bims-mepmim Biomed News
on Metabolites in pathological microenvironments and immunometabolism
Issue of 2023‒05‒21
29 papers selected by
Erika Mariana Palmieri
NIH/NCI Laboratory of Cancer ImmunoMetabolism

  1. Nat Commun. 2023 May 19. 14(1): 2876
      Tumors are comprised of a multitude of cell types spanning different microenvironments. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has the potential to identify metabolic patterns within the tumor ecosystem and surrounding tissues, but conventional workflows have not yet fully integrated the breadth of experimental techniques in metabolomics. Here, we combine MSI, stable isotope labeling, and a spatial variant of Isotopologue Spectral Analysis to map distributions of metabolite abundances, nutrient contributions, and metabolic turnover fluxes across the brains of mice harboring GL261 glioma, a widely used model for glioblastoma. When integrated with MSI, the combination of ion mobility, desorption electrospray ionization, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization reveals alterations in multiple anabolic pathways. De novo fatty acid synthesis flux is increased by approximately 3-fold in glioma relative to surrounding healthy tissue. Fatty acid elongation flux is elevated even higher at 8-fold relative to surrounding healthy tissue and highlights the importance of elongase activity in glioma.
  2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 05 23. 120(21): e2301215120
      Plasma metabolite concentrations and labeling enrichments are common measures of organismal metabolism. In mice, blood is often collected by tail snip sampling. Here, we systematically examined the effect of such sampling, relative to gold-standard sampling from an in-dwelling arterial catheter, on plasma metabolomics and stable isotope tracing. We find marked differences between the arterial and tail circulating metabolome, which arise from two major factors: handling stress and sampling site, whose effects were deconvoluted by taking a second arterial sample immediately after tail snip. Pyruvate and lactate were the most stress-sensitive plasma metabolites, rising ~14 and ~5-fold. Both acute handling stress and adrenergic agonists induce extensive, immediate production of lactate, and modest production of many other circulating metabolites, and we provide a reference set of mouse circulatory turnover fluxes with noninvasive arterial sampling to avoid such artifacts. Even in the absence of stress, lactate remains the highest flux circulating metabolite on a molar basis, and most glucose flux into the TCA cycle in fasted mice flows through circulating lactate. Thus, lactate is both a central player in unstressed mammalian metabolism and strongly produced in response to acute stress.
    Keywords:  catecholamine; in vivo; isotope tracing; metabolomics; stress
  3. Nature. 2023 May 17.
      Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal disease notoriously resistant to therapy1,2. This is mediated in part by a complex tumour microenvironment3, low vascularity4, and metabolic aberrations5,6. Although altered metabolism drives tumour progression, the spectrum of metabolites used as nutrients by PDA remains largely unknown. Here we identified uridine as a fuel for PDA in glucose-deprived conditions by assessing how more than 175 metabolites impacted metabolic activity in 21 pancreatic cell lines under nutrient restriction. Uridine utilization strongly correlated with the expression of uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1), which we demonstrate liberates uridine-derived ribose to fuel central carbon metabolism and thereby support redox balance, survival and proliferation in glucose-restricted PDA cells. In PDA, UPP1 is regulated by KRAS-MAPK signalling and is augmented by nutrient restriction. Consistently, tumours expressed high UPP1 compared with non-tumoural tissues, and UPP1 expression correlated with poor survival in cohorts of patients with PDA. Uridine is available in the tumour microenvironment, and we demonstrated that uridine-derived ribose is actively catabolized in tumours. Finally, UPP1 deletion restricted the ability of PDA cells to use uridine and blunted tumour growth in immunocompetent mouse models. Our data identify uridine utilization as an important compensatory metabolic process in nutrient-deprived PDA cells, suggesting a novel metabolic axis for PDA therapy.
  4. Cell Metab. 2023 May 05. pii: S1550-4131(23)00171-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Metabolic alterations in the microenvironment significantly modulate tumor immunosensitivity, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we report that tumors depleted of fumarate hydratase (FH) exhibit inhibition of functional CD8+ T cell activation, expansion, and efficacy, with enhanced malignant proliferative capacity. Mechanistically, FH depletion in tumor cells accumulates fumarate in the tumor interstitial fluid, and increased fumarate can directly succinate ZAP70 at C96 and C102 and abrogate its activity in infiltrating CD8+ T cells, resulting in suppressed CD8+ T cell activation and anti-tumor immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, fumarate depletion by increasing FH expression strongly enhances the anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CD19 CAR T cells. Thus, these findings demonstrate a role for fumarate in controlling TCR signaling and suggest that fumarate accumulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a metabolic barrier to CD8+ T cell anti-tumor function. And potentially, fumarate depletion could be an important strategy for tumor immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  CD8(+) T cell activation; FH; ZAP70; anti-tumor immune response; fumarate; fumarate hydrolase; succination; tumor microenvironment
  5. Cell Rep. 2023 May 18. pii: S2211-1247(23)00533-8. [Epub ahead of print]42(5): 112522
      Metabolic adaptations regulate the response of macrophages to infection. The contributions of metabolism to macrophage interactions with the emerging fungal pathogen Candida auris are poorly understood. Here, we show that C. auris-infected macrophages undergo immunometabolic reprogramming and increase glycolysis but fail to activate a strong interleukin (IL)-1β cytokine response or curb C. auris growth. Further analysis shows that C. auris relies on its own metabolic capacity to escape from macrophages and proliferate in vivo. Furthermore, C. auris kills macrophages by triggering host metabolic stress through glucose starvation. However, despite causing macrophage cell death, C. auris does not trigger robust activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Consequently, inflammasome-dependent responses remain low throughout infection. Collectively, our findings show that C. auris uses metabolic regulation to eliminate macrophages while remaining immunologically silent to ensure its own survival. Thus, our data suggest that host and pathogen metabolism could represent therapeutic targets for C. auris infections.
    Keywords:  CP: Immunology; Candida auris; NLRP3 inflammasome; immunometabolism; innate immunity; macrophage
  6. Nat Commun. 2023 May 13. 14(1): 2759
      Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging has greatly improved our understanding of spatial biology, however a robust bioinformatic pipeline for data analysis is lacking. Here, we demonstrate the application of high-dimensionality reduction/spatial clustering and histopathological annotation of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging datasets to assess tissue metabolic heterogeneity in human lung diseases. Using metabolic features identified from this pipeline, we hypothesize that metabolic channeling between glycogen and N-linked glycans is a critical metabolic process favoring pulmonary fibrosis progression. To test our hypothesis, we induced pulmonary fibrosis in two different mouse models with lysosomal glycogen utilization deficiency. Both mouse models displayed blunted N-linked glycan levels and nearly 90% reduction in endpoint fibrosis when compared to WT animals. Collectively, we provide conclusive evidence that lysosomal utilization of glycogen is required for pulmonary fibrosis progression. In summary, our study provides a roadmap to leverage spatial metabolomics to understand foundational biology in pulmonary diseases.
  7. Exp Physiol. 2023 May 15.
      NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What are the physiological roles of cardiomyocyte-derived tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) in cardiac metabolism and stress response? What is the main finding and its importance? Cardiomyocyte BH4 has a physiological role in cardiac metabolism. There was a shift of substrate preference from fatty acid to glucose in hearts with targeted deletion of BH4 synthesis. The changes in fatty-acid metabolic profile were associated with a protective effect in response to ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, and reduced infarct size. Manipulating fatty acid metabolism via BH4 availability could play a therapeutic role in limiting IR injury.ABSTRACT: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthases in which its production of NO is crucial for cardiac function. However, non-canonical roles of BH4 have been discovered recently and the cell-specific role of cardiomyocyte BH4 in cardiac function and metabolism remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we developed a novel mouse model of cardiomyocyte BH4 deficiency, by cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Gch1, which encodes guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I, a required enzyme for de novo BH4 synthesis. Cardiomyocyte (cm)Gch1 mRNA expression and BH4 levels from cmGch1 KO mice were significantly reduced compared to Gch1flox/flox (WT) littermates. Transcriptomic analyses and protein assays revealed downregulation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in cmGch1 KO hearts compared with WT, accompanied by increased triacylglycerol concentration within the myocardium. Deletion of cardiomyocyte BH4 did not alter basal cardiac function. However, the recovery of left ventricle function was improved in cmGch1 KO hearts when subjected to ex vivo ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, with reduced infarct size compared to WT hearts. Metabolomic analyses of cardiac tissue after IR revealed that long-chain fatty acids were increased in cmGch1 KO hearts compared to WT, whereas at 5 min reperfusion (post-35 min ischaemia) fatty acid metabolite levels were higher in WT compared to cmGch1 KO hearts. These results indicate a new role for BH4 in cardiomyocyte fatty acid metabolism, such that reduction of cardiomyocyte BH4 confers a protective effect in response to cardiac IR injury. Manipulating cardiac metabolism via BH4 could play a therapeutic role in limiting IR injury.
    Keywords:  cardiac metabolism; ischaemia-reperfusion injury; tetrahydrobiopterin
  8. Nat Metab. 2023 May 15.
      Glycolysis is essential for the classical activation of macrophages (M1), but how glycolytic pathway metabolites engage in this process remains to be elucidated. Glycolysis leads to production of pyruvate, which can be transported into the mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) followed by utilization in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Based on studies that used the MPC inhibitor UK5099, the mitochondrial route has been considered to be of significance for M1 activation. Using genetic approaches, here we show that the MPC is dispensable for metabolic reprogramming and activation of M1 macrophages. In addition, MPC depletion in myeloid cells has no impact on inflammatory responses and macrophage polarization toward the M1 phenotype in a mouse model of endotoxemia. While UK5099 reaches maximal MPC inhibitory capacity at approximately 2-5 μM, higher concentrations are required to inhibit inflammatory cytokine production in M1 and this is independent of MPC expression. Taken together, MPC-mediated metabolism is dispensable for the classical activation of macrophages and UK5099 inhibits inflammatory responses in M1 macrophages due to effects other than MPC inhibition.
  9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 05 23. 120(21): e2217826120
      Molecular classification of gastric cancer (GC) identified a subgroup of patients showing chemoresistance and poor prognosis, termed SEM (Stem-like/Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition/Mesenchymal) type in this study. Here, we show that SEM-type GC exhibits a distinct metabolic profile characterized by high glutaminase (GLS) levels. Unexpectedly, SEM-type GC cells are resistant to glutaminolysis inhibition. We show that under glutamine starvation, SEM-type GC cells up-regulate the 3 phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH)-mediated mitochondrial folate cycle pathway to produce NADPH as a reactive oxygen species scavenger for survival. This metabolic plasticity is associated with globally open chromatin structure in SEM-type GC cells, with ATF4/CEBPB identified as transcriptional drivers of the PHGDH-driven salvage pathway. Single-nucleus transcriptome analysis of patient-derived SEM-type GC organoids revealed intratumoral heterogeneity, with stemness-high subpopulations displaying high GLS expression, a resistance to GLS inhibition, and ATF4/CEBPB activation. Notably, coinhibition of GLS and PHGDH successfully eliminated stemness-high cancer cells. Together, these results provide insight into the metabolic plasticity of aggressive GC cells and suggest a treatment strategy for chemoresistant GC patients.
    Keywords:  3 phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase; gastric cancer; glutaminase; metabolic plasticity
  10. Nat Commun. 2023 May 15. 14(1): 2514
      Recent studies have shown that the tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) associates with immunosuppression, and that targeting the ECM can improve immune infiltration and responsiveness to immunotherapy. A question that remains unresolved is whether the ECM directly educates the immune phenotypes seen in tumors. Here, we identify a tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) population associated with poor prognosis, interruption of the cancer immunity cycle, and tumor ECM composition. To investigate whether the ECM was capable of generating this TAM phenotype, we developed a decellularized tissue model that retains the native ECM architecture and composition. Macrophages cultured on decellularized ovarian metastasis shared transcriptional profiles with the TAMs found in human tissue. ECM-educated macrophages have a tissue-remodeling and immunoregulatory phenotype, inducing altered T cell marker expression and proliferation. We conclude that the tumor ECM directly educates this macrophage population found in cancer tissues. Therefore, current and emerging cancer therapies that target the tumor ECM may be tailored to improve macrophage phenotype and their downstream regulation of immunity.
  11. Cell Death Dis. 2023 May 18. 14(5): 332
      Immune cell infiltrations with lobular inflammation in the background of steatosis and deregulated gut-liver axis are the cardinal features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). An array of gut microbiota-derived metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) multifariously modulates NASH pathogenesis. However, the molecular basis for the favorable impact of sodium butyrate (NaBu), a gut microbiota-derived SCFA, on the immunometabolic homeostasis in NASH remains elusive. We show that NaBu imparts a robust anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated or classically activated M1 polarized macrophages and in the diet-induced murine NASH model. Moreover, it impedes monocyte-derived inflammatory macrophage recruitment in liver parenchyma and induces apoptosis of proinflammatory liver macrophages (LM) in NASH livers. Mechanistically, by histone deactylase (HDAC) inhibition NaBu enhanced acetylation of canonical NF-κB subunit p65 along with its differential recruitment to the proinflammatory gene promoters independent of its nuclear translocation. NaBu-treated macrophages thus exhibit transcriptomic signatures that corroborate with a M2-like prohealing phenotype. NaBu quelled LPS-mediated catabolism and phagocytosis of macrophages, exhibited a differential secretome which consequently resulted in skewing toward prohealing phenotype and induced death of proinflammatory macrophages to abrogate metaflammation in vitro and in vivo. Thus NaBu could be a potential therapeutic as well as preventive agent in mitigating NASH.
  12. Cell Rep. 2023 May 18. pii: S2211-1247(23)00524-7. [Epub ahead of print]42(5): 112513
      Monocytes are abundant immune cells that infiltrate inflamed organs. However, the majority of monocyte studies focus on circulating cells, rather than those in tissue. Here, we identify and characterize an intravascular synovial monocyte population resembling circulating non-classical monocytes and an extravascular tissue-resident monocyte-lineage cell (TR-MC) population distinct in surface marker and transcriptional profile from circulating monocytes, dendritic cells, and tissue macrophages that are conserved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. TR-MCs are independent of NR4A1 and CCR2, long lived, and embryonically derived. TR-MCs undergo increased proliferation and reverse diapedesis dependent on LFA1 in response to arthrogenic stimuli and are required for the development of RA-like disease. Moreover, pathways that are activated in TR-MCs at the peak of arthritis overlap with those that are downregulated in LFA1-/- TR-MCs. These findings show a facet of mononuclear cell biology that could be imperative to understanding tissue-resident myeloid cell function in RA.
    Keywords:  CP: Immunology; arthritis; macrophages; monoyctes
  13. Nat Metab. 2023 May 17.
      Glucose is vital for life, serving as both a source of energy and carbon building block for growth. When glucose is limiting, alternative nutrients must be harnessed. To identify mechanisms by which cells can tolerate complete loss of glucose, we performed nutrient-sensitized genome-wide genetic screens and a PRISM growth assay across 482 cancer cell lines. We report that catabolism of uridine from the medium enables the growth of cells in the complete absence of glucose. While previous studies have shown that uridine can be salvaged to support pyrimidine synthesis in the setting of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation deficiency1, our work demonstrates that the ribose moiety of uridine or RNA can be salvaged to fulfil energy requirements via a pathway based on: (1) the phosphorylytic cleavage of uridine by uridine phosphorylase UPP1/UPP2 into uracil and ribose-1-phosphate (R1P), (2) the conversion of uridine-derived R1P into fructose-6-P and glyceraldehyde-3-P by the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway and (3) their glycolytic utilization to fuel ATP production, biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. Capacity for glycolysis from uridine-derived ribose appears widespread, and we confirm its activity in cancer lineages, primary macrophages and mice in vivo. An interesting property of this pathway is that R1P enters downstream of the initial, highly regulated steps of glucose transport and upper glycolysis. We anticipate that 'uridine bypass' of upper glycolysis could be important in the context of disease and even exploited for therapeutic purposes.
  14. Nat Metab. 2023 May 15.
      Different organs undergo distinct transcriptional, epigenetic and physiological alterations that guarantee their functional maturation after birth. However, the roles of epitranscriptomic machineries in these processes have remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that expression of RNA methyltransferase enzymes Mettl3 and Mettl14 gradually declines during postnatal liver development in male mice. Liver-specific Mettl3 deficiency causes hepatocyte hypertrophy, liver injury and growth retardation. Transcriptomic and N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) profiling identify the neutral sphingomyelinase, Smpd3, as a target of Mettl3. Decreased decay of Smpd3 transcripts due to Mettl3 deficiency results in sphingolipid metabolism rewiring, characterized by toxic ceramide accumulation and leading to mitochondrial damage and elevated endoplasmic reticulum stress. Pharmacological Smpd3 inhibition, Smpd3 knockdown or Sgms1 overexpression that counteracts Smpd3 can ameliorate the abnormality of Mettl3-deficent liver. Our findings demonstrate that Mettl3-N6-methyl-adenosine fine-tunes sphingolipid metabolism, highlighting the pivotal role of an epitranscriptomic machinery in coordination of organ growth and the timing of functional maturation during postnatal liver development.
  15. EMBO Rep. 2023 May 16. e56308
      During inflammation, monocytes differentiate within tissues into macrophages (mo-Mac) or dendritic cells (mo-DC). Whether these two populations derive from alternative differentiation pathways or represent different stages along a continuum remains unclear. Here, we address this question using temporal single-cell RNA sequencing in an in vitro model, allowing the simultaneous differentiation of human mo-Mac and mo-DC. We find divergent differentiation paths, with a fate decision occurring within the first 24 h and confirm this result in vivo using a mouse model of sterile peritonitis. Using a computational approach, we identify candidate transcription factors potentially involved in monocyte fate commitment. We demonstrate that IRF1 is necessary for mo-Mac differentiation, independently of its role in regulating transcription of interferon-stimulated genes. In addition, we describe the transcription factors ZNF366 and MAFF as regulators of mo-DC development. Our results indicate that mo-Macs and mo-DCs represent two alternative cell fates requiring distinct transcription factors for their differentiation.
    Keywords:  dendritic cells; differentiation; macrophages; monocytes
  16. J Biol Chem. 2023 May 15. pii: S0021-9258(23)01855-0. [Epub ahead of print] 104827
      Regulated tryptophan metabolism by immune cells has been associated with the promotion of tolerance and poor outcomes in cancer. The main focus of research has centered on local tryptophan depletion by IDO1, an intracellular heme-dependent oxidase that converts tryptophan to formyl-kynurenine. This is the first step of a complex pathway supplying metabolites for de novo NAD+ biosynthesis, 1-carbon metabolism and a myriad of kynurenine derivatives, of which several act as agonists of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Thus, cells that express IDO1 deplete tryptophan while generating downstream metabolites. We now know that another enzyme, the secreted L-amino acid oxidase IL4i1, also generates bioactive metabolites from tryptophan. In tumor microenvironments, IL4i1 and IDO1 have overlapping expression patterns, especially in myeloid cells, suggesting the two enzymes control a network of tryptophan-specific metabolic events. New findings about IL4i1 and IDO1 have shown that both enzymes generate a suite of metabolites that suppress the oxidative cell death ferroptosis. Thus, within inflammatory environments, IL4i1 and IDO1 simultaneously control essential amino acid depletion, AhR activation, suppression of ferroptosis and biosynthesis of key metabolic intermediates. Here, we summarize the recent advances in this field, focusing on IDO1 and IL4i1 in cancer. We speculate that while inhibition of IDO1 remains a viable adjuvant therapy for solid tumors, the overlapping effects of IL4i1 must be accounted for, as potentially both enzymes may need to be inhibited at the same time to produce positive effects in cancer therapy.
  17. Blood Adv. 2023 May 17. pii: bloodadvances.2023009813. [Epub ahead of print]
      Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not-otherwise-specified, (DLBCL), is the most common aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and a biologically heterogeneous disease. Despite the development of effective immunotherapies, the organization of the DLBCL tumor-immune microenvironment (TIME) remains poorly understood. We interrogated the intact TIME of 51 de novo DLBCLs with triplicate sampling to characterize 337,995 tumor and immune cells using a 27-plex antibody panel that captured cell lineage, architectural, and functional markers. We spatially assigned individual cells, identified local cell neighborhoods, and established their topographical organization in situ. We found that the organization of local tumor and immune cells can be modeled by six composite cell neighborhood types (CNTs). Differential CNT representation divided cases into three aggregate TIME categories: immune-deficient, dendritic-cell enriched (DC-enriched), and macrophage-enriched (Mac-enriched). Cases with immune-deficient TIMEs have tumor cell-rich CNTs wherein the few infiltrating immune cells are enriched near CD31-positive vessels in keeping with limited immune activity. Cases with DC-enriched TIMEs selectively include tumor cell-poor/immune cell-rich CNTs with high numbers of CD11c-positive dendritic cells and antigen-experienced T cells also enriched near CD31-positive vessels in keeping with increased immune activity. Cases with Mac-enriched TIMEs selectively include tumor cell-poor/immune cell-rich CNTs with high numbers of CD163-positive macrophages and CD8 T cells throughout the microenvironment, accompanied by increased IDO-1 and LAG-3 and decreased HLA-DR expression, and genetic signatures in keeping with immune evasion. Our findings reveal that the heterogenous cellular components of DLBCL are not randomly distributed but organized into CNTs that define aggregate TIMEs with distinct cellular, spatial, and functional features.
  18. JCI Insight. 2023 May 16. pii: e160652. [Epub ahead of print]
      Radiographic contact of glioblastoma (GBM) tumors with the lateral ventricle and adjacent stem cell niche correlates with poor patient prognosis, but the cellular basis of this difference is unclear. Here, we reveal and functionally characterize distinct immune microenvironments that predominate in subtypes of GBM distinguished by proximity to the lateral ventricle. Mass cytometry analysis of IDH-wildtype human tumors identified elevated T cell checkpoint receptor expression and greater abundance of a specific CD32+CD44+HLA-DRhigh macrophage population in ventricle-contacting GBM. Multiple computational analysis approaches, phospho-specific cytometry, and focal resection of GBMs confirmed and extended these findings. Phospho-flow quantified cytokine-induced immune cell signaling in ventricle-contacting GBM revealing differential signaling between GBM subtypes. Subregion analysis within a given tumor supported initial findings and revealed intratumoral compartmentalization of T cell memory and exhaustion phenotypes within GBM subtypes. Collectively, these results characterize immunotherapeutically targetable features of macrophages and suppressed lymphocytes in glioblastomas defined by MRI-detectable lateral ventricle contact.
    Keywords:  Bioinformatics; Brain cancer; Immunology; Oncology; T cells
  19. Nat Commun. 2023 May 12. 14(1): 2748
      Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP; synonym StarD2) is a soluble lipid-binding protein that transports phosphatidylcholine (PC) between cellular membranes. To better understand the protective metabolic effects associated with hepatic PC-TP, we generated a hepatocyte-specific PC-TP knockdown (L-Pctp-/-) in male mice, which gains less weight and accumulates less liver fat compared to wild-type mice when challenged with a high-fat diet. Hepatic deletion of PC-TP also reduced adipose tissue mass and decreases levels of triglycerides and phospholipids in skeletal muscle, liver and plasma. Gene expression analysis suggest that the observed metabolic changes are related to transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferative activating receptor (PPAR) family members. An in-cell protein complementation screen between lipid transfer proteins and PPARs uncovered a direct interaction between PC-TP and PPARδ that was not observed for other PPARs. We confirmed the PC-TP- PPARδ interaction in Huh7 hepatocytes, where it was found to repress PPARδ-mediated transactivation. Mutations of PC-TP residues implicated in PC binding and transfer reduce the PC-TP-PPARδ interaction and relieve PC-TP-mediated PPARδ repression. Reduction of exogenously supplied methionine and choline reduces the interaction while serum starvation enhances the interaction in cultured hepatocytes. Together our data points to a ligand sensitive PC-TP- PPARδ interaction that suppresses PPAR activity.
  20. STAR Protoc. 2023 May 12. pii: S2666-1667(23)00271-X. [Epub ahead of print]4(2): 102304
      Human subcutaneous adipocytes are an attractive therapeutic target in regulating overall physiological homeostasis. However, the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived models remains challenging. Here, we present a protocol to differentiate primary subcutaneous adipose-derived preadipocytes from human subcutaneous adipocytes and to measure lipolytic activity. We describe steps for seeding of subcutaneous preadipocytes, removal of growth factors, induction and maturation of adipocytes, removal of serum/phenol red in media, and treatment of mature adipocytes. We then detail glycerol measurement in conditioned media and its interpolation. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Coskun et al.1.
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Metabolism
  21. EMBO J. 2023 May 15. e112333
      Enteric bacteria use up to 15% of their cellular energy for ammonium assimilation via glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in response to varying ammonium availability. However, the sensory mechanisms for effective and appropriate coordination between carbon metabolism and ammonium assimilation have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that in Salmonella enterica, carbon metabolism coordinates the activities of GS/GDH via functionally reversible protein lysine acetylation. Glucose promotes Pat acetyltransferase-mediated acetylation and activation of adenylylated GS. Simultaneously, glucose induces GDH acetylation to inactivate the enzyme by impeding its catalytic centre, which is reversed upon GDH deacetylation by deacetylase CobB. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that adenylylation is required for acetylation-dependent activation of GS. We show that acetylation and deacetylation occur within minutes of "glucose shock" to promptly adapt to ammonium/carbon variation and finely balance glutamine/glutamate synthesis. Finally, in a mouse infection model, reduced S. enterica growth caused by the expression of adenylylation-mimetic GS is rescued by acetylation-mimicking mutations. Thus, glucose-driven acetylation integrates signals from ammonium assimilation and carbon metabolism to fine-tune bacterial growth control.
    Keywords:   Salmonella ; acetylation; ammonium assimilation; carbon metabolism; coordination
  22. Nat Commun. 2023 May 17. 14(1): 2807
      The adjustment of cellular redox homeostasis is essential in when responding to environmental perturbations, and the mechanism by which cells distinguish between normal and oxidized states through sensors is also important. In this study, we found that acyl-protein thioesterase 1 (APT1) is a redox sensor. Under normal physiological conditions, APT1 exists as a monomer through S-glutathionylation at C20, C22 and C37, which inhibits its enzymatic activity. Under oxidative conditions, APT1 senses the oxidative signal and is tetramerized, which makes it functional. Tetrameric APT1 depalmitoylates S-acetylated NAC (NACsa), and NACsa relocates to the nucleus, increases the cellular glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio through the upregulation of glyoxalase I expression, and resists oxidative stress. When oxidative stress is alleviated, APT1 is found in monomeric form. Here, we describe a mechanism through which APT1 mediates a fine-tuned and balanced intracellular redox system in plant defence responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and provide insights into the design of stress-resistant crops.
  23. Immunometabolism (Cobham). 2023 Apr;5(2): e00021
      Dietary saturated fats have recently been appreciated for their ability to modify innate immune cell function, including monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Many dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) embark on a unique pathway through the lymphatics following digestion, and this makes them intriguing candidates for inflammatory regulation during homeostasis and disease. Specifically, palmitic acid (PA) and diets enriched in PA have recently been implicated in driving innate immune memory in mice. PA has been shown to induce long-lasting hyper-inflammatory capacity against secondary microbial stimuli in vitro and in vivo, and PA-enriched diets alter the developmental trajectory of stem cell progenitors in the bone marrow. Perhaps the most relevant finding is the ability of exogenous PA to enhance clearance of fungal and bacterial burdens in mice; however, the same PA treatment enhances endotoxemia severity and mortality. Westernized countries are becoming increasingly dependent on SFA-enriched diets, and a deeper understanding of SFA regulation of innate immune memory is imperative in this pandemic era.
    Keywords:  CD36; ceramide; chylomicron; epigenetics; hematopoietic stem cell; inflammation; innate immune memory; ketogenic diet; macrophages; metabolism; monocytes; oleic acid; palmitic acid; priming; saturated fatty acid; toll-like receptor; trained immunity; western diet
  24. Mol Cell. 2023 May 06. pii: S1097-2765(23)00316-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial homeostasis by selective degradation of mitochondria. During mitophagy, mitochondria should be fragmented to allow engulfment within autophagosomes, whose capacity is exceeded by the typical mitochondria mass. However, the known mitochondrial fission factors, dynamin-related proteins Dnm1 in yeasts and DNM1L/Drp1 in mammals, are dispensable for mitophagy. Here, we identify Atg44 as a mitochondrial fission factor that is essential for mitophagy in yeasts, and we therefore term Atg44 and its orthologous proteins mitofissin. In mitofissin-deficient cells, a part of the mitochondria is recognized by the mitophagy machinery as cargo but cannot be enwrapped by the autophagosome precursor, the phagophore, due to a lack of mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, we show that mitofissin directly binds to lipid membranes and brings about lipid membrane fragility to facilitate membrane fission. Taken together, we propose that mitofissin acts directly on lipid membranes to drive mitochondrial fission required for mitophagy.
    Keywords:  Atg44; autophagy; crystal structure analysis; dynamin-related protein; high-speed atomic force microscopy; mitochondria; mitochondrial fission; mitofissin; mitophagy; yeast
  25. Circulation. 2023 May 18.
      BACKGROUND: The failing heart is traditionally described as metabolically inflexible and oxygen starved, causing energetic deficit and contractile dysfunction. Current metabolic modulator therapies aim to increase glucose oxidation by increasing oxygen efficiency of adenosine triphosphate production, with mixed results.METHODS: To investigate metabolic flexibility and oxygen delivery in the failing heart, 20 patients with nonischemic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction 34.9±9.1) underwent separate infusions of insulin+glucose infusion (I+G) or Intralipid infusion. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance to assess cardiac function and measured energetics using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To investigate the effects of these infusions on cardiac substrate use, function, and myocardial oxygen uptake (MVo2), invasive arteriovenous sampling and pressure-volume loops were performed (n=9).
    RESULTS: At rest, we found that the heart had considerable metabolic flexibility. During I+G, cardiac glucose uptake and oxidation were predominant (70±14% total energy substrate for adenosine triphosphate production versus 17±16% for Intralipid; P=0.002); however, no change in cardiac function was seen relative to basal conditions. In contrast, during Intralipid infusion, cardiac long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) delivery, uptake, LCFA acylcarnitine production, and fatty acid oxidation were all increased (LCFA 73±17% of total substrate versus 19±26% total during I+G; P=0.009).Myocardial energetics were better with Intralipid compared with I+G (phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate 1.86±0.25 versus 2.01±0.33; P=0.02), and systolic and diastolic function were improved (LVEF 34.9±9.1 baseline, 33.7±8.2 I+G, 39.9±9.3 Intralipid; P<0.001). During increased cardiac workload, LCFA uptake and oxidation were again increased during both infusions. There was no evidence of systolic dysfunction or lactate efflux at 65% maximal heart rate, suggesting that a metabolic switch to fat did not cause clinically meaningful ischemic metabolism.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that even in nonischemic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction with severely impaired systolic function, significant cardiac metabolic flexibility is retained, including the ability to alter substrate use to match both arterial supply and changes in workload. Increasing LCFA uptake and oxidation is associated with improved myocardial energetics and contractility. Together, these findings challenge aspects of the rationale underlying existing metabolic therapies for heart failure and suggest that strategies promoting fatty acid oxidation may form the basis for future therapies.
    Keywords:  adenosine triphosphate; heart failure; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; metabolism
  26. Cell Signal. 2023 May 17. pii: S0898-6568(23)00133-X. [Epub ahead of print] 110719
      Macrophages in hypoxic regions of advanced colorectal tumors often exhibit M2-type features, but prefer oxygen-consuming lipid catabolism, which is contradictory in oxygen demand and supply. In this study, the results from bioinformatics analysis and intestinal lesions immunohistochemistry of 40 colorectal cancer patients illustrated that glucose-regulatory protein 78 (GRP78) was positively correlated with M2 macrophages. Furthermore, tumor-secreted GRP78 could enter macrophages and polarize them to M2-type. Mechanistically, entered GRP78 located in lipid droplets of macrophages, and elevated protein stabilization of adipose triglyceride lipase ATGL by interacting with it to inhibit its ubiquitination. Increased ATGL promoted the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the production of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Excessive ARA and DHA interacted with PPARγ to encourage its activation, which mediated the M2 polarization of macrophages. In summary, our study showed that secreted GRP78 in the tumor hypoxic microenvironment mediated the domestication of tumor cells to macrophages and maintained tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment by promoting lipolysis, and the lipid catabolism not only provides energy for macrophages but also plays an important role in maintenance of immunosuppressive properties.
    Keywords:  GRP78; Lipid metabolism; Macrophage polarization; PPARγ
  27. Blood. 2023 May 16. pii: blood.2022018196. [Epub ahead of print]
      Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are very effective in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), but primitive, quiescent leukemia stem cells persist as a barrier to cure. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of metabolic adaptation to TKI treatment and its role in CML hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell persistence. Using a CML mouse model, we found that glycolysis, glutaminolysis, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were initially inhibited by TKI treatment in CML committed progenitors but were restored with continued treatment, reflecting both selection and metabolic reprogramming of specific subpopulations. TKI treatment selectively enriched primitive CML stem cells with reduced metabolic gene expression. Persistent CML stem cells also showed metabolic adaptation to TKI treatment through altered substrate utilization and maintenance of mitochondrial respiration. Evaluation of transcription factors underlying these changes identified increased HIF-1 protein levels and activity in TKI-treated stem cells. Treatment with a HIF-1 inhibitor depleted murine and human CML stem cells in combination with TKI treatment. HIF-1 inhibition increased mitochondrial activity and ROS levels, and reduced quiescence, increased cycling, and reduced self-renewal and regenerating potential of dormant CML stem cells. We therefore identify HIF-1-mediated inhibition of OXPHOS and ROS and maintenance of CML stem cell dormancy and repopulating potential as a key mechanism of CML stem cell adaptation to TKI treatment. Our results identify a key metabolic dependency in CML stem cells persisting after TKI treatment that can be targeted to enhance their elimination.
  28. Cell Death Dis. 2023 05 13. 14(5): 324
      Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation alleviates metabolic defects in diseased recipient cells by intercellular mitochondrial transport (IMT). However, the effect of host metabolic conditions on IMT and thereby on the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs has largely remained unexplored. Here we found impaired mitophagy, and reduced IMT in MSCs derived from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse (MSC-Ob). MSC-Ob failed to sequester their damaged mitochondria into LC3-dependent autophagosomes due to decrease in mitochondrial cardiolipin content, which we propose as a putative mitophagy receptor for LC3 in MSCs. Functionally, MSC-Ob exhibited diminished potential to rescue mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in stress-induced airway epithelial cells. Pharmacological modulation of MSCs enhanced cardiolipin-dependent mitophagy and restored their IMT ability to airway epithelial cells. Therapeutically, these modulated MSCs attenuated features of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in two independent mouse models by restoring healthy IMT. However, unmodulated MSC-Ob failed to do so. Notably, in human (h)MSCs, induced metabolic stress associated impaired cardiolipin-dependent mitophagy was restored upon pharmacological modulation. In summary, we have provided the first comprehensive molecular understanding of impaired mitophagy in obese-derived MSCs and highlight the importance of pharmacological modulation of these cells for therapeutic intervention. A MSCs obtained from (HFD)-induced obese mice (MSC-Ob) show underlying mitochondrial dysfunction with a concomitant decrease in cardiolipin content. These changes prevent LC3-cardiolipin interaction, thereby reducing dysfunctional mitochondria sequestration into LC3-autophagosomes and thus impaired mitophagy. The impaired mitophagy is associated with reduced intercellular mitochondrial transport (IMT) via tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) between MSC-Ob and epithelial cells in co-culture or in vivo. B Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) modulation in MSC-Ob restores mitochondrial health, cardiolipin content, and thereby sequestration of depolarized mitochondria into the autophagosomes to alleviate impaired mitophagy. Concomitantly, MSC-Ob shows restoration of mitochondrial health upon PQQ treatment (MSC-ObPQQ). During co-culture with epithelial cells or transplantation in vivo into the mice lungs, MSC-ObPQQ restores IMT and prevents epithelial cell death. C Upon transplantation in two independent allergic airway inflammatory mouse models, MSC-Ob failed to rescue the airway inflammation, hyperactivity, metabolic changes in epithelial cells. D PQQ modulated MSCs restored these metabolic defects and restored lung physiology and airway remodeling parameters.