accumulation of damaged proteins, which may exhibit altered enzymatic function or physical properties (e.g., aggregation propensity). Emerging evidence also highlights the relationship between oxidative stress and age-related pathologies, such as protein misfolding-based neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's (PD), Alzheimer's (AD) and Huntington's (HD) diseases). In this review we aim to introduce the role of oxidative stress in physiology and pathology and then focus on the state-of-the-art techniques available to detect and quantify ROS and oxidized proteins in live cells and in vivo, providing a guide to those aiming to characterize the role of oxidative stress in ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. Lastly, we discuss recently published data on the role of oxidative stress in neurological disorders.
    Keywords:  age-related pathology; ageing; neurodegenerative disease; oxidative stress; protein aggregation; reactive oxygen species (ROS); small molecule probes
  4. Cells. 2023 Jan 12. pii: 300. [Epub ahead of print]12(2):
      Diabetic retinopathy, one of the most devastating complications of diabetes, is a multifactorial progressing disease with a very complex etiology. Although many metabolic, molecular, functional and structural changes have been identified in the retina and its vasculature, the exact molecular mechanism of its pathogenesis still remains elusive. Sustained high-circulating glucose increases oxidative stress in the retina and also activates the inflammatory cascade. Free radicals increase inflammatory mediators, and inflammation can increase production of free radicals, suggesting a positive loop between them. In addition, diabetes also facilitates many epigenetic modifications that can influence transcription of a gene without changing the DNA sequence. Several genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy are also influenced by epigenetic modifications. This review discusses cross-talks between oxidative stress, inflammation and epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy. Since epigenetic changes are influenced by external factors such as environment and lifestyle, and they can also be reversed, this opens up possibilities for new strategies to inhibit the development/progression of this sight-threatening disease.
    Keywords:  diabetic retinopathy; epigenetics; inflammation; oxidative stress
  5. Postepy Biochem. 2022 12 31. 68(4): 387-398
      An increasing number of elders in a general population and longer life expectancy have a negative outcome in the growth of dissemination of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). The NDs like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show sex-dependent prevalence. It is considered that sex steroids could influence on the NDs occurrence. Epidemiological studies indicate that women suffer more frequently from AD, whereas men from PD and ALS. Research suggest neuroprotective effects of estrogens and confirm that factors reducing their level may have a contribution to a higher morbidity rate to NDs. Adverse effects of androgens on NDs have been noticed, however some data suggest their beneficial actions. Therefore, the understanding of the potential role of sex steroids and their receptors in the pathogenesis and course of NDs would contribute to broadening the knowledge of molecular mechanisms leading to NDs. Moreover effective prevention and treatment could be assessed in the future.