bims-meprid Biomed News
on Metabolic-dependent epigenetic reprogramming in differentiation and disease
Issue of 2023‒02‒05
six papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. Cell Rep. 2023 Jan 31. pii: S2211-1247(23)00078-5. [Epub ahead of print]42(2): 112067
      The generation of neurons from quiescent radial-glia-like neural stem cells (RGLs) in adult brain goes hand in hand with the modulation of cellular metabolism. However, it is still unclear how the exact metabolic program governs the balance between quiescent and activated RGLs. Here, we find that loss of mitochondrial D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH) leads to aberrant accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) and impaired RGL activation. Mechanistically, accumulated D-2-HG bonds directly to ATP-citrate lyase and competitively inhibits its enzymatic activity, thereby reducing acetyl-CoA production and diminishing histone acetylation. However, administration of acetate restores the acetyl-CoA levels via acetyl-CoA synthetase-mediated catabolism and rescues the deficiencies in histone acetylation and RGL activation caused by loss of D2HGDH. Therefore, our findings define the role of cross talk between mitochondria and the nucleus via a mitochondrial metabolite, D-2-HG, the aberrant accumulation of which hinders the regulation of histone acetylation in RGL activation and attenuates continuous neurogenesis in adult mammalian brain.
    Keywords:  ATP-citrate lyase; CP: Neuroscience; CP: Stem cell research; D-2-hydroxyglutarate; D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase; adult neurogenesis; histone acetylation; neural stem cells
  2. Nat Cancer. 2023 Feb 02.
      Metabolic rewiring is often considered an adaptive pressure limiting metastasis formation; however, some nutrients available at distant organs may inherently promote metastatic growth. We find that the lung and liver are lipid-rich environments. Moreover, we observe that pre-metastatic niche formation increases palmitate availability only in the lung, whereas a high-fat diet increases it in both organs. In line with this, targeting palmitate processing inhibits breast cancer-derived lung metastasis formation. Mechanistically, breast cancer cells use palmitate to synthesize acetyl-CoA in a carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a-dependent manner. Concomitantly, lysine acetyltransferase 2a expression is promoted by palmitate, linking the available acetyl-CoA to the acetylation of the nuclear factor-kappaB subunit p65. Deletion of lysine acetyltransferase 2a or carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a reduces metastasis formation in lean and high-fat diet mice, and lung and liver metastases from patients with breast cancer show coexpression of both proteins. In conclusion, palmitate-rich environments foster metastases growth by increasing p65 acetylation, resulting in a pro-metastatic nuclear factor-kappaB signaling.
  3. bioRxiv. 2023 Jan 22. pii: 2023.01.22.525071. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cytotrophoblasts fuse to form and renew syncytiotrophoblasts necessary to maintain placental health throughout gestation. During cytotrophoblast to syncytiotrophoblast differentiation, cells undergo regulated metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming. Mitochondria play a critical role in differentiation events in cellular systems, thus we hypothesized that mitochondrial metabolism played a central role in trophoblast differentiation. In this work, we employed static and stable isotope tracing untargeted metabolomics methods along with gene expression and histone acetylation studies in an established cell culture model of trophoblast differentiation. Trophoblast differentiation was associated with increased abundance of the TCA cycle intermediates citrate and α-ketoglutarate. Citrate was preferentially exported from mitochondria in the undifferentiated state but was retained to a larger extent within mitochondria upon differentiation. Correspondingly, differentiation was associated with decreased expression of the mitochondrial citrate transporter (CIC). CRISPR/Cas9 disruption of the mitochondrial citrate carrier showed that CIC is required for biochemical differentiation of trophoblasts. Loss of CIC resulted in broad alterations in gene expression and histone acetylation. These gene expression changes were partially rescued through acetate supplementation. Taken together, these results highlight a central role for mitochondrial citrate metabolism in orchestrating histone acetylation and gene expression during trophoblast differentiation.
  4. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2022 Dec 31. 27(4): 335-346
      Metabolic rewiring and epigenetic reprogramming are closely inter-related, and mutually regulate each other to control cell growth in cancer initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. Epigenetics plays a crucial role in regulating normal cellular functions as well as pathological conditions in many diseases, including cancer. Conversely, certain mitochondrial metabolites are considered as essential cofactors and regulators of epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, dysregulation of metabolism promotes tumor cell growth and reprograms the cells to produce metabolites and bioenergy needed to support cancer cell proliferation. Hence, metabolic reprogramming which alters the metabolites/epigenetic cofactors, would drive the epigenetic landscape, including DNA methylation and histone modification, that could lead to cancer initiation, promotion, and progression. Recognizing the diverse array of benefits of phytochemicals, they are gaining increasing interest in cancer interception and treatment. One of the significant mechanisms of cancer interception and treatment by phytochemicals is reprogramming of the key metabolic pathways and remodeling of cancer epigenetics. This review focuses on the metabolic remodeling and epigenetics reprogramming in cancer and investigates the potential mechanisms by which phytochemicals can mitigate cancer.
    Keywords:  cancer; epigenetics; metabolism; phytochemicals
  5. Adv Cancer Res. 2023 ;pii: S0065-230X(22)00058-6. [Epub ahead of print]157 195-228
      Tumor growth and metastasis can be promoted by a small sub-population of cancer cells, termed cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). While CSCs possess capability in self-renewing and differentiating, the hierarchy of CSCs during tumor growth is highly plastic. This plasticity in CSCs fate and function can be regulated by signals from the tumor microenvironment. One emerging pathway in CSCs that connects the alteration in microenvironment and signaling network in cancer cells is the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). The final product of HBP, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), is utilized for glycosylating of membrane and secreted proteins, but also nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the post-translational modification O-GlcNAcylation. O-GlcNAcylation and its enzyme, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), are upregulated in nearly all cancers and been linked to regulate many cancer cell phenotypes. Recent studies have begun to connect OGT and O-GlcNAcylation to regulation of CSCs. In this review, we will discuss the emerging role of OGT and O-GlcNAcylation in regulating fate and plasticity of CSCs, as well as the potential in targeting OGT/O-GlcNAcylation in CSCs.
    Keywords:  Cancer stem cell; Glycosylation; Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway; O-GlcNAc transferase; O-GlcNAcylation; Tumor-initiating cell
  6. bioRxiv. 2023 Jan 04. pii: 2023.01.03.522637. [Epub ahead of print]
      The molecular circadian clock, which controls rhythmic 24-hour oscillation of genes, proteins, and metabolites, is disrupted across many human cancers. Deregulated expression of MYC oncoprotein has been shown to alter expression of molecular clock genes, leading to a disruption of molecular clock oscillation across cancer types. It remains unclear what benefit cancer cells gain from suppressing clock oscillation, and how this loss of molecular clock oscillation impacts global gene expression and metabolism in cancer. We hypothesized that MYC suppresses oscillation of gene expression and metabolism to instead upregulate pathways involved in biosynthesis in a static, non-oscillatory fashion. To test this, cells from distinct cancer types with inducible MYC or the closely related N-MYC were examined, using detailed time-series RNA-sequencing and metabolomics, to determine the extent to which MYC activation disrupts global oscillation of genes, gene expression, programs, and metabolites. We focused our analyses on genes, pathways, and metabolites that changed in common across multiple cancer cell line models. We report here that MYC disrupted over 85% of oscillating genes, while instead promoting enhanced ribosomal and mitochondrial biogenesis and suppressed cell attachment pathways. Notably, when MYC is activated, biosynthetic programs that were formerly circadian flipped to being upregulated in an oscillation-free manner. Further, activation of MYC ablates the oscillation of nutrient transporter glycosylation while greatly upregulating transporter expression, cell surface localization, and intracellular amino acid pools. Finally, we report that MYC disrupts metabolite oscillations and the temporal segregation of amino acid metabolism from nucleotide metabolism. Our results demonstrate that MYC disruption of the molecular circadian clock releases metabolic and biosynthetic processes from circadian control, which may provide a distinct advantage to cancer cells.