bims-mepmim Biomed News
on Metabolites in pathological microenvironments and immunometabolism
Issue of 2023‒01‒22
24 papers selected by
Erika Mariana Palmieri
NIH/NCI Laboratory of Cancer ImmunoMetabolism

  1. Nat Cell Biol. 2023 Jan 19.
      Coenzyme Q (or ubiquinone) is a redox-active lipid that serves as universal electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and antioxidant in the plasma membrane limiting lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis. Mechanisms allowing cellular coenzyme Q distribution after synthesis within mitochondria are not understood. Here we identify the cytosolic lipid transfer protein STARD7 as a critical factor of intracellular coenzyme Q transport and suppressor of ferroptosis. Dual localization of STARD7 to the intermembrane space of mitochondria and the cytosol upon cleavage by the rhomboid protease PARL ensures the synthesis of coenzyme Q in mitochondria and its transport to the plasma membrane. While mitochondrial STARD7 preserves coenzyme Q synthesis, oxidative phosphorylation function and cristae morphogenesis, cytosolic STARD7 is required for the transport of coenzyme Q to the plasma membrane and protects against ferroptosis. A coenzyme Q variant competes with phosphatidylcholine for binding to purified STARD7 in vitro. Overexpression of cytosolic STARD7 increases ferroptotic resistance of the cells, but limits coenzyme Q abundance in mitochondria and respiratory cell growth. Our findings thus demonstrate the need to coordinate coenzyme Q synthesis and cellular distribution by PARL-mediated STARD7 processing and identify PARL and STARD7 as promising targets to interfere with ferroptosis.
  2. Nat Rev Cancer. 2023 Jan 19.
      Few metabolites can claim a more central and versatile role in cell metabolism than acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). Acetyl-CoA is produced during nutrient catabolism to fuel the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is the essential building block for fatty acid and isoprenoid biosynthesis. It also functions as a signalling metabolite as the substrate for lysine acetylation reactions, enabling the modulation of protein functions in response to acetyl-CoA availability. Recent years have seen exciting advances in our understanding of acetyl-CoA metabolism in normal physiology and in cancer, buoyed by new mouse models, in vivo stable-isotope tracing approaches and improved methods for measuring acetyl-CoA, including in specific subcellular compartments. Efforts to target acetyl-CoA metabolic enzymes are also advancing, with one therapeutic agent targeting acetyl-CoA synthesis receiving approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. In this Review, we give an overview of the regulation and cancer relevance of major metabolic pathways in which acetyl-CoA participates. We further discuss recent advances in understanding acetyl-CoA metabolism in normal tissues and tumours and the potential for targeting these pathways therapeutically. We conclude with a commentary on emerging nodes of acetyl-CoA metabolism that may impact cancer biology.
  3. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2023 Jan 16. 45(1): 765-781
      Neuroinflammation is one of the common features in most neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis (MScl) and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is associated with local brain inflammation, microglial activation, and infiltration of peripheral immune cells into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the central nervous system (CNS). It has been shown that the diversity of phenotypic changes in monocytes in CSF relates to neuroinflammation. It remains to be investigated whether these phenotypic changes are associated with functional or metabolic alteration, which may give a hint to their function or changes in cell states, e.g., cell activation. In this article, we investigate whether major metabolic pathways of blood monocytes alter after exposure to CSF of healthy individuals or patients with AD or MScl. Our findings show a significant alteration of the metabolism of monocytes treated with CSF from patients and healthy donors, including higher production of citric acid and glutamine, suggesting a more active glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and reduced production of glycine and serine. These alterations suggest metabolic reprogramming of monocytes, possibly related to the change of compartment (from blood to CSF) and/or disease-related. Moreover, the levels of serine differ between AD and MScl, suggesting different phenotypic alterations between diseases.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer; cerebrospinal fluid; glycolysis; metabolism; metabolites; monocytes; multiple sclerosis; neuroinflammation; tricarboxylic acid cycle
  4. Methods Mol Biol. 2023 ;2625 89-102
      The emerging field of lipidomics presents the systems biology approach to identify and quantify the full lipid repertoire of cells, tissues, and organisms. The importance of the lipidome is demonstrated by a number of biological studies on dysregulation of lipid metabolism in human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Exploring changes and regulations in the huge networks of lipids and their metabolic pathways requires a lipidomics methodology: advanced mass spectrometry that resolves the complexity of the lipidome. Here, we report a comprehensive protocol of quantitative shotgun lipidomics that enables identification and quantification of hundreds of molecular lipid species, covering a wide range of lipid classes, extracted from cultured mammalian cells.
    Keywords:  Lipid extraction; Lipidome profiling; Lipidomics; Mammalian cells; Mass spectrometry; Quantification; Shotgun lipidomics; Systems biology
  5. Elife. 2023 Jan 17. pii: e83075. [Epub ahead of print]12
      Analogues of the hepatokine FGF21 are in clinical development for type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) treatment. Although their glucose-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects have been largely unraveled, the mechanisms by which they alleviate liver injury have only been scarcely addressed. Here, we aimed to unveil the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of FGF21 on NASH using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for human-like metabolic diseases. Liver-specific FGF21 overexpression was achieved in mice, followed by administration of a high-fat high-cholesterol diet for 23 weeks. FGF21 prevented hepatic lipotoxicity, accompanied by activation of thermogenic tissues and attenuation of adipose tissue inflammation, improvement of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and upregulation of hepatic programs involved in fatty acid oxidation and cholesterol removal. Furthermore, FGF21 inhibited hepatic inflammation, as evidenced by reduced Kupffer cell (KC) activation, diminished monocyte infiltration and lowered accumulation of monocyte-derived macrophages. Moreover, FGF21 decreased lipid- and scar-associated macrophages, which correlated with less hepatic fibrosis as demonstrated by reduced collagen accumulation. Collectively, hepatic FGF21 overexpression limits hepatic lipotoxicity, inflammation and fibrogenesis. Mechanistically, FGF21 blocks hepatic lipid influx and accumulation through combined endocrine and autocrine signaling, respectively, which prevents KC activation and lowers the presence of lipid- and scar-associated macrophages to inhibit fibrogenesis.
    Keywords:  immunology; inflammation; medicine; mouse
  6. Nat Metab. 2023 Jan 16.
      In cell models, changes in the 'accessible' pool of plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol are linked with the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum sterol synthesis and metabolism by the Aster family of nonvesicular transporters; however, the relevance of such nonvesicular transport mechanisms for lipid homeostasis in vivo has not been defined. Here we reveal two physiological contexts that generate accessible PM cholesterol and engage the Aster pathway in the liver: fasting and reverse cholesterol transport. During fasting, adipose-tissue-derived fatty acids activate hepatocyte sphingomyelinase to liberate sequestered PM cholesterol. Aster-dependent cholesterol transport during fasting facilitates cholesteryl ester formation, cholesterol movement into bile and very low-density lipoprotein production. During reverse cholesterol transport, high-density lipoprotein delivers excess cholesterol to the hepatocyte PM through scavenger receptor class B member 1. Loss of hepatic Asters impairs cholesterol movement into feces, raises plasma cholesterol levels and causes cholesterol accumulation in peripheral tissues. These results reveal fundamental mechanisms by which Aster cholesterol flux contributes to hepatic and systemic lipid homeostasis.
  7. Nat Metab. 2023 Jan 19.
      Oxidative stress modulates carcinogenesis in the liver; however, direct evidence for metabolic control of oxidative stress during pathogenesis, particularly, of progression from cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has been lacking. Deficiency of transaldolase (TAL), a rate-limiting enzyme of the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), restricts growth and predisposes to cirrhosis and HCC in mice and humans. Here, we show that mitochondrial oxidative stress and progression from cirrhosis to HCC and acetaminophen-induced liver necrosis are critically dependent on NADPH depletion and polyol buildup by aldose reductase (AR), while this enzyme protects from carbon trapping in the PPP and growth restriction in TAL deficiency. Both TAL and AR are confined to the cytosol; however, their inactivation distorts mitochondrial redox homeostasis in opposite directions. The results suggest that AR acts as a rheostat of carbon recycling and NADPH output of the PPP with broad implications for disease progression from cirrhosis to HCC.
  8. Nat Immunol. 2023 Jan 19.
      Immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion by plasma cells, terminally differentiated B cells residing in the intestinal lamina propria, assures microbiome homeostasis and protects the host against enteric infections. Exposure to diet-derived and commensal-derived signals provides immune cells with organizing cues that instruct their effector function and dynamically shape intestinal immune responses at the mucosal barrier. Recent data have described metabolic and microbial inputs controlling T cell and innate lymphoid cell activation in the gut; however, whether IgA-secreting lamina propria plasma cells are tuned by local stimuli is completely unknown. Although antibody secretion is considered to be imprinted during B cell differentiation and therefore largely unaffected by environmental changes, a rapid modulation of IgA levels in response to intestinal fluctuations might be beneficial to the host. In the present study, we showed that dietary cholesterol absorption and commensal recognition by duodenal intestinal epithelial cells lead to the production of oxysterols, evolutionarily conserved lipids with immunomodulatory functions. Using conditional cholesterol 25-hydroxylase deleter mouse line we demonstrated that 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol from epithelial cells is critical to restrain IgA secretion against commensal- and pathogen-derived antigens in the gut. Intestinal plasma cells sense oxysterols via the chemoattractant receptor GPR183 and couple their tissue positioning with IgA secretion. Our findings revealed a new mechanism linking dietary cholesterol and humoral immune responses centered around plasma cell localization for efficient mucosal protection.
  9. Cell Rep. 2023 Jan 17. pii: S2211-1247(22)01830-7. [Epub ahead of print]42(1): 111929
      The cellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer (CRC) are poorly understood, hindering patient treatment. In the current study, we investigate whether events occurring at the invasion front are of particular importance for CRC treatment strategies. To this end, we analyze CRC tissues by combining spatial transcriptomics from patients with a public single-cell transcriptomic atlas to determine cell-cell interactions at the invasion front. We show that CRC cells are localized specifically at the invasion front. These cells induce human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) to produce secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)+ macrophages while conferring CRC cells with anti-tumor immunity, as well as proliferative and invasive properties. Taken together, these findings highlight the signaling between CRC cell populations and stromal cell populations at the cellular level.
    Keywords:  CP: Cancer; budding; cell invasion; cell proliferation; colorectal cancer; immune tolerance; single-cell transcriptome; spatial transcriptomics; tumor microenvironment
  10. Immunometabolism (Cobham). 2023 Jan;5(1): e00014
      Challenges regarding successful immunotherapy are associated with the heterogeneity of tumors and the complex interactions within the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME), particularly those between immune and tumor cells. Of interest, T cells receive a myriad of environmental signals to elicit differentiation to effector subtypes, which is accompanied by metabolic reprogramming needed to satisfy the high energy and biosynthetic demands of their activated state. However, T cells are subjected to immunosuppressive signals and areas of oxygen and nutrient depletion in the TME, which causes T-cell exhaustion and helps tumor cells escape immune detection. The cytosolic and mitochondrial branched chain amino transferases, BCATc and BCATm, respectively, are responsible for the first step of the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation, of which, metabolites are shunted into various metabolic processes. In recent years, BCAT isoenzymes have been investigated for their role in a variety of cancers found throughout the body; however, a gap of knowledge exists regarding the role BCAT isoenzymes play within immune cells of the TME. The aim of this review is to summarize recent findings about BCAAs and their catabolism at the BCAT step during T-cell metabolic reprogramming and to discuss the BCAT putative role in the anti-tumor immunity of T cells. Not only does this review acknowledges gaps pertaining to BCAA metabolism in the TME but it also identifies the practical application of BCAA metabolism in T cells in response to cancer and spotlights a potential target for pharmacological intervention.
    Keywords:  BCAA; BCATc; BCATm; TME; immunotherapy; leucine
  11. JCI Insight. 2023 Jan 19. pii: e163820. [Epub ahead of print]
      Hypoxia is a sentinel feature of IPF. The IPF microenvironment contains high lactate levels and hypoxia enhances cellular lactate production. Lactate, acting through the GPR81 lactate receptor, serves as a signal molecule regulating cellular processes. We previously identified intrinsically fibrogenic mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) in the lungs of IPF patients that drive fibrosis. However, whether hypoxia enhances IPF MPC fibrogenicity is unclear. We hypothesized that hypoxia increases IPF MPC fibrogenicity via lactate and its cognate receptor GPR81. Here we show that hypoxia promotes IPF MPC self-renewal. The mechanism involves hypoxia-mediated enhancement of LDHA function and lactate production and release. Hypoxia also increases HIF1α levels, which in turn augments the expression of GPR81. Exogenous lactate operating through GPR81 promotes IPF MPC self-renewal. IHC analysis of IPF lung tissue demonstrate IPF MPCs expressing GPR81 and hypoxic markers on the periphery of the fibroblastic focus. We show that hypoxia enhances IPF MPC fibrogenicity in vivo. We demonstrate that knock-down of GPR81 inhibits hypoxia-induced IPF MPC self-renewal in vitro and attenuates hypoxia-induced IPF MPC fibrogenicity in vivo. Our data demonstrate that hypoxia creates a feed-forward loop that augments IPF MPC fibrogenicity via the lactate/GPR81/HIF1α pathway.
    Keywords:  Adult stem cells; Hypoxia; Pulmonology; Stem cells
  12. Redox Biol. 2023 Jan 10. pii: S2213-2317(23)00006-X. [Epub ahead of print]60 102605
      Earlier studies revealed the presence of cysteine persulfide (CysSSH) and related polysulfide species in various mammalian tissues. CysSSH has both antioxidant and oxidant properties, modulates redox-dependent signal transduction and has been shown to mitigate oxidative stress. However, its functional relevance in the setting of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains unknown. The present study was undertaken to (1) study the dynamics of production and consumption of persulfides under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in the heart, and (2) determine whether exogenous administration of the CysSSH donor, cysteine trisulfide (Cys-SSS-Cys) at the onset of reperfusion rescues functional impairment and myocardial damage by interfering with lipid peroxidation. Utilising a well-established ex vivo Langendorff murine model, we here demonstrate that endogenous tissue concentrations of CysSSH are upregulated when oxygen supply is compromised (global myocardial ischaemia) and rapidly restored to baseline levels upon reperfusion, suggestive of active regulation. In a separate set of experiments, exogenous administration of Cys-SSS-Cys for 10 min at the onset of reperfusion was found to decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, formation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein adducts and rescue the heart from injury. Cys-SSS-Cys also restored post-ischaemic cardiac function, improving both coronary flow and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP). Taken together, these results support the notion that endogenous CysSSH plays an important role as a "redox preconditioning" agent to combat the oxidative insult in myocardial IRI.
    Keywords:  Cysteine persulfide; Hydrogen sulfide; Hypoxia; Ischaemia-reperfusion injury; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress
  13. J Biol Chem. 2023 Jan 12. pii: S0021-9258(23)00034-0. [Epub ahead of print] 102902
      The programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) is highly expressed on the surface of antigen-specific exhausted T cells and, upon interaction with its ligand PD-L1, can result in inhibition of the immune response. Anti-PD-1 treatment has been shown to extend survival and result in durable responses in several cancers, yet only a subset of patients benefits from this therapy. Despite the implication of metabolic alteration following cancer immunotherapy, mechanistic associations between anti-tumor responses and metabolic changes remain unclear. Here, we used desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging to examine the lipid profiles of tumor tissue from three syngeneic murine models with varying treatment sensitivity at the baseline and at three time points post-anti-PD-1 therapy. These imaging experiments revealed specific alterations in the lipid profiles associated with the degree of response to treatment and allowed us to identify a significant increase of long-chain polyunsaturated lipids within responsive tumors following anti-PD-1 therapy. Immunofluorescence imaging of tumor tissues also demonstrated that the altered lipid profile associated with treatment response is localized to dense regions of tumor immune infiltrates. Overall, these results indicate that effective anti-PD-1 therapy modulates lipid metabolism in tumor immune infiltrates, and we thereby propose that further investigation of the related immune-metabolic pathways may be useful for better understanding success and failure of anti-PD-1 therapy.
    Keywords:  ambient ionization; anti-PD-1; cellular immune response; desorption electrospray ionization; immunotherapy; lipid metabolism; mass spectrometry; molecular imaging; tumor microenvironment
  14. Cell Rep. 2023 Jan 18. pii: S2211-1247(23)00022-0. [Epub ahead of print]42(1): 112011
      Systemic metabolites serving as danger-associated molecular patterns play crucial roles in modulating the development, differentiation, and activity of innate immune cells. Yet, it is unclear how innate immune cells detect systemic metabolites for signal transmission. Here, we show that bile acids function as endogenous mitofusin 2 (MFN2) ligands and differentially modulate innate immune response to bacterial infection under cholestatic and physiological conditions. Bile acids at high concentrations promote mitochondrial tethering to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to calcium overload in the mitochondrion, which activates NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis. By contrast, at physiologically relevant low concentrations, bile acids promote mitochondrial fusion, leading to enhanced oxidative phosphorylation and thereby strengthening infiltrated macrophages mediated phagocytotic clearance of bacteria. These findings support that bile acids, as endogenous activators of MFN2, are vital for tuning innate immune responses against infections, representing a causal link that connects systemic metabolism with mitochondrial dynamics in shaping innate immunity.
    Keywords:  Bile acids; CP: Metabolism; CP: Molecular biology; Infection; Macrophage; Metabolism; Mitochondrion; Mitofusin 2
  15. Methods Mol Biol. 2023 ;2625 1-6
      Mitochondria participate in many important metabolic processes in the body. The lipid profile of mitochondria is especially important in membrane regulation and pathway signaling. The isolation and study of these lipids can provide unparalleled information about the mechanisms behind these cellular processes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol to isolate mitochondrial lipids from homogenized murine optic nerves. The lipid extraction was performed using butanol-methanol (BUME) and subsequently analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Further analysis of the raw data was conducted using LipidSearch™ and MetaboAnalyst 4.0.
    Keywords:  Lipidomics; Liquid chromatography; Mitochondrial lipids; Neurodegeneration; mass spectrometry
  16. J Lipid Res. 2023 Jan 11. pii: S0022-2275(23)00003-2. [Epub ahead of print] 100330
      It has been postulated that inflammasomes, in particular the NLRP3 inflammasome, mediate the necroinflammation and fibrosis that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by engaging innate immune responses. We aimed to investigate the impact of genetic deletion or pharmacologic inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome on experimental steatohepatitis. Global Nlrp3 knockout (expected to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome) or Casp1 knockout (expected to inhibit all inflammasomes) mice were compared to wild-type controls after six months on a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC, 1% cholesterol) diet known to induce fibrosing steatohepatitis. Additionally, wild-type mice on a HFHC diet (0.75% or 0.5% cholesterol) for six months were either treated or not treated with an oral, pharmacologic inhibitor of Nlrp3 (MCC950) that was delivered in the drinking water (0.3mg/mL). We found that genetic deletion or pharmacologic inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome did not ameliorate any of the histological components of fibrosing NASH in HFHC-fed mice. Collectively, these results do not support NLRP3 inhibition as a potential target for human NASH.
    Keywords:  Cholesterol; Dietary fat; Fatty liver; Fibrosis; Inflammation; Innate immune responses; Lipids; Liver; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
  17. Cell Rep. 2023 Jan 18. pii: S2211-1247(23)00010-4. [Epub ahead of print]42(1): 111999
      Substrate degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in specific membrane compartments remains elusive. Here, we show that the interplay of two lipid modifications and PDE6δ regulates compartmental substrate targeting via the SCFFBXL2. FBXL2 is palmitoylated in a prenylation-dependent manner on cysteines 417 and 419 juxtaposed to the CaaX motif. Palmitoylation/depalmitoylation regulates its subcellular trafficking for substrate engagement and degradation. To control its subcellular distribution, lipid-modified FBXL2 interacts with PDE6δ. Perturbing the equilibrium between FBXL2 and PDE6δ disrupts the delivery of FBXL2 to all membrane compartments, whereas depalmitoylated FBXL2 is enriched on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Depalmitoylated FBXL2(C417S/C419S) promotes the degradation of IP3R3 at the ER, inhibits IP3R3-dependent mitochondrial calcium overload, and counteracts calcium-dependent cell death upon oxidative stress. In contrast, disrupting the PDE6δ-FBXL2 equilibrium has the opposite effect. These findings describe a mechanism underlying spatially-restricted substrate degradation and suggest that inhibition of FBXL2 palmitoylation and/or binding to PDE6δ may offer therapeutic benefits.
    Keywords:  CP: Cell biology; CP: Molecular biology; E3-ligases; PDE6δ; calcium homeostasis; cell membranes; oxidative stress; palmitoylation; prenylation; protein degradation; trafficking; ubiquitylation
  18. Mol Metab. 2023 Jan 13. pii: S2212-8778(23)00004-2. [Epub ahead of print] 101670
      OBJECTIVE: Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is central to physical activity, exercise capacity and whole-body metabolism. The three estrogen related receptors (ERRs) are regulators of oxidative metabolism in many cell types, yet their roles in skeletal muscle remain unclear. The main aim of this study was to compare the relative contributions of ERRs to oxidative capacity in glycolytic and oxidative muscle, and to determine defects associated with loss of skeletal muscle ERR function.METHODS: We assessed ERR expression, generated mice lacking one or two ERRs specifically in skeletal muscle and compared the effects of ERR loss on the transcriptomes of EDL (predominantly glycolytic) and soleus (oxidative) muscles. We also determined the consequences of the loss of ERRs for exercise capacity and energy metabolism in mice with the most severe loss of ERR activity.
    RESULTS: ERRs are induced in skeletal muscle in response to an exercise bout. Mice lacking both ERRα and ERRγ (ERRα/γ dmKO) had the broadest and most dramatic disruption in skeletal muscle gene expression. The most affected pathway was "mitochondrial function", in particular Oxphos and TCA cycle genes, and transcriptional defects were more pronounced in the glycolytic EDL than the oxidative soleus. Mice lacking ERRβ and ERRγ, the two isoforms expressed highly in oxidative muscles, also exhibited defects in lipid and branch chain amino acid metabolism genes, specifically in the soleus. The pronounced disruption of oxidative metabolism in ERRα/γ dmKO mice led to pale muscles, decreased oxidative capacity, histochemical patterns reminiscent of minicore myopathies, and severe exercise intolerance, with the dmKO mice unable to switch to lipid utilization upon running. ERRα/γ dmKO mice showed no defects in whole-body glucose and energy homeostasis.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings define gene expression programs in skeletal muscle that depend on different combinations of ERRs, and establish a central role for ERRs in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism and exercise capacity. Our data reveal a high degree of functional redundancy among muscle ERR isoforms for the protection of oxidative capacity, and show that ERR isoform-specific phenotypes are driven in part, but not exclusively, by their relative levels in different muscles.
    Keywords:  Estrogen related receptor (ERR); Exercise capacity; Exercise intolerance; Mitochondrial oxidative metabolism; Multi-minicore myopathy; Skeletal muscle
  19. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Jan 24. 120(4): e2212813120
      The immune system must be able to respond to a myriad of different threats, each requiring a distinct type of response. Here, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic lysine deacetylase HDAC7 in macrophages is a metabolic switch that triages danger signals to enable the most appropriate immune response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and soluble signals indicating distal or far-away danger trigger HDAC7-dependent glycolysis and proinflammatory IL-1β production. In contrast, HDAC7 initiates the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) for NADPH and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in response to the more proximal threat of nearby bacteria, as exemplified by studies on uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). HDAC7-mediated PPP engagement via 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) generates NADPH for antimicrobial ROS production, as well as D-ribulose-5-phosphate (RL5P) that both synergizes with ROS for UPEC killing and suppresses selective inflammatory responses. This dual functionality of the HDAC7-6PGD-RL5P axis prioritizes responses to proximal threats. Our findings thus reveal that the PPP metabolite RL5P has both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities and that engagement of enzymes in catabolic versus anabolic metabolic pathways triages responses to different types of danger for generation of inflammatory versus antimicrobial responses, respectively.
    Keywords:  immunometabolism; inflammation; macrophages; pentose phosphate pathway; uropathogenic Escherichia coli
  20. EMBO J. 2023 Jan 17. e110468
      Genetic lesions in X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) pre-dispose humans to cell death-associated inflammatory diseases, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that two patients with XIAP deficiency-associated inflammatory bowel disease display increased inflammatory IL-1β maturation as well as cell death-associated caspase-8 and Gasdermin D (GSDMD) processing in diseased tissue, which is reduced upon patient treatment. Loss of XIAP leads to caspase-8-driven cell death and bioactive IL-1β release that is only abrogated by combined deletion of the apoptotic and pyroptotic cell death machinery. Namely, extrinsic apoptotic caspase-8 promotes pyroptotic GSDMD processing that kills macrophages lacking both inflammasome and apoptosis signalling components (caspase-1, -3, -7, -11 and BID), while caspase-8 can still cause cell death in the absence of both GSDMD and GSDME when caspase-3 and caspase-7 are present. Neither caspase-3 and caspase-7-mediated activation of the pannexin-1 channel, or GSDMD loss, prevented NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and consequent caspase-1 and IL-1β maturation downstream of XIAP inhibition and caspase-8 activation, even though the pannexin-1 channel was required for NLRP3 triggering upon mitochondrial apoptosis. These findings uncouple the mechanisms of cell death and NLRP3 activation resulting from extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signalling, reveal how XIAP loss can co-opt dual cell death programs, and uncover strategies for targeting the cell death and inflammatory pathways that result from XIAP deficiency.
    Keywords:  Gasdermin D; XIAP; caspase-8; inflammasome; pyroptosis
  21. Methods Mol Biol. 2023 ;2625 103-106
      Lipids serve an essential role in multiple cellular functions including signaling, metabolism, energy storage, and membrane constitution. Lipidomics, the study of lipids using analytical chemistry, allows for the study of disease states and cellular metabolism. Shotgun lipidomics is a technique that involves direct-infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) and analysis with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is ideally suited for lipidomics analysis because it allows for class-specific identification of lipids. Individual lipid class can be identified by the adjustment of three parameters-collision energy, ion mode, and scan type. This chapter describes the use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the TSQ Quantum Access MAX, to perform lipidomics analysis with high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision.
    Keywords:  Lipidomics; Lipids; Mass spectrometry; Shotgun lipidomics; Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry
  22. Clin Sci (Lond). 2023 Jan 20. pii: CS20220753. [Epub ahead of print]
      The dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO) is a major precursor in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). MGO and AGEs are increased in subjects with diabetes and are associated with fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease. Previously we have shown that plasma MGO concentrations rapidly increase in the postprandial phase, with a higher increase in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In current study, we investigated whether postprandial MGO formation in plasma and tissues originates from exogenous glucose and whether the increased plasma MGO concentration leads to a fast formation of MGO-derived AGEs. We performed a stable isotope labelled oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 healthy males with universally labelled D(+)13C glucose. Analysis of plasma labelled 13C3 MGO and glucose levels at eleven time-points during the OGTT revealed that the newly formed MGO during OGTT is completely derived from exogenous glucose. Moreover, a fast formation of protein-bound MGO-derived AGEs during the OGTT was observed. In accordance, ex vivo incubation of MGO with plasma or albumin showed a rapid decrease of MGO and a fast increase of MGO-derived AGEs. In an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test in C57BL/6J mice, we confirmed that the formation of postprandial MGO is derived from exogenous glucose in plasma and also showed in tissues that MGO is increased and this is also from exogenous glucose. Collectively, increased formation of MGO during a glucose tolerance test arises from exogenous glucose both in plasma and in tissues, and this leads to a fast formation of MGO-derived AGEs.
    Keywords:  advanced glycation end products; diabetes; methylglyoxal; methylglyoxal stress