bims-metalz Biomed News
on Metabolic causes of Alzheimer’s disease
Issue of 2023‒01‒08
three papers selected by
Mikaila Chetty
Goa University

  1. Neuroscientist. 2023 Jan 03. 10738584221139761
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid β and phosphorylated τ protein aggregates in the brain, which leads to the loss of neurons. Under the microscope, the function of mitochondria is uniquely primed to play a pivotal role in neuronal cell survival, energy metabolism, and cell death. Research studies indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive oxidative damage, and defective mitophagy in neurons are early indicators of AD. This review article summarizes the latest development of mitochondria in AD: 1) disease mechanism pathways, 2) the importance of mitochondria in neuronal functions, 3) metabolic pathways and functions, 4) the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy mechanisms in AD, and 5) the development of potential mitochondrial-targeted therapeutics and interventions to treat patients with AD.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer disease; adenosine triphosphate; amyloid beta; amyloid precursor protein; dysfunction; mitochondria; mitophagy; neurofibrillary tangle; p-tau; reaction oxidative stress; therapeutics
  2. Front Microbiol. 2022 ;13 1018594
      Background: There are trillions of microbiota in our intestinal tract, and they play a significant role in health and disease via interacting with the host in metabolic, immune, neural, and endocrine pathways. Over the past decades, numerous studies have been published in the field of gut microbiome and disease. Although there are narrative reviews of gut microbiome and certain diseases, the whole field is lack of systematic and quantitative analysis. Therefore, we outline research status of the gut microbiome and disease, and present insights into developments and characteristics of this field to provide a holistic grasp and future research directions.Methods: An advanced search was carried out in the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC), basing on the term "gut microbiome" and its synonyms. The current status and developing trends of this scientific domain were evaluated by bibliometric methodology. CiteSpace was used to perform collaboration network analysis, co-citation analysis and citation burst detection.
    Results: A total of 29,870 articles and 13,311 reviews were retrieved from the database, which involve 42,900 keywords, 176 countries/regions, 19,065 institutions, 147,225 authors and 4,251 journals. The gut microbiome and disease research is active and has received increasing attention. Co-cited reference analysis revealed the landmark articles in the field. The United States had the largest number of publications and close cooperation with other countries. The current research mainly focuses on gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), while extra-intestinal diseases are also rising, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease. Omics technologies, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and metabolites linked to mechanism would be more concerned in the future.
    Conclusion: The gut microbiome and disease has been a booming field of research, and the trend is expected to continue. Overall, this research field shows a multitude of challenges and great opportunities.
    Keywords:  gut microbiota; hot topics and frontiers; human health and disease; research trend; visualized analysis
  3. IBRO Neurosci Rep. 2023 Jun;14 64-76
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. Because Alzheimer's disease has no known treatment, sufferers and their caregivers must concentrate on symptom management. Astrocytes and microglia are now known to play distinct physiological roles in synaptic function, the blood-brain barrier, and neurovascular coupling. Consequently, the search for drugs that can slow the degenerative process in dementia sufferers continues because existing drugs are designed to alleviate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Drugs that address pathological changes without interfering with the normal function of glia, such as eliminating amyloid-beta deposits, are prospective treatments for neuroinflammatory illnesses. Because neuron-astrocytes-microglia interactions are so complex, developing effective, preventive, and therapeutic medications for AD will necessitate novel methodologies and strategic targets. This review focused on existing medications used in treating AD amongst which include Donepezil, Choline Alphoscerate, Galantamine, Dextromethorphan, palmitoylethanolamide, citalopram, resveratrol, and solanezumab. This review summarizes the effects of these drugs on neurons, astrocytes, and microglia interactions based on their pharmacokinetic properties, mechanism of action, dosing, and clinical presentations.
    Keywords:  Alphoscerate; Alzheimer; Dextromethorphan; Galantamine; Inflammation; Neuron-glia