bims-mepmim Biomed News
on Metabolites in pathological microenvironments and immunometabolism
Issue of 2023‒03‒12
24 papers selected by
Erika Mariana Palmieri
NIH/NCI Laboratory of Cancer ImmunoMetabolism

  1. Elife. 2023 Mar 08. pii: e78654. [Epub ahead of print]12
      The oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central mitochondrial pathway integrating catabolic conversions of NAD+ to NADH and anabolic production of aspartate, a key amino acid for cell proliferation. Several TCA cycle components are implicated in tumorigenesis, including loss of function mutations in subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), also known as complex II of the electron transport chain (ETC), but mechanistic understanding of how proliferating cells tolerate the metabolic defects of SDH loss is still lacking. Here, we identify that SDH supports human cell proliferation through aspartate synthesis but, unlike other ETC impairments, the effects of SDH inhibition are not ameliorated by electron acceptor supplementation. Interestingly, we find aspartate production and cell proliferation are restored to SDH-impaired cells by concomitant inhibition of ETC complex I (CI). We determine that the benefits of CI inhibition in this context depend on decreasing mitochondrial NAD+/NADH, which drives SDH-independent aspartate production through pyruvate carboxylation and reductive carboxylation of glutamine. We also find that genetic loss or restoration of SDH selects for cells with concordant CI activity, establishing distinct modalities of mitochondrial metabolism for maintaining aspartate synthesis. These data therefore identify a metabolically beneficial mechanism for CI loss in proliferating cells and reveal how compartmentalized redox changes can impact cellular fitness.
    Keywords:  biochemistry; cancer biology; chemical biology; human
  2. Nature. 2023 Mar 08.
      Metabolic rewiring underlies the effector functions of macrophages1-3, but the mechanisms involved remain incompletely defined. Here, using unbiased metabolomics and stable isotope-assisted tracing, we show that an inflammatory aspartate-argininosuccinate shunt is induced following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The shunt, supported by increased argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) expression, also leads to increased cytosolic fumarate levels and fumarate-mediated protein succination. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) further increases intracellular fumarate levels. Mitochondrial respiration is also suppressed and mitochondrial membrane potential increased. RNA sequencing and proteomics analyses demonstrate that there are strong inflammatory effects resulting from FH inhibition. Notably, acute FH inhibition suppresses interleukin-10 expression, which leads to increased tumour necrosis factor secretion, an effect recapitulated by fumarate esters. Moreover, FH inhibition, but not fumarate esters, increases interferon-β production through mechanisms that are driven by mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) release and activation of the RNA sensors TLR7, RIG-I and MDA5. This effect is recapitulated endogenously when FH is suppressed following prolonged lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Furthermore, cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus also exhibit FH suppression, which indicates a potential pathogenic role for this process in human disease. We therefore identify a protective role for FH in maintaining appropriate macrophage cytokine and interferon responses.
  3. Cell Rep. 2023 Mar 09. pii: S2211-1247(23)00229-2. [Epub ahead of print]42(3): 112218
      Metabolic routing of nicotinamide (NAM) to NAD+ or 1-methylnicotinamide (MeNAM) has impacts on human health and aging. NAM is imported by cells or liberated from NAD+. The fate of 2H4-NAM in cultured cells, mice, and humans was determined by stable isotope tracing. 2H4-NAM is an NAD+ precursor via the salvage pathway in cultured A549 cells and human PBMCs and in A549 cell xenografts and PBMCs from 2H4-NAM-dosed mice and humans, respectively. 2H4-NAM is a MeNAM precursor in A549 cell cultures and xenografts, but not isolated PBMCs. NAM released from NAD+ is a poor MeNAM precursor. Additional A549 cell tracer studies yielded further mechanistic insight. NAMPT activators promote NAD+ synthesis and consumption. Surprisingly, NAM liberated from NAD+ in NAMPT activator-treated A549 cells is also routed toward MeNAM production. Metabolic fate mapping of the dual NAM sources across the translational spectrum (cells, mice, humans) illuminates a key regulatory node governing NAD+ and MeNAM synthesis.
    Keywords:  1-methylnicotinamide; CP: Metabolism; NAD; NAMPT; NAMPT activator; metabolite tracing; nicotinamide; salvage pathway
  4. Nat Metab. 2023 Mar 06.
      Depriving cells of nutrients triggers an energetic crisis, which is resolved by metabolic rewiring and organelle reorganization. Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles at the cell surface, capable of integrating multiple metabolic and signalling cues, but their precise sensory function is not fully understood. Here we show that primary cilia respond to nutrient availability and adjust their length via glutamine-mediated anaplerosis facilitated by asparagine synthetase (ASNS). Nutrient deprivation causes cilia elongation, mediated by reduced mitochondrial function, ATP availability and AMPK activation independently of mTORC1. Of note, glutamine removal and replenishment is necessary and sufficient to induce ciliary elongation or retraction, respectively, under nutrient stress conditions both in vivo and in vitro by restoring mitochondrial anaplerosis via ASNS-dependent glutamate generation. Ift88-mutant cells lacking cilia show reduced glutamine-dependent mitochondrial anaplerosis during metabolic stress, due to reduced expression and activity of ASNS at the base of cilia. Our data indicate a role for cilia in responding to, and possibly sensing, cellular glutamine levels via ASNS during metabolic stress.
  5. Nature. 2023 Mar 08.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Immunology; Metabolism
  6. Cancer Res. 2023 Mar 09. pii: CAN-22-1999. [Epub ahead of print]
      Induction of ferroptosis, a recently defined form of nonapoptotic cell death caused by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, has emerged as an anti-cancer strategy. Erastin is a ferroptosis activator that promotes cell death that not only depends on the depletion of cellular cysteine but also relies on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of glutamine. Here, we demonstrate that ASS1, a key enzyme involved in the urea cycle, plays a crucial role in ferroptosis resistance. Loss of ASS1 increased the sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to erastin in vitro and decreased tumor growth in vivo. Metabolomics analysis with stable isotope-labeled glutamine showed that ASS1 promotes reductive carboxylation of cytosolic glutamine and compromises the oxidative TCA cycle from glutamine anaplerosis, reducing mitochondrial-derived lipid reactive oxygen species. Moreover, transcriptome sequencing showed that ASS1 activates the mTORC1-SREBP1-SCD5 axis to promote de novo monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis by utilizing acetyl-CoA derived from the glutamine reductive pathway. Treating ASS1-deficient NSCLC cells with erastin combined with arginine deprivation significantly enhanced cell death compared to either treatment alone. Collectively, these results reveal a previously unknown regulatory role of ASS1 in ferroptosis resistance and provide a potential therapeutic target for ASS1-deficient NSCLC.
  7. Nature. 2023 Mar 08.
      Mutations in fumarate hydratase (FH) cause hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma1. Loss of FH in the kidney elicits several oncogenic signalling cascades through the accumulation of the oncometabolite fumarate2. However, although the long-term consequences of FH loss have been described, the acute response has not so far been investigated. Here we generated an inducible mouse model to study the chronology of FH loss in the kidney. We show that loss of FH leads to early alterations of mitochondrial morphology and the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol, where it triggers the activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) pathway and stimulates an inflammatory response that is also partially dependent on retinoic-acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Mechanistically, we show that this phenotype is mediated by fumarate and occurs selectively through mitochondrial-derived vesicles in a manner that depends on sorting nexin 9 (SNX9). These results reveal that increased levels of intracellular fumarate induce a remodelling of the mitochondrial network and the generation of mitochondrial-derived vesicles, which allows the release of mtDNAin the cytosol and subsequent activation of the innate immune response.
  8. Elife. 2023 Mar 06. pii: e85494. [Epub ahead of print]12
      Recent studies reveal that lateral mitochondrial transfer, the movement of mitochondria from one cell to another, can affect cellular and tissue homeostasis1,2. Most of what we know about mitochondrial transfer stems from bulk cell studies and have led to the paradigm that functional transferred mitochondria restore bioenergetics and revitalize cellular functions to recipient cells with damaged or non-functional mitochondrial networks3. However, we show that mitochondrial transfer also occurs between cells with functioning endogenous mitochondrial networks, but the mechanisms underlying how transferred mitochondria can promote such sustained behavioral reprogramming remain unclear. We report that unexpectedly, transferred macrophage mitochondria are dysfunctional and accumulate reactive oxygen species in recipient cancer cells. We further discovered that reactive oxygen species accumulation activates ERK signaling, promoting cancer cell proliferation. Pro-tumorigenic macrophages exhibit fragmented mitochondrial networks, leading to higher rates of mitochondrial transfer to cancer cells. Finally, we observe that macrophage mitochondrial transfer promotes tumor cell proliferation in vivo. Collectively these results indicate that transferred macrophage mitochondria activate downstream signaling pathways in a ROS-dependent manner in cancer cells, and provide a model of how sustained behavioral reprogramming can be mediated by a relatively small amount of transferred mitochondria in vitro and in vivo.
    Keywords:  cancer biology; cell biology; human; mouse
  9. Cell Metab. 2023 Mar 06. pii: S1550-4131(23)00049-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      The metabolic state represents a major hurdle for an effective adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). Indeed, specific lipids can harm CD8+ T cell (CTL) mitochondrial integrity, leading to defective antitumor responses. However, the extent to which lipids can affect the CTL functions and fate remains unexplored. Here, we show that linoleic acid (LA) is a major positive regulator of CTL activity by improving metabolic fitness, preventing exhaustion, and stimulating a memory-like phenotype with superior effector functions. We report that LA treatment enhances the formation of ER-mitochondria contacts (MERC), which in turn promotes calcium (Ca2+) signaling, mitochondrial energetics, and CTL effector functions. As a direct consequence, the antitumor potency of LA-instructed CD8 T cells is superior in vitro and in vivo. We thus propose LA treatment as an ACT potentiator in tumor therapy.
    Keywords:  CD8 T cells; adoptive T cell therapy; linoleic acid; lipid metabolism; metabolic fitness
  10. Nat Chem Biol. 2023 Mar 09.
      Anaerobic microbial metabolism drives critical functions within global ecosystems, host-microbiota interactions, and industrial applications, yet remains ill-defined. Here we advance a versatile approach to elaborate cellular metabolism in obligate anaerobes using the pathogen Clostridioides difficile, an amino acid and carbohydrate-fermenting Clostridia. High-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of C. difficile, grown with fermentable 13C substrates, informed dynamic flux balance analysis (dFBA) of the pathogen's genome-scale metabolism. Analyses identified dynamic recruitment of oxidative and supporting reductive pathways, with integration of high-flux amino acid and glycolytic metabolism at alanine's biosynthesis to support efficient energy generation, nitrogen handling and biomass generation. Model predictions informed an approach leveraging the sensitivity of 13C NMR spectroscopy to simultaneously track cellular carbon and nitrogen flow from [U-13C]glucose and [15N]leucine, confirming the formation of [13C,15N]alanine. Findings identify metabolic strategies used by C. difficile to support its rapid colonization and expansion in gut ecosystems.
  11. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2023 Mar 09. 28(1): 21
      Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important molecules released by endothelial cells, and its antiatherogenic properties support cardiovascular homeostasis. Diminished NO bioavailability is a common hallmark of endothelial dysfunction underlying the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular disease. Vascular NO is synthesized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) from the substrate L-arginine (L-Arg), with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as an essential cofactor. Cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, aging, or smoking increase vascular oxidative stress that strongly affects eNOS activity and leads to eNOS uncoupling. Uncoupled eNOS produces superoxide anion (O2-) instead of NO, thus becoming a source of harmful free radicals exacerbating the oxidative stress further. eNOS uncoupling is thought to be one of the major underlying causes of endothelial dysfunction observed in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Here, we discuss the main mechanisms of eNOS uncoupling, including oxidative depletion of the critical eNOS cofactor BH4, deficiency of eNOS substrate L-Arg, or accumulation of its analog asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), and eNOS S-glutathionylation. Moreover, potential therapeutic approaches that prevent eNOS uncoupling by improving cofactor availability, restoration of L-Arg/ADMA ratio, or modulation of eNOS S-glutathionylation are briefly outlined.
    Keywords:  ADMA; BH4; Cardiovascular disease; Endothelial dysfunction; Nitric oxide; Oxidative/nitroxidative stress; Peroxynitrite; Tetrahydrobiopterin; eNOS uncoupling
  12. Elife. 2023 Mar 06. pii: e81926. [Epub ahead of print]12
      During severe or chronic hepatic injury, biliary epithelial cells (BECs) undergo rapid activation into proliferating progenitors, a crucial step required to establish a regenerative process known as ductular reaction (DR). While DR is a hallmark of chronic liver diseases, including advanced stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the early events underlying BEC activation are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that BECs readily accumulate lipids during high-fat diet feeding in mice and upon fatty acid treatment in BEC-derived organoids. Lipid overload induces metabolic rewiring to support the conversion of adult cholangiocytes into reactive BECs. Mechanistically, we found that lipid overload activates the E2F transcription factors in BECs, which drives cell cycle progression while promoting glycolytic metabolism. These findings demonstrate that fat overload is sufficient to reprogram BECs into progenitor cells in the early stages of NAFLD and provide new insights into the mechanistic basis of this process, revealing unexpected connections between lipid metabolism, stemness, and regeneration.
    Keywords:  mouse; regenerative medicine; stem cells
  13. iScience. 2023 Mar 17. 26(3): 106195
      Aberrant mechanotransduction and compromised epithelial barrier function are associated with numerous human pathologies including inflammatory skin disorders. However, the cytoskeletal mechanisms regulating inflammatory responses in the epidermis are not well understood. Here we addressed this question by inducing a psoriatic phenotype in human keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis using a cytokine stimulation model. We show that the inflammation upregulates the Rho-myosin II pathway and destabilizes adherens junctions (AJs) promoting YAP nuclear entry. The integrity of cell-cell adhesion but not the myosin II contractility per se is the determinative factor for the YAP regulation in epidermal keratinocytes. The inflammation-induced disruption of AJs, increased paracellular permeability, and YAP nuclear translocation are regulated by ROCK2, independently from myosin II activation. Using a specific inhibitor KD025, we show that ROCK2 executes its effects via cytoskeletal and transcription-dependent mechanisms to shape the inflammatory response in the epidermis.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Genomics; Immune response; Immunology
  14. Cell Discov. 2023 Mar 06. 9(1): 25
      Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an immunotherapy-resistant malignancy characterized by high cellular heterogeneity. The diversity of cell types and the interplay between tumor and non-tumor cells remain to be clarified. Single cell RNA sequencing of human and mouse HCC tumors revealed heterogeneity of cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF). Cross-species analysis determined the prominent CD36+ CAFs exhibited high-level lipid metabolism and expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Lineage-tracing assays showed CD36+CAFs were derived from hepatic stellate cells. Furthermore, CD36 mediated oxidized LDL uptake-dependent MIF expression via lipid peroxidation/p38/CEBPs axis in CD36+ CAFs, which recruited CD33+myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in MIF- and CD74-dependent manner. Co-implantation of CD36+ CAFs with HCC cells promotes HCC progression in vivo. Finally, CD36 inhibitor synergizes with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy by restoring antitumor T-cell responses in HCC. Our work underscores the importance of elucidating the function of specific CAF subset in understanding the interplay between the tumor microenvironment and immune system.
  15. Mol Cell Biochem. 2023 Mar 08.
      Breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) has an incidence of 10-30%. It is incurable and the biological mechanisms that promote its progression remain largely undefined. Consequently, to gain insights into BCBM processes, we have developed a spontaneous mouse model of BCBM and in this study found a 20% penetrance of macro-metastatic brain lesion formation. Considering that lipid metabolism is indispensable to metastatic progression, our goal was the mapping of lipid distributions throughout the metastatic regions of the brain. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) of lipids revealed that, relative to surrounding brain tissue, seven long-chain (13-21 carbons long) fatty acylcarnitines, as well as two phosphatidylcholines, two phosphatidylinositols two diacylglycerols, a long-chain phosphatidylethanolamine, and a long-chain sphingomyelin were highly concentrated in the metastatic brain lesion In broad terms, lipids known to be enriched in brain tissues, such as very long-chain (≥ 22 carbons in length) polyunsaturated fatty acid of phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelins, sulfatides, phosphatidylinositol phosphates, and galactosylceramides, were not found or only found in trace amounts in the metastatic lesion and instead consistently detected in surrounding brain tissues. The data, from this mouse model, highlights an accumulation of fatty acylcarnitines as possible biological makers of a chaotic inefficient vasculature within the metastasis, resulting in relatively inadequate blood flow and disruption of fatty acid β-oxidation due to ischemia/hypoxia.
    Keywords:  Acylcarnitines; Brain metastasis; Breast cancer; Lipid distributions; MALDI-MSI
  16. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Mar 14. 120(11): e2213886120
      Lysosomes are catabolic organelles involved in macromolecular digestion, and their dysfunction is associated with pathologies ranging from lysosomal storage disorders to common neurodegenerative diseases, many of which have lipid accumulation phenotypes. The mechanism of lipid efflux from lysosomes is well understood for cholesterol, while the export of other lipids, particularly sphingosine, is less well studied. To overcome this knowledge gap, we have developed functionalized sphingosine and cholesterol probes that allow us to follow their metabolism, protein interactions, and their subcellular localization. These probes feature a modified cage group for lysosomal targeting and controlled release of the active lipids with high temporal precision. An additional photocrosslinkable group allowed for the discovery of lysosomal interactors for both sphingosine and cholesterol. In this way, we found that two lysosomal cholesterol transporters, NPC1 and to a lesser extent LIMP-2/SCARB2, bind to sphingosine and showed that their absence leads to lysosomal sphingosine accumulation which hints at a sphingosine transport role of both proteins. Furthermore, artificial elevation of lysosomal sphingosine levels impaired cholesterol efflux, consistent with sphingosine and cholesterol sharing a common export mechanism.
    Keywords:  lysosomal storage diseases; organelle-targeted probes; photocrosslinking; protein–lipid interaction; sphingolipids
  17. iScience. 2023 Mar 17. 26(3): 106193
      The posttranslational modification lysine malonylation is found in many proteins, including histones. However, it remains unclear whether histone malonylation is regulated or functionally relevant. Here, we report that availability of malonyl-co-enzyme A (malonyl-CoA), an endogenous malonyl donor, affects lysine malonylation, and that the deacylase SIRT5 selectively reduces malonylation of histones. To determine if histone malonylation is enzymatically catalyzed, we knocked down each of the 22 lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) to test their malonyltransferase potential. KAT2A knockdown in particular reduced histone malonylation levels. By mass spectrometry, H2B_K5 was highly malonylated and regulated by SIRT5 in mouse brain and liver. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the malonyl-CoA producing enzyme, was partly localized in the nucleolus, and histone malonylation increased nucleolar area and ribosomal RNA expression. Levels of global lysine malonylation and ACC expression were higher in older mouse brains than younger mice. These experiments highlight the role of histone malonylation in ribosomal gene expression.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Molecular biology; Omics; Proteomics
  18. FASEB J. 2023 Apr;37(4): e22838
      Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis is associated with reduced chondrocyte homeostasis and increased levels of cartilage cellular senescence. Chondrosenescence is the development of cartilage senescence that increases with aging joints and disrupts chondrocyte homeostasis and is associated with OA. Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) activation in cartilage via intra-articular injection of liposomal A2AR agonist, liposomal-CGS21680, leads to cartilage regeneration in vivo and chondrocyte homeostasis. A2AR knockout mice develop early OA isolated chondrocytes demonstrate upregulated expression of cellular senescence and aging-associated genes. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that A2AR activation would ameliorate cartilage senescence. We found that A2AR stimulation of chondrocytes reduced beta-galactosidase staining and regulated levels and cell localization of common senescence mediators p21 and p16 in vitro in the human TC28a2 chondrocyte cell line. In vivo analysis similarly showed A2AR activation reduced nuclear p21 and p16 in obesity-induced OA mice injected with liposomal-CGS21680 and increased nuclear p21 and p16 in A2AR knockout mouse chondrocytes compared to wild-type mice. A2AR agonism also increased activity of the chondrocyte Sirt1/AMPK energy-sensing pathway by enhancing nuclear Sirt1 localization and upregulating T172-phosphorylated (active) AMPK protein levels. Lastly, A2AR activation in TC28a2 and primary human chondrocytes reduced wild-type p53 and concomitantly increased p53 alternative splicing leading to increase in an anti-senescent p53 variant, Δ133p53α. The results reported here indicate that A2AR signaling promotes chondrocyte homeostasis in vitro and reduces OA cartilage development in vivo by reducing chondrocyte senescence.
    Keywords:  adenosine; adenosine A2A receptor; aging; cartilage; chondrocytes; osteoarthritis; p53 variants; senescence
  19. Cell Metab. 2023 Mar 07. pii: S1550-4131(23)00038-4. [Epub ahead of print]35(3): 386-413
      Adipose tissue exhibits remarkable plasticity with capacity to change in size and cellular composition under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The emergence of single-cell transcriptomics has rapidly transformed our understanding of the diverse array of cell types and cell states residing in adipose tissues and has provided insight into how transcriptional changes in individual cell types contribute to tissue plasticity. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of the cellular atlas of adipose tissues focusing on the biological insight gained from single-cell and single-nuclei transcriptomics of murine and human adipose tissues. We also offer our perspective on the exciting opportunities for mapping cellular transitions and crosstalk, which have been made possible by single-cell technologies.
    Keywords:  adipocytes; adipogenesis; adipose tissue plasticity; cellular heterogeneity; fibro-adipogenic progenitors; inflammation; macrophages; preadipocytes; single-cell sequencing; single-nuclei sequencing
  20. PNAS Nexus. 2023 Feb;2(2): pgad007
      Human monocarboxylate/H+ transporters, MCT, facilitate the transmembrane translocation of vital weak acid metabolites, mainly l-lactate. Tumors exhibiting a Warburg effect rely on MCT activity for l-lactate release. Recently, high-resolution MCT structures revealed binding sites for anticancer drug candidates and the substrate. Three charged residues, Lys 38, Asp 309, and Arg 313 (MCT1 numbering) are essential for substrate binding and initiation of the alternating access conformational change. However, the mechanism by which the proton cosubstrate binds and traverses MCTs remained elusive. Here, we report that substitution of Lys 38 by neutral residues maintained MCT functionality in principle, yet required strongly acidic pH conditions for wildtype-like transport velocity. We determined pH-dependent biophysical transport properties, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and heavy water effects for MCT1 wildtype and Lys 38 mutants. Our experimental data provide evidence for the bound substrate itself to accept and shuttle a proton from Lys 38 to Asp 309 initiating transport. We have shown before that substrate protonation is a pivotal step in the mechanisms of other MCT-unrelated weak acid translocating proteins. In connection with this study, we conclude that utilization of the proton binding and transfer capabilities of the transporter-bound substrate is probably a universal theme for weak acid anion/H+ cotransport.
    Keywords:  lactate; mechanism; monocarboxylate transporter; mutagenesis; proton
  21. Cell Chem Biol. 2023 Mar 01. pii: S2451-9456(23)00055-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modulate protein function through cysteine oxidation. Identifying protein targets of ROS can provide insight into uncharacterized ROS-regulated pathways. Several redox-proteomic workflows, such as oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), exist to identify sites of cysteine oxidation. However, determining ROS targets localized within subcellular compartments and ROS hotspots remains challenging with existing workflows. Here, we present a chemoproteomic platform, PL-OxICAT, which combines proximity labeling (PL) with OxICAT to monitor localized cysteine oxidation events. We show that TurboID-based PL-OxICAT can monitor cysteine oxidation events within subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space. Furthermore, we use ascorbate peroxidase (APEX)-based PL-OxICAT to monitor oxidation events within ROS hotspots by using endogenous ROS as the source of peroxide for APEX activation. Together, these platforms further hone our ability to monitor cysteine oxidation events within specific subcellular locations and ROS hotspots and provide a deeper understanding of the protein targets of endogenous and exogenous ROS.
    Keywords:  APEX; OxICAT; TurboID; cysteine oxidation; proximity labeling; reactive oxygen species
  22. iScience. 2023 Mar 17. 26(3): 106150
      Glucose transporters are gatekeepers of cellular glucose metabolism. Understanding how their activity is regulated can provide insight into mechanisms of glucose homeostasis and diseases arising from dysregulation of glucose transport. Glucose stimulates endocytosis of the human glucose transporter GLUT1, but several important questions remain surrounding the intracellular trafficking itinerary of GLUT1. Here, we report that increased glucose availability triggers lysosomal trafficking of GLUT1 in HeLa cells, with a subpopulation of GLUT1 routed through ESCRT-associated late endosomes. This itinerary requires the arrestin-like protein TXNIP, which interacts with both clathrin and E3 ubiquitin ligases to promote GLUT1 lysosomal trafficking. We also find that glucose stimulates GLUT1 ubiquitylation, which promotes its lysosomal trafficking. Our results suggest that excess glucose first triggers TXNIP-mediated endocytosis of GLUT1 and, subsequently, ubiquitylation to promote lysosomal trafficking. Our findings underscore how complex coordination of multiple regulators is required for fine-tuning of GLUT1 stability at the cell surface.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Cell biology; Molecular biology
  23. Science. 2023 Mar 10. 379(6636): 996-1003
      Metabolic networks are interconnected and influence diverse cellular processes. The protein-metabolite interactions that mediate these networks are frequently low affinity and challenging to systematically discover. We developed mass spectrometry integrated with equilibrium dialysis for the discovery of allostery systematically (MIDAS) to identify such interactions. Analysis of 33 enzymes from human carbohydrate metabolism identified 830 protein-metabolite interactions, including known regulators, substrates, and products as well as previously unreported interactions. We functionally validated a subset of interactions, including the isoform-specific inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase by long-chain acyl-coenzyme A. Cell treatment with fatty acids caused a loss of pyruvate-lactate interconversion dependent on lactate dehydrogenase isoform expression. These protein-metabolite interactions may contribute to the dynamic, tissue-specific metabolic flexibility that enables growth and survival in an ever-changing nutrient environment.
  24. Nat Commun. 2023 Mar 10. 14(1): 1323
      Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) senescence correlates with the increase of cardiovascular diseases in ageing population. Although ECs rely on glycolysis for energy production, little is known about the role of glycolysis in ECs senescence. Here, we report a critical role for glycolysis-derived serine biosynthesis in preventing ECs senescence. During senescence, the expression of serine biosynthetic enzyme PHGDH is significantly reduced due to decreased transcription of the activating transcription factor ATF4, which leads to reduction of intracellular serine. PHGDH prevents premature senescence primarily by enhancing the stability and activity of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). Mechanistically, PHGDH interacts with PKM2, which prevents PCAF-catalyzed PKM2 K305 acetylation and subsequent degradation by autophagy. In addition, PHGDH facilitates p300-catalyzed PKM2 K433 acetylation, which promotes PKM2 nuclear translocation and stimulates its activity to phosphorylate H3T11 and regulate the transcription of senescence-associated genes. Vascular endothelium-targeted expression of PHGDH and PKM2 ameliorates ageing in mice. Our findings reveal that enhancing serine biosynthesis could become a therapy to promote healthy ageing.