bims-metalz Biomed News
on Metabolic causes of Alzheimer’s disease
Issue of 2022‒12‒11
four papers selected by
Mikaila Chetty
Goa University

  1. Aging Dis. 2022 Dec 01. 13(6): 1591-1605
      Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are both age-related diseases of global concern being among the most common chronic metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, respectively. While both diseases can be genetically inherited, environmental factors play a vital role in their pathogenesis. Moreover, DM and PD have common underlying molecular mechanisms, such as misfolded protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and microbial dysbiosis. Recently, epidemiological and experimental studies have reported that DM affects the incidence and progression of PD. Moreover, certain antidiabetic drugs have been proven to decrease the risk of PD and delay its progression. In this review, we elucidate the epidemiological and pathophysiological association between DM and PD and summarize the antidiabetic drugs used in animal models and clinical trials of PD, which may provide reference for the clinical translation of antidiabetic drugs in PD treatment.
    Keywords:  Parkinson’s disease;; antidiabetic drugs; diabetes mellitus; epidemiology; pathophysiology; treatment
  2. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2022 ;14(1): e12381
      Introduction: White matter (WM) degeneration is a critical component of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) models, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), and mean apparent propagator MRI (MAP-MRI), have the potential to identify early neurodegenerative WM changes associated with AD.Methods: We imaged 213 (198 cognitively unimpaired) aging adults with DWI and used tract-based spatial statistics to compare 15 DWI metrics of WM microstructure to 9 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of AD pathology and neurodegeneration treated as continuous variables.
    Results: We found widespread WM injury in AD, as indexed by robust associations between DWI metrics and CSF biomarkers. MAP-MRI had more spatially diffuse relationships with Aβ42/40 and pTau, compared with NODDI and DTI.
    Discussion: Our results suggest that WM degeneration may be more pervasive in AD than is commonly appreciated and that innovative DWI models such as MAP-MRI may provide clinically viable biomarkers of AD-related neurodegeneration in the earliest stages of AD progression.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's disease; CSF biomarkers; DTI; MAP‐MRI; NODDI; Neuro; diffusion MRI; early detection; preclinical; white matter microstructure
  3. Front Microbiol. 2022 ;13 959856
      As the world's population ages, neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have brought a great burden to the world. However, effective treatment measures have not been found to alleviate the occurrence and development of NDs. Abnormal accumulation of pathogenic proteins is an important cause of NDs. Therefore, effective inhibition of the accumulation of pathogenic proteins has become a priority. As the second brain of human, the gut plays an important role in regulate emotion and cognition functions. Recent studies have reported that the disturbance of gut microbiota (GM) is closely related to accumulation of pathogenic proteins in NDs. On the one hand, pathogenic proteins directly produced by GM are transmitted from the gut to the central center via vagus nerve. On the other hand, The harmful substances produced by GM enter the peripheral circulation through intestinal barrier and cause inflammation, or cross the blood-brain barrier into the central center to cause inflammation, and cytokines produced by the central center cause the production of pathogenic proteins. These pathogenic proteins can produced by the above two aspects can cause the activation of central microglia and further lead to NDs development. In addition, certain GM and metabolites have been shown to have neuroprotective effects. Therefore, modulating GM may be a potential clinical therapeutic approach for NDs. In this review, we summarized the possible mechanism of NDs caused by abnormal accumulation of pathogenic proteins mediated by GM to induce the activation of central microglia, cause central inflammation and explore the therapeutic potential of dietary therapy and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in NDs.
    Keywords:  dietary therapy; fecal microbiota transplantation; gut microbiota; inflammatory factors; neurodegenerative diseases; pathogenic proteins
  4. Alzheimers Dement. 2022 Dec 08.
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Dementia PIA, Alzheimer's Association ISTAART
      Disturbances in the brain's capacity to meet its energy demand increase the risk of synaptic loss, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline. Nutritional and metabolic interventions that target metabolic pathways combined with diagnostics to identify deficits in cerebral bioenergetics may therefore offer novel therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention and management. Many diet-derived natural bioactive components can govern cellular energy metabolism but their effects on brain aging are not clear. This review examines how nutritional metabolism can regulate brain bioenergetics and mitigate AD risk. We focus on leading mechanisms of cerebral bioenergetic breakdown in the aging brain at the cellular level, as well as the putative causes and consequences of disturbed bioenergetics, particularly at the blood-brain barrier with implications for nutrient brain delivery and nutritional interventions. Novel therapeutic nutrition approaches including diet patterns are provided, integrating studies of the gut microbiome, neuroimaging, and other biomarkers to guide future personalized nutritional interventions.