bims-meprid Biomed News
on Metabolic-dependent epigenetic reprogramming in differentiation and disease
Issue of 2022‒05‒22
six papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. Open Biol. 2022 May;12(5): 220038
      Both epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming guide lymphocyte differentiation and can be linked, in that metabolic inputs can be integrated into the epigenome to inform cell fate decisions. This framework has been thoroughly investigated in several pathophysiological contexts, including haematopoietic cell differentiation. In fact, metabolite availability dictates chromatin architecture and lymphocyte specification, a multi-step process where haematopoietic stem cells become terminally differentiated lymphocytes (effector or memory) to mount the adaptive immune response. B and T cell precursors reprogram their cellular metabolism across developmental stages, not only to meet ever-changing energetic demands but to impose chromatin accessibility and regulate the function of master transcription factors. Metabolic control of the epigenome has been extensively investigated in T lymphocytes, but how this impacts type-B life cycle remains poorly appreciated. This assay will review our current understanding of the connection between cell metabolism and epigenetics at crucial steps of B cell maturation and how its dysregulation contributes to malignant transformation.
    Keywords:  B cell; epigenetics; lymphoma; metabolism
  2. J Lipid Res. 2022 May 11. pii: S0022-2275(22)00057-8. [Epub ahead of print] 100224
      Anabolic metabolism of carbon in mammals is mediated via the one and two carbon carriers S-adenosyl methionine and acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). In contrast, anabolic metabolism of three-carbon units via propionate has not been shown to extensively occur. Mammals are primarily thought to oxidize the three-carbon short chain fatty acid propionate by shunting propionyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA for entry into the TCA cycle. Here, we found that this may not be absolute as, in mammals, one non-oxidative fate of propionyl-CoA is to condense to two three-carbon units into a six-carbon trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA (2M2PE-CoA). We confirmed this reaction pathway using purified protein extracts provided limited substrates and verified the product via LC-MS using a synthetic standard. In whole-body in vivo stable isotope tracing following infusion of 13C-labeled valine at steady state, 2M2PE-CoA was found to form via propionyl-CoA in multiple murine tissues, including heart, kidney, and to a lesser degree, in brown adipose tissue, liver, and tibialis anterior muscle. Using ex vivo isotope tracing, we found that 2M2PE-CoA also formed in human myocardial tissue incubated with propionate to a limited extent. While the complete enzymology of this pathway remains to be elucidated, these results confirm the in vivo existence of at least one anabolic three to six carbon reaction conserved in humans and mice that utilizes propionate.
    Keywords:  2M2PE-CoA; LC-MS/HRMS; Metabolism; TCA cycle; acetyl-CoA; anabolism; condensation reaction; propionate; stable isotope tracing; valine
  3. Nat Commun. 2022 May 16. 13(1): 2698
      Purine nucleotides are necessary for various biological processes related to cell proliferation. Despite their importance in DNA and RNA synthesis, cellular signaling, and energy-dependent reactions, the impact of changes in cellular purine levels on cell physiology remains poorly understood. Here, we find that purine depletion stimulates cell migration, despite effective reduction in cell proliferation. Blocking purine synthesis triggers a shunt of glycolytic carbon into the serine synthesis pathway, which is required for the induction of cell migration upon purine depletion. The stimulation of cell migration upon a reduction in intracellular purines required one-carbon metabolism downstream of de novo serine synthesis. Decreased purine abundance and the subsequent increase in serine synthesis triggers an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and, in cancer models, promotes metastatic colonization. Thus, reducing the available pool of intracellular purines re-routes metabolic flux from glycolysis into de novo serine synthesis, a metabolic change that stimulates a program of cell migration.
  4. Nat Commun. 2022 May 16. 13(1): 2699
      Metastasis is the most common cause of death in cancer patients. Canonical drugs target mainly the proliferative capacity of cancer cells, which leaves slow-proliferating, persistent cancer cells unaffected. Metabolic determinants that contribute to growth-independent functions are still poorly understood. Here we show that antifolate treatment results in an uncoupled and autarkic mitochondrial one-carbon (1C) metabolism during cytosolic 1C metabolism impairment. Interestingly, antifolate dependent growth-arrest does not correlate with decreased migration capacity. Therefore, using methotrexate as a tool compound allows us to disentangle proliferation and migration to profile the metabolic phenotype of migrating cells. We observe that increased serine de novo synthesis (SSP) supports mitochondrial serine catabolism and inhibition of SSP using the competitive PHGDH-inhibitor BI-4916 reduces cancer cell migration. Furthermore, we show that sole inhibition of mitochondrial serine catabolism does not affect primary breast tumor growth but strongly inhibits pulmonary metastasis. We conclude that mitochondrial 1C metabolism, despite being dispensable for proliferative capacities, confers an advantage to cancer cells by supporting their motility potential.
  5. New Phytol. 2022 May 20.
      · Histone acetylation is a critical epigenetic modification that regulates plant immunity. Fungal pathogens secrete effectors that modulate host immunity and facilitate infection, but whether fungal pathogens have evolved effectors that directly target plant histone acetylation is still unknown. · Here, we identified a secreted protein, UvSec117, from the rice false smut fungus, Ustilaginoidea virens, as a key effector that can target the rice histone deacetylase OsHDA701 and negatively regulates rice broad-spectrum resistance against rice pathogens. UvSec117 disrupts host immunity by recruiting OsHDA701 to the nucleus and enhancing OsHDA701-modulated deacetylation, thereby reducing histone H3K9 acetylation levels in rice plants and interfering with defense gene activation. · Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) of UvSec117 promotes rice resistance to U. virens, thus providing an alternative way for developing rice false smut-resistant plants. · This is the first direct evidence demonstrating that a fungal effector targets a histone deacetylase to suppress plant immunity. Our data provided insight into counter-defense mechanism in a plant pathogen that inactivates host defense responses at the epigenetic level.
    Keywords:  OsHDA701; Ustilaginoidea virens; UvSec117; histone acetylation; immunity
  6. Nat Commun. 2022 May 19. 13(1): 2760
      Autophagy has vasculoprotective roles, but whether and how it regulates lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) homeostasis and lymphangiogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that genetic deficiency of autophagy in LEC impairs responses to VEGF-C and injury-driven corneal lymphangiogenesis. Autophagy loss in LEC compromises the expression of main effectors of LEC identity, like VEGFR3, affects mitochondrial dynamics and causes an accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in vitro and in vivo. When lipophagy is impaired, mitochondrial ATP production, fatty acid oxidation, acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio and expression of lymphangiogenic PROX1 target genes are dwindled. Enforcing mitochondria fusion by silencing dynamin-related-protein 1 (DRP1) in autophagy-deficient LEC fails to restore LDs turnover and lymphatic gene expression, whereas supplementing the fatty acid precursor acetate rescues VEGFR3 levels and signaling, and lymphangiogenesis in LEC-Atg5-/- mice. Our findings reveal that lipophagy in LEC by supporting FAO, preserves a mitochondrial-PROX1 gene expression circuit that safeguards LEC responsiveness to lymphangiogenic mediators and lymphangiogenesis.