bims-meprid Biomed News
on Metabolic-dependent epigenetic reprogramming in differentiation and disease
Issue of 2020‒12‒06
nine papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. PLoS Biol. 2020 Nov 30. 18(11): e3000981
      The metabolite acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) serves as an essential element for a wide range of cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, lipid synthesis, and protein acetylation. Intracellular acetyl-CoA concentrations are associated with nutrient availability, but the mechanisms by which a cell responds to fluctuations in acetyl-CoA levels remain elusive. Here, we generate a cell system to selectively manipulate the nucleo-cytoplasmic levels of acetyl-CoA using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-mediated gene editing and acetate supplementation of the culture media. Using this system and quantitative omics analyses, we demonstrate that acetyl-CoA depletion alters the integrity of the nucleolus, impairing ribosomal RNA synthesis and evoking the ribosomal protein-dependent activation of p53. This nucleolar remodeling appears to be mediated through the class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs). Our findings highlight acetylation-mediated control of the nucleolus as an important hub linking acetyl-CoA fluctuations to cellular stress responses.
  2. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Nov 30. pii: S0891-5849(20)31628-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Epigenetic modifications influence gene expression programs ultimately dictating physiological outcomes. In the past decades, an increasing body of work has demonstrated that the enzymes that deposit and/or remove epigenetic marks on DNA or histones use metabolites as substrates or co-factors, rendering the epigenome sensitive to metabolic changes. In this context, acetyl-CoA and α-ketoglutarate have been recognized as critical for epigenetics, impinging on histone marks and nuclear DNA methylation patterns. Given that these metabolites are primarily generated in the mitochondria through the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), the requirement of proper mitochondrial function for maintenance of the epigenetic landscape seems obvious. Nevertheless, it was not until recently when the epigenomic outcomes of mitochondrial dysfunction were tested, revealing mitochondria's far-reaching impact on epigenetics. This review will focus on data that directly tested the role of mitochondria on the epigenetic landscape, the mechanisms by which mitochondrial dysfunction may dysregulate the epigenome and gene expression, and their potential implications to health and disease.
  3. Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 03. 10(1): 21146
      Cellular metabolism is directly or indirectly associated with various cellular processes by producing a variety of metabolites. Metabolic alterations may cause adverse effects on cell viability. However, some alterations potentiate the rescue of the malfunction of the cell system. Here, we found that the alteration of glucose metabolism suppressed genome instability caused by the impairment of chromatin structure. Deletion of the TDH2 gene, which encodes glyceraldehyde 3-phospho dehydrogenase and is essential for glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, partially suppressed DNA damage sensitivity due to chromatin structure, which was persistently acetylated histone H3 on lysine 56 in cells with deletions of both HST3 and HST4, encoding NAD+-dependent deacetylases. tdh2 deletion also restored the short replicative lifespan of cells with deletion of sir2, another NAD+-dependent deacetylase, by suppressing intrachromosomal recombination in rDNA repeats increased by the unacetylated histone H4 on lysine 16. tdh2 deletion also suppressed recombination between direct repeats in hst3∆ hst4∆ cells by suppressing the replication fork instability that leads to both DNA deletions among repeats. We focused on quinolinic acid (QUIN), a metabolic intermediate in the de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis pathway, which accumulated in the tdh2 deletion cells and was a candidate metabolite to suppress DNA replication fork instability. Deletion of QPT1, quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase, elevated intracellular QUIN levels and partially suppressed the DNA damage sensitivity of hst3∆ hst4∆ cells as well as tdh2∆ cells. qpt1 deletion restored the short replicative lifespan of sir2∆ cells by suppressing intrachromosomal recombination among rDNA repeats. In addition, qpt1 deletion could suppress replication fork slippage between direct repeats. These findings suggest a connection between glucose metabolism and genomic stability.
  4. Cell Metab. 2020 Dec 01. pii: S1550-4131(20)30594-5. [Epub ahead of print]32(6): 967-980.e5
      Autoimmune T cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a defect in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP production. Here, we identified suppression of the GDP-forming β subunit of succinate-CoA ligase (SUCLG2) as an underlying abnormality. SUCLG2-deficient T cells reverted the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle from the oxidative to the reductive direction, accumulated α-ketoglutarate, citrate, and acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), and differentiated into pro-inflammatory effector cells. In AcCoAhi RA T cells, tubulin acetylation stabilized the microtubule cytoskeleton and positioned mitochondria in a perinuclear location, resulting in cellular polarization, uropod formation, T cell migration, and tissue invasion. In the tissue, SUCLG2-deficient T cells functioned as cytokine-producing effector cells and were hyperinflammatory, a defect correctable by replenishing the enzyme. Preventing T cell tubulin acetylation by tubulin acetyltransferase knockdown was sufficient to inhibit synovitis. These data link mitochondrial failure and AcCoA oversupply to autoimmune tissue inflammation.
    Keywords:  T cell; acetyl-CoA; acetylation; alph-ketoglutarate; autoimmunity; citrate; microtubule; mitochondria; tissue invasion; uropod
  5. Semin Cancer Biol. 2020 Dec 01. pii: S1044-579X(20)30257-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      The non-enzymatic glycosylation or non-enzymatic covalent modifications (NECMs) or glycation of cellular proteins result in the generation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that are associated with the epigenetics of cancer. Epigenetic modifications are inheritable changes without alterations in the sequences of DNA. Glycation-mediated epigenetic mechanisms change the accessibility of transcriptional factors to DNA via rearrangement or modification in the chromatin structure and collaborate with gene regulation in the pathogenesis of cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms play a critical role in sustaining the tissue-specific gene expression. Distraction from normal epigenetic mechanism results in alteration of gene function, initiation and progression of cancer, and cellular malignant transformation. Epigenetic modifications on DNA and histones control enzymatic expressions of corresponding metabolic pathways, which in turn influence epigenetic regulation. Glycation of histones due to persistent hyperglycemia results in histone-histone and histone-DNA cross-linking in chromatin by compromising the electrostatic interactions, that affect the dynamic architecture of chromatin. Histone proteins are highly prone to glycation due to their basic nature and long half-lives, but the exact role of histone glycation in the epigenetics of cancer is still in the veil. However, recent studies have suggested the role of histone glycation mediated epigenetic modifications that affect cellular functioning by altering the gene expressions of related metabolic pathways. Moreover, dicarbonyls-induced NECMs of histones perturb the architecture of chromatin and transcription of genes via multiple mechanisms. Contrary to the genetic causes of cancer, a possible reversal of glycation-mediated epigenetic modifications might open a new realm for therapeutic interventions. In this review, we have portrayed a mechanistic link between histone glycation and cancer epigenetics.
    Keywords:  AGEs; Cancer; Epigenetics; Glycosylation; Histone
  6. Blood. 2020 Nov 30. pii: blood.2020007075. [Epub ahead of print]
      Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are common genetic alterations in myeloid disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Epigenetic changes, including abnormal histone and DNA methylation, have been implicated in the pathogenic build-up of hematopoietic progenitors, but it is still unclear whether and how IDH mutations themselves affect hematopoiesis. Here, we show that IDH1-mutant mice develop myeloid dysplasia in that these animals exhibit anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, increased immature progenitor and erythroblast. In erythroid cells of these mice, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an aberrant metabolite produced by the mutant IDH1 enzyme, inhibits oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) activity and diminishes succinyl-CoA production. This succinyl-CoA deficiency attenuates heme biosynthesis in IDH1-mutant hematopoietic cells, thus blocking erythroid differentiation at the late erythroblast stage and the erythroid commitment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), while the exogenous succinyl-CoA or 5-ALA rescues erythropoiesis in IDH1-mutant erythroid cells. Heme deficiency also impairs heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, which reduces levels of important heme catabolites such as biliverdin and bilirubin. These deficits result in accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce the cell death of IDH1-mutant erythroid cells. Our results clearly demonstrate the essential role of IDH1 in normal erythropoiesis and show how its mutation leads to myeloid disorders. Our data thus have important implications for the devising of new treatments for IDH-mutant tumors.
  7. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Nov 24. pii: E8894. [Epub ahead of print]21(23):
      Epigenetics, an inheritable phenomenon, which influences the expression of gene without altering the DNA sequence, offers a new perspective on the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is projected to account for a significant share of HCC incidence due to the growing prevalence of various metabolic disorders. One of the major molecular mechanisms involved in epigenetic regulation, post-translational histone modification seems to coordinate various aspects of NASH which will further progress to HCC. Mounting evidence suggests that the orchestrated events of cellular and nuclear changes during apoptosis can be regulated by histone modifications. This review focuses on the current advances in the study of acetylation-/methylation-mediated histone modification in apoptosis and the implication of these epigenetic regulations in HCC. The reversibility of epigenetic alterations and the agents that can target these alterations offers novel therapeutic approaches and strategies for drug development. Further molecular mechanistic studies are required to enhance information governing these epigenetic modulators, which will facilitate the design of more effective diagnosis and treatment options.
    Keywords:  HCC; NAFLD; NASH; histone acetylation; histone methylation; histone modification
  8. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2020 Dec 03. e2000769
      SCOPE: Choline is an essential nutrient and a primary dietary source of methyl groups that are vital for brain development. Low choline (LC) in the maternal diet during pregnancy alters neurogenesis in the foetal brain and leads to low cognitive performance. However, the key signalling pathways that are sensitive to maternal choline supply during neural progenitor cell (NPC) development and the epigenetic mechanisms by which choline availability regulates gene expression are unclear.METHODS AND RESULTS: Timed-pregnant Nestin-CFPnuc transgenic mice were fed either a control diet or LC diet during E11-17. Gene expression changes in sorted E17 NPCs were identified by RNA sequencing. A maternal LC diet significantly increased Tlr4 transcription, causing premature neuronal differentiation and enhanced ethanol-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. No changes in DNA methylation at the Tlr4 gene promoter region were detected; however, a 70% decrease in H3K27me3 was observed in the LC-treated NPCs. Inhibition of EZH2 decreased H3K27me3 levels and increased Tlr4 expression. Conversely, the application of catalytically inactive Cas9 with EZH2 to increase H3K27me3 at the Tlr4 promoter caused reduced Tlr4 expression.
    CONCLUSION: These data reveal an epigenetic mechanism for the effect of maternal choline availability on brain development, suggesting a likely intervention for neurodevelopmental diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Toll-like receptor 4; choline; histone modification; inflammasome; neural progenitor cell
  9. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2020 Nov 29.
      Tumor cells frequently reprogram cellular metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) has been intensely studied due to its involvement in the metabolic activity of cancer cells. Mutations in IDH2 promote neomorphic activity through the generation of oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The overproduced 2-HG can competitively inhibit α-KG-dependent dioxygenases to trigger cell differentiation disorders, a major cause of blood tumors. This review outlines recent progress in the identification of IDH2 inhibitors in blood cancer to provide reference for ongoing and future clinical studies.
    Keywords:  Blood Cancer. ; IDH2; Mutant; Inhibitors; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 2; Structure-activity relationship