bims-meprid Biomed News
on Metabolic-dependent epigenetic reprogramming in differentiation and disease
Issue of 2022‒01‒23
eight papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. BMC Biol. 2022 Jan 20. 20(1): 22
      BACKGROUND: Epigenetic regulation relies on the activity of enzymes that use sentinel metabolites as cofactors to modify DNA or histone proteins. Thus, fluctuations in cellular metabolite levels have been reported to affect chromatin modifications. However, whether epigenetic modifiers also affect the levels of these metabolites and thereby impinge on downstream metabolic pathways remains largely unknown. Here, we tested this notion by investigating the function of N-alpha-acetyltransferase 40 (NAA40), the enzyme responsible for N-terminal acetylation of histones H2A and H4, which has been previously implicated with metabolic-associated conditions such as age-dependent hepatic steatosis and calorie-restriction-mediated longevity.RESULTS: Using metabolomic and lipidomic approaches, we found that depletion of NAA40 in murine hepatocytes leads to significant increase in intracellular acetyl-CoA levels, which associates with enhanced lipid synthesis demonstrated by upregulation in de novo lipogenesis genes as well as increased levels of diglycerides and triglycerides. Consistently, the increase in these lipid species coincide with the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and impaired insulin signalling indicated by decreased glucose uptake. However, the effect of NAA40 on lipid droplet formation is independent of insulin. In addition, the induction in lipid synthesis is replicated in vivo in the Drosophila melanogaster larval fat body. Finally, supporting our results, we find a strong association of NAA40 expression with insulin sensitivity in obese patients.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings demonstrate that NAA40 affects the levels of cellular acetyl-CoA, thereby impacting lipid synthesis and insulin signalling. This study reveals a novel path through which histone-modifying enzymes influence cellular metabolism with potential implications in metabolic disorders.
    Keywords:  Drosophila melanogaster; Epigenetics; Fat body; Histone acetyltransferases; Lipid metabolism; Metabolic disorders; NAA40; acetyl-CoA
  2. Sci Adv. 2022 Jan 21. 8(3): eabj5688
      Histone acetylation is governed by nuclear acetyl-CoA pools generated, in part, from local acetate by metabolic enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2). We hypothesize that during gene activation, a local transfer of intact acetate occurs via sequential action of epigenetic and metabolic enzymes. Using stable isotope labeling, we detect transfer between histone acetylation sites both in vitro using purified mammalian enzymes and in vivo using quiescence exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a change-of-state model. We show that Acs2, the yeast ortholog of ACSS2, is recruited to chromatin during quiescence exit and observe dynamic histone acetylation changes proximal to Acs2 peaks. We find that Acs2 is preferentially associated with the most up-regulated genes, suggesting that acetyl group transfer plays an important role in gene activation. Overall, our data reveal direct transfer of acetate between histone lysine residues to facilitate rapid transcriptional induction, an exchange that may be critical during changes in nutrient availability.
  3. AAPS J. 2022 Jan 18. 24(1): 30
      Fucoxanthin (FX) is a carotenoid with many pharmaceutical properties due to its antioxidant/anti-inflammatory and epigenetic effects. NFE2L2 is involved in the defense against oxidative stress/inflammation-mediated diseases, like anticancer effects elicited by phytochemicals including FX. However, the role of FX and NFE2L2 in metabolic rewiring, epigenomic reprogramming, and transcriptomic network in blocking pro-tumorigenic signaling and eliciting cancer-protective effects remains unknown. Herein, we utilized multi-omics approaches to evaluate the role of NFE2L2 and the impact of FX on tumor promoter TPA-induced skin cell transformation. FX blocked TPA-induced ROS and oxidized GSSG/reduced GSH in Nfe2l2wild-type(WT) but not Nfe2l2-knockdown (KD) cells. Both Nfe2l2 KD and TPA altered cellular metabolisms and metabolites which are tightly coupled to epigenetic machinery. The suppressive effects of FX on TPA-enhancedSAM/SAH was abrogated by Nfe2l2 KD indicating Nfe2l2 plays a critical role in FX-mediated metabolic rewiring and its potential consequences on epigenetic reprogramming. Epigenomic CpG methyl-seq revealed that FX attenuated TPA-induced differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of Uhrf1 and Dnmt1 genes. Transcriptomic RNA-seq showed that FX abrogated TPA-induced differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of Nfe2l2-related genes Nqo1, Ho1, and Keap1. Associative analysis of DEGs and DMRs identified that the mRNA expressions of Uhrf1 and Dnmt1 were correlated with the promoter CpG methylation status. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that FX restored Uhrf1 expression by regulating H3K27Me3 enrichment in the promoter region. In this context, FX/Nfe2l2's redox signaling drives metabolic rewiring causing epigenetic and transcriptomic reprogramming potentially contributing to the protection of TPA-induced JB6 cellular transformation skin cancer model. Graphical abstract.
    Keywords:  Epigenetic; Fucoxanthin; Metabolic rewiring; Nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2 (Nef2l2); Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  4. Biomedicines. 2022 Jan 07. pii: 126. [Epub ahead of print]10(1):
      Exercise and physical activity induces physiological responses in organisms, and adaptations in skeletal muscle, which is beneficial for maintaining health and preventing and/or treating most chronic diseases. These adaptations are mainly instigated by transcriptional responses that ensue in reaction to each individual exercise, either resistance or endurance. Consequently, changes in key metabolic, regulatory, and myogenic genes in skeletal muscle occur as both an early and late response to exercise, and these epigenetic modifications, which are influenced by environmental and genetic factors, trigger those alterations in the transcriptional responses. DNA methylation and histone modifications are the most significant epigenetic changes described in gene transcription, linked to the skeletal muscle transcriptional response to exercise, and mediating the exercise adaptations. Nevertheless, other alterations in the epigenetics markers, such as epitranscriptomics, modifications mediated by miRNAs, and lactylation as a novel epigenetic modification, are emerging as key events for gene transcription. Here, we provide an overview and update of the impact of exercise on epigenetic modifications, including the well-described DNA methylations and histone modifications, and the emerging modifications in the skeletal muscle. In addition, we describe the effects of exercise on epigenetic markers in other metabolic tissues; also, we provide information about how systemic metabolism or its metabolites influence epigenetic modifications in the skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  epigenetics; exercise; metabolism; physical activity; skeletal muscle
  5. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2022 Jan 15. 27(1): 7
      Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a complex cell-communication mechanism that has a central role in the progression of various cancers. The cellular factors that participate in the regulation of this signaling are still not fully elucidated. Lysine acetylation is a significant protein modification which facilitates reversible regulation of the target protein function dependent on the activity of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and the catalytic function of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). Protein lysine acetylation has been classified into histone acetylation and non-histone protein acetylation. Histone acetylation is a kind of epigenetic modification, and it can modulate the transcription of important biological molecules in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Additionally, as a type of post-translational modification, non-histone acetylation directly alters the function of the core molecules in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Conversely, this signaling can regulate the expression and function of target molecules based on histone or non-histone protein acetylation. To date, various inhibitors targeting KATs and KDACs have been discovered, and some of these inhibitors exert their anti-tumor activity via blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Here, we discuss the available evidence in understanding the complicated interaction of protein lysine acetylation with Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and lysine acetylation as a new target for cancer therapy via controlling this signaling.
    Keywords:  Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling; Interaction; Molecular mechanisms; Protein lysine acetylation; Therapy
  6. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Jan 04. pii: 108. [Epub ahead of print]11(1):
      Irreversible pancreatic β-cell damage may be a result of chronic exposure to supraphysiological glucose or lipid concentrations or chronic exposure to therapeutic anti-diabetic drugs. The β-cells are able to respond to blood glucose in a narrow concentration range and release insulin in response, following activation of metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and the TCA cycle. The β-cell cannot protect itself from glucose toxicity by blocking glucose uptake, but indeed relies on alternative metabolic protection mechanisms to avoid dysfunction and death. Alteration of normal metabolic pathway function occurs as a counter regulatory response to high nutrient, inflammatory factor, hormone or therapeutic drug concentrations. Metabolic reprogramming is a term widely used to describe a change in regulation of various metabolic enzymes and transporters, usually associated with cell growth and proliferation and may involve reshaping epigenetic responses, in particular the acetylation and methylation of histone proteins and DNA. Other metabolic modifications such as Malonylation, Succinylation, Hydroxybutyrylation, ADP-ribosylation, and Lactylation, may impact regulatory processes, many of which need to be investigated in detail to contribute to current advances in metabolism. By describing multiple mechanisms of metabolic adaption that are available to the β-cell across its lifespan, we hope to identify sites for metabolic reprogramming mechanisms, most of which are incompletely described or understood. Many of these mechanisms are related to prominent antioxidant responses. Here, we have attempted to describe the key β-cell metabolic adaptions and changes which are required for survival and function in various physiological, pathological and pharmacological conditions.
    Keywords:  antidiabetic therapeutics; glucose metabolism; insulin; islet inflammation; lipid metabolism; metabolic reprogramming
  7. Nucleic Acids Res. 2022 Jan 17. pii: gkab1300. [Epub ahead of print]
      p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) regulates the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway and maintains genomic integrity. Here we found that 53BP1 functions as a molecular scaffold for the nucleoside diphosphate kinase-mediated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) which enhances the ACLY activity. This functional association is critical for promoting global histone acetylation and subsequent transcriptome-wide alterations in gene expression. Specifically, expression of a replication-dependent histone biogenesis factor, stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), is dependent upon 53BP1-ACLY-controlled acetylation at the SLBP promoter. This chain of regulation events carried out by 53BP1, ACLY, and SLBP is crucial for both quantitative and qualitative histone biogenesis as well as for the preservation of genomic integrity. Collectively, our findings reveal a previously unknown role for 53BP1 in coordinating replication-dependent histone biogenesis and highlight a DNA repair-independent function in the maintenance of genomic stability through a regulatory network that includes ACLY and SLBP.
  8. J Clin Invest. 2022 Jan 18. pii: e148548. [Epub ahead of print]132(2):
      Macrophages exposed to inflammatory stimuli including LPS undergo metabolic reprogramming to facilitate macrophage effector function. This metabolic reprogramming supports phagocytic function, cytokine release, and ROS production that are critical to protective inflammatory responses. The Krebs cycle is a central metabolic pathway within all mammalian cell types. In activated macrophages, distinct breaks in the Krebs cycle regulate macrophage effector function through the accumulation of several metabolites that were recently shown to have signaling roles in immunity. One metabolite that accumulates in macrophages because of the disturbance in the Krebs cycle is itaconate, which is derived from cis-aconitate by the enzyme cis-aconitate decarboxylase (ACOD1), encoded by immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1). This Review focuses on itaconate's emergence as a key immunometabolite with diverse roles in immunity and inflammation. These roles include inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (which controls levels of succinate, a metabolite with multiple roles in inflammation), inhibition of glycolysis at multiple levels (which will limit inflammation), activation of the antiinflammatory transcription factors Nrf2 and ATF3, and inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Itaconate and its derivatives have antiinflammatory effects in preclinical models of sepsis, viral infections, psoriasis, gout, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and pulmonary fibrosis, pointing to possible itaconate-based therapeutics for a range of inflammatory diseases. This intriguing metabolite continues to yield fascinating insights into the role of metabolic reprogramming in host defense and inflammation.