bims-meprid Biomed News
on Metabolic-dependent epigenetic reprogramming in differentiation and disease
Issue of 2022‒08‒28
two papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022 ;2022 1198607
      Endothelial cell senescence is the main risk factor contributing to vascular dysfunction and the progression of aging-related cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between endothelial cell metabolism and endothelial senescence remains unclear. The present study provides novel insight into fatty acid metabolism in the regulation of endothelial senescence. In the replicative senescence model and H2O2-induced premature senescence model of primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was suppressed and fatty acid profile was disturbed, accompanied by downregulation of proteins associated with fatty acid uptake and mitochondrial entry, in particular the FAO rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A). Impairment of fatty acid metabolism by silencing CPT1A or CPT1A inhibitor etomoxir facilitated the development of endothelial senescence, as implied by the increase of p53, p21, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase, as well as the decrease of EdU-positive proliferating cells. In the contrary, rescue of FAO by overexpression of CPT1A or supplement of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate and propionate ameliorated endothelial senescence. In vivo, treatment of acetate for 4 weeks lowered the blood pressure and alleviated the senescence-related phenotypes in aortas of Ang II-infused mice. Mechanistically, fatty acid metabolism regulates endothelial senescence via acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), as implied by the observations that suppression of acetyl-CoA production using the inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase NDI-091143 accelerated senescence of HUVECs and that supplementation of acetyl-CoA prevented H2O2-induced endothelial senescence. Deficiency of acetyl-CoA resulted in alteration of acetylated protein profiles which are associated with cell metabolism and cell cycle. These findings thus suggest that improvement of fatty acid metabolism might ameliorate endothelial senescence-associated cardiovascular diseases.
  2. Cells. 2022 Aug 13. pii: 2518. [Epub ahead of print]11(16):
      Mitochondria are not only the main energy supplier but are also the cell metabolic center regulating multiple key metaborates that play pivotal roles in epigenetics regulation. These metabolites include acetyl-CoA, α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), NAD+, and O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), which are the main substrates for DNA methylation and histone post-translation modifications, essential for gene transcriptional regulation and cell fate determination. Tumorigenesis is attributed to many factors, including gene mutations and tumor microenvironment. Mitochondria and epigenetics play essential roles in tumor initiation, evolution, metastasis, and recurrence. Targeting mitochondrial metabolism and epigenetics are promising therapeutic strategies for tumor treatment. In this review, we summarize the roles of mitochondria in key metabolites required for epigenetics modification and in cell fate regulation and discuss the current strategy in cancer therapies via targeting epigenetic modifiers and related enzymes in metabolic regulation. This review is an important contribution to the understanding of the current metabolic-epigenetic-tumorigenesis concept.
    Keywords:  cancer; epigenetics; metabolism; mitochondria