bims-meprid Biomed News
on Metabolic-dependent epigenetic reprogramming in differentiation and disease
Issue of 2022‒11‒13
two papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. Trends Parasitol. 2022 Nov 07. pii: S1471-4922(22)00257-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Epigenetic modifications play important roles in the biology of malaria parasites. The new epigenetic mark histone lactylation, discovered only recently in humans, is also present in malaria parasites. It may have important functions as a key player in the epigenetic repertoire of Plasmodium.
    Keywords:  Plasmodium; epigenetics; hyperlactataemia; lactate; lactylation; malaria
  2. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2022 Nov 10.
      Glucose and alpha-ketoisocaproate, the keto acid analogue of leucine, stimulate insulin secretion in the absence of other exogenous fuels. Their mitochondrial metabolism in the beta-cell raises the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio, thereby providing the triggering signal for the exocytosis of the insulin granules. However, additional amplifying signals are required for the full extent of insulin secretion stimulated by these fuels. While it is generally recognized that the amplifying signals are also derived from the mitochondrial metabolism, their exact nature is still unclear. The current study tests the hypothesis that the supply of cytosolic acetyl-CoA is a signal in the amplifying pathway. The contents of acetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA plus CoA-SH were measured in isolated mouse islets. Insulin secretion was recorded in isolated perifused islets. In islets, the ATP-sensitive K+ channels of which were pharmacologically closed and which were preincubated without exogenous fuel, 10 mmol/L alpha-ketoisocaproate enhanced the acetyl-CoA content after 5 and 20 min incubations and decreased the acetyl-CoA plus CoA-SH within 5 min, but not after 20 min. In islets not exposed to drugs, the preincubation with 3 mmol/L glucose, a non-triggering concentration, elevated the acetyl-CoA content. This content was further increased after 5 min and 20 min incubations with 30 mmol/L glucose, concurrent with a strong increase in insulin secretion. Alpha-ketoisocaproate and glucose increase the supply of acetyl-CoA in the beta-cell cytosol during both phases of insulin secretion. Most likely, this increase provides a signal for the metabolic amplification.
    Keywords:  Acetyl-CoA; Alpha-ketoisocaproate; Beta-cell; Glucose; Insulin secretion; Metabolic amplification