bims-mepmim Biomed News
on Metabolites in pathological microenvironments and immunometabolism
Issue of 2023‒01‒01
25 papers selected by
Erika Mariana Palmieri
NIH/NCI Laboratory of Cancer ImmunoMetabolism

  1. Cell Rep. 2022 Dec 27. pii: S2211-1247(22)01793-4. [Epub ahead of print]41(13): 111894
      Paradoxically, glucose, the primary driver of satiety, activates a small population of anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Here, we show that lactate levels in the circulation and in the cerebrospinal fluid are elevated in the fed state and the addition of lactate to glucose activates the majority of POMC neurons while increasing cytosolic NADH generation, mitochondrial respiration, and extracellular pyruvate levels. Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenases diminishes mitochondrial respiration, NADH production, and POMC neuronal activity. However, inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier has no effect. POMC-specific downregulation of Ucp2 (Ucp2PomcKO), a molecule regulated by fatty acid metabolism and shown to play a role as transporter in the malate-aspartate shuttle, abolishes lactate- and glucose-sensing of POMC neurons. Ucp2PomcKO mice have impaired glucose metabolism and are prone to obesity on a high-fat diet. Altogether, our data show that lactate through redox signaling and blocking mitochondrial glucose utilization activates POMC neurons to regulate feeding and glucose metabolism.
    Keywords:  CP: Metabolism; CP: Neuroscience; NADH; UCP2; feeding behavior; glucose; hypothalamus; lactate; lipid utilization; mitochondria; pro-opiomelanocortin neurons; redox signaling
  2. Cell Metab. 2022 Dec 21. pii: S1550-4131(22)00542-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance (efferocytosis) is performed by phagocytes, such as macrophages, that inhabit harsh physiological environments. Here, we find that macrophages display enhanced efferocytosis under prolonged (chronic) physiological hypoxia, characterized by increased internalization and accelerated degradation of ACs. Transcriptional and translational analyses revealed that chronic physiological hypoxia induces two distinct but complimentary states. The first, "primed" state, consists of concomitant transcription and translation of metabolic programs in AC-naive macrophages that persist during efferocytosis. The second, "poised" state, consists of transcription, but not translation, of phagocyte function programs in AC-naive macrophages that are translated during efferocytosis. Mechanistically, macrophages efficiently flux glucose into a noncanonical pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) loop to enhance NADPH production. PPP-derived NADPH directly supports enhanced efferocytosis under physiological hypoxia by ensuring phagolysosomal maturation and redox homeostasis. Thus, macrophages residing under physiological hypoxia adopt states that support cell fitness and ensure performance of essential homeostatic functions rapidly and safely.
    Keywords:  apoptotic cell clearance; cellular adaptation; efferocytosis; homeostasis; metabolism; oxygen; pentose phosphate pathway; physiological hypoxia
  3. Cell Discov. 2022 Dec 28. 8(1): 141
      Folate (vitamin B9) is the coenzyme involved in one-carbon transfer biochemical reactions essential for cell survival and proliferation, with its inadequacy causing developmental defects or severe diseases. Notably, mammalian cells lack the ability to de novo synthesize folate but instead rely on its intake from extracellular sources via specific transporters or receptors, among which SLC19A1 is the ubiquitously expressed one in tissues. However, the mechanism of substrate recognition by SLC19A1 remains unclear. Here we report the cryo-EM structures of human SLC19A1 and its complex with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate at 3.5-3.6 Å resolution and elucidate the critical residues for substrate recognition. In particular, we reveal that two variant residues among SLC19 subfamily members designate the specificity for folate. Moreover, we identify intracellular thiamine pyrophosphate as the favorite coupled substrate for folate transport by SLC19A1. Together, this work establishes the molecular basis of substrate recognition by this central folate transporter.
  4. Eur J Immunol. 2022 Dec 28. e2149691
      The CD11c+ MHCII+ compartment within GM-CSF cultures consists of a MHCIIlow CD11bhigh population (GM-Macs) and a MHCIIhigh CD11bint population (GM-DCs), with different metabolic profiles. GM-Macs upregulate iNOS and produce nitric oxide (NO) upon TLR activation inhibiting mitochondrial respiration (OXPHOS) while promoting glycolytic metabolism in GM-DCs, which naturally do not express iNOS.
    Keywords:  DC metabolism; GM-CSF; dendritic cells; in vitro culture; nitric oxide
  5. J Biol Chem. 2022 Dec 26. pii: S0021-9258(22)01281-9. [Epub ahead of print] 102838
      The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, otherwise known as the Krebs cycle, is a central metabolic pathway that performs the essential function of oxidizing nutrients to support cellular bioenergetics. More recently, it has become evident that TCA cycle behavior is dynamic and products of the TCA cycle can be co-opted in cancer and other pathologic states. In this review, we revisit the TCA cycle, including its potential origins and the history of its discovery. We provide a detailed accounting of the requirements for sustained TCA cycle function and the critical regulatory nodes that can stimulate or constrain TCA cycle activity. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of the flexibility of TCA cycle wiring and the increasingly appreciated heterogeneity in TCA cycle activity exhibited by mammalian cells. Deeper insight into how the TCA cycle can be differentially regulated and, consequently, configured in different contexts will shed light on how this pathway is primed to meet the requirements of distinct mammalian cell states.
  6. J Biol Chem. 2022 Dec 26. pii: S0021-9258(22)01280-7. [Epub ahead of print] 102837
      A high-salt diet significantly impacts various diseases, including cancer and immune diseases. Recent studies suggest that the high-salt/hyperosmotic environment in the body may alter the chronic properties of cancer and immune cells in the disease context. However, little is known about the acute metabolic changes in hyperosmotic stress. Here, we found that hyperosmotic stress for a few minutes induces Warburg-like metabolic remodeling in HeLa and Raw264.7 cells and suppresses fatty acid oxidation. Regarding Warburg-like remodeling, we determined that the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation status was altered bidirectionally (high in hyperosmolarity and low in hypoosmolarity) to osmotic stress in isolated mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondria themselves have an acute osmo-sensing mechanism. Additionally, we demonstrate that Warburg-like remodeling is required for HeLa cells to maintain ATP levels and survive under hyperosmotic conditions. Collectively, our findings suggest that cells exhibit acute metabolic remodeling under osmotic stress via the regulation of PDH phosphorylation by direct osmosensing within mitochondria.
    Keywords:  Acyl-carnitine; Metabolic remodeling; Mitochondria; Osmotic stress; Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  7. J Biol Chem. 2022 Dec 26. pii: S0021-9258(22)01278-9. [Epub ahead of print] 102835
      Tetraspanins are transmembrane signaling and pro-inflammatory proteins. Prior work demonstrates the tetraspanin, CD53/TSPAN25/MOX44 mediates B-cell development, and lymphocyte homing and migration to lymph nodes, and is implicated in various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis and microbial infection. However, CD53 is also expressed in highly metabolic tissues, including adipose and liver, yet its function outside of the lymphoid compartment is not defined. Here, we show that CD53 demarcates the nutritional and inflammatory status of hepatocytes. High-fat exposure and inflammatory stimuli induced CD53 in vivo in liver and in isolated primary hepatocytes. In contrast, restricting hepatocyte glucose flux through hepatocyte GLUT8 deletion, or through trehalose treatment blocked CD53 induction in fat- and fructose-exposed contexts. Furthermore, germline CD53 deletion in vivo blocked western diet-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic inflammatory transcriptomic activation. Surprisingly, metabolic protection in CD53 KO mice was more pronounced in the presence of an inciting inflammatory event. CD53 deletion attenuated TNFα-induced and fatty acid + lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine gene expression and hepatocyte triglyceride accumulation in isolated murine hepatocytes. In vivo, CD53 deletion in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-diet-fed mice blocked peripheral adipose accumulation and adipose inflammation, insulin tolerance, and liver lipid accumulation. We then define a stabilized, trehalase-resistant trehalose polymer that blocks hepatocyte CD53 expression in basal and over-fed contexts. The data suggest that CD53 integrates inflammatory and metabolic signals in response to hepatocyte nutritional status, and that CD53 blockade may be an effective means by which to attenuate pathophysiology in diseases that integrate overnutrition and inflammation, such as NASH and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Keywords:  CD53; FGF21; GLUT; MOX44 Liver; TSPAN25; Tetraspanin; arginase; autophagy; caloric restriction; diabetes; energy metabolism; fasting; glucose transport; insulin resistance; lactotrehalose; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; obesity; polymers; proteomics; thermogenesis; trehalose
  8. Redox Biol. 2022 Dec 24. pii: S2213-2317(22)00357-3. [Epub ahead of print]59 102585
      N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is synthesized by the mitochondrial enzyme NAT8L, which uses acetyl-CoA and aspartate as substrates. These metabolites are fundamental for bioenergetics and anabolic requirements of highly proliferating cells, thus, NAT8L modulation may impinge on the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. Specifically, aspartate represents a limiting amino acid for nucleotide synthesis in cancer. Here, the expression of the NAT8L enzyme was modulated to verify how it impacts the metabolic adaptations and proliferative capacity of hepatocellular carcinoma. We demonstrated that NAT8L downregulation is associated with increased proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and immortalized hepatocytes. The overexpression of NAT8L instead decreased cell growth. The pro-tumoral effect of NAT8L silencing depended on glutamine oxidation and the rewiring of glucose metabolism. Mechanistically, NAT8L downregulation triggers aspartate outflow from mitochondria via the exporter SLC25A13 to promote glucose flux into the pentose phosphate pathway, boosting purine biosynthesis. These results were corroborated by the analyses of human and mouse hepatocellular carcinoma samples revealing a decrease in NAT8L expression compared to adjacent non-tumoral tissues. Overall, this work demonstrates that NAT8L expression in liver cells limits the cytosolic availability of aspartate necessary for enhancing the pentose phosphate pathway and purine biosynthesis, counteracting cell proliferation.
    Keywords:  Aspartate; Mitochondria; NAA; Nucleotides; Pentose phosphate pathway
  9. Cell Rep. 2022 Dec 27. pii: S2211-1247(22)01768-5. [Epub ahead of print]41(13): 111872
      Despite the abundance of capillary thin-strand pericytes and their proximity to neurons and glia, little is known of the contributions of these cells to the control of brain hemodynamics. We demonstrate that the pharmacological activation of thin-strand pericyte KATP channels profoundly hyperpolarizes these cells, dilates upstream penetrating arterioles and arteriole-proximate capillaries, and increases capillary blood flow. Focal stimulation of pericytes with a KATP channel agonist is sufficient to evoke this response, mediated via KIR2.1 channel-dependent retrograde propagation of hyperpolarizing signals, whereas genetic inactivation of pericyte KATP channels eliminates these effects. Critically, we show that decreasing extracellular glucose to less than 1 mM or inhibiting glucose uptake by blocking GLUT1 transporters in vivo flips a mechanistic energy switch driving rapid KATP-mediated pericyte hyperpolarization to increase local blood flow. Together, our findings recast capillary pericytes as metabolic sentinels that respond to local energy deficits by increasing blood flow to neurons to prevent energetic shortfalls.
    Keywords:  CP: Neuroscience; K(IR) channels; KATP channels; capillaries; cerebral blood flow; endothelial cells; energy; functional hyperemia; glucose; metabolism; neurovascular coupling; pericytes
  10. Cancer Immunol Res. 2022 Dec 27. pii: CIR-22-0387. [Epub ahead of print]
      Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule produced by NO synthases (NOS1-3) to control processes such as neurotransmission, vascular permeability, and immune function. Although myeloid cell-derived NO has been shown to suppress T-cell responses, the role of NO synthesis in T cells themselves is not well understood. Here, we showed that significant amounts of NO were synthesized in human and murine CD8+ T cells following activation. Tumor growth was significantly accelerated in a T cell-specific, Nos2-null mouse model. Genetic deletion of Nos2 expression in murine T cells altered effector differentiation, reduced tumor infiltration, and inhibited recall responses and adoptive cell transfer function. These data show that endogenous NO production plays a critical role in T cell-mediated tumor immunity.
  11. Int Immunopharmacol. 2022 Dec 24. pii: S1567-5769(22)01049-9. [Epub ahead of print]115 109564
      Macrophages, a versatile subset of immune cells, are essential for successful bone repair. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter associated with tissue development and repair. Emerging evidence demonstrates that H2S is involved in bone formation under physiology condition and bone regeneration under pathology condition. However, whether hydrogen sulfide mediates osteogenesis by influencing macrophages is unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of hydrogen sulfide on macrophage polarization and the subsequent impact on bone regeneration. In the present study, we found that the H2S-donor GYY4137 stimulated M0/M1 macrophages to express high level of CD-206 and IL-10 but decreased the levels of i-NOS and TNF-α in M1 macrophages. Furthermore, coculture of GYY4137-treated M0 macrophages with pro-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells significantly increased the viability of the MC3T3-E1 cells. Importantly, the formation of mineralized particles in MC3T3-E1 cells was significantly promoted following coculture with IL-4-treated and GYY4137-treated M0 macrophages. Collectively, our study demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide increased macrophages M2 polarization and subsequently promoted bone regeneration.
    Keywords:  Bone regeneration; Hydrogen sulfide; Inflammation; Macrophages; Polarization
  12. J Exp Med. 2023 Mar 06. pii: e20221073. [Epub ahead of print]220(3):
      Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are functionally poised, tissue-resident lymphocytes that respond rapidly to damage and infection at mucosal barrier sites. ILC2 reside within complex microenvironments where they are subject to cues from both the diet and invading pathogens-including helminths. Emerging evidence suggests ILC2 are acutely sensitive not only to canonical activating signals but also perturbations in nutrient availability. In the context of helminth infection, we identify amino acid availability as a nutritional cue in regulating ILC2 responses. ILC2 are found to be uniquely preprimed to import amino acids via the large neutral amino acid transporters Slc7a5 and Slc7a8. Cell-intrinsic deletion of these transporters individually impaired ILC2 expansion, while concurrent loss of both transporters markedly impaired the proliferative and cytokine-producing capacity of ILC2. Mechanistically, amino acid uptake determined the magnitude of ILC2 responses in part via tuning of mTOR. These findings implicate essential amino acids as a metabolic requisite for optimal ILC2 responses within mucosal barrier tissues.
  13. Nat Commun. 2022 Dec 27. 13(1): 7965
      Ferroptosis is a type of regulated necrosis caused by unrestricted lipid peroxidation and subsequent plasma membrane rupture. However, the lipid remodeling mechanism that determines sensitivity to ferroptosis remains poorly understood. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role for the lipid flippase solute carrier family 47 member 1 (SLC47A1) as a regulator of lipid remodeling and survival during ferroptosis. Among 49 phospholipid scramblases, flippases, and floppases we analyzed, only SLC47A1 had mRNA that was selectively upregulated in multiple cancer cells exposed to ferroptotic inducers. Large-scale lipidomics and functional analyses revealed that the silencing of SLC47A1 increased RSL3- or erastin-induced ferroptosis by favoring ACSL4-SOAT1-mediated production of polyunsaturated fatty acid cholesterol esters. We identified peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA) as a transcription factor that transactivates SLC47A1. The depletion of PPARA and SLC47A1 similarly sensitized cells to ferroptosis induction, whereas transfection-enforced re-expression of SLC47A1 restored resistance to ferroptosis in PPARA-deficient cells. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of the PPARA-SLC47A1 pathway increased the anticancer activity of a ferroptosis inducer in mice. These findings establish a direct molecular link between ferroptosis and lipid transporters, which may provide metabolic targets for overcoming drug resistance.
  14. Redox Biol. 2022 Dec 16. pii: S2213-2317(22)00347-0. [Epub ahead of print]59 102575
      Dendritic cells (DCs) undergo rapid metabolic reprogramming to generate signal-specific immune responses. The fine control of cellular metabolism underlying DC immune tolerance remains elusive. We have recently reported that NCoR1 ablation generates immune-tolerant DCs through enhanced IL-10, IL-27 and SOCS3 expression. In this study, we did comprehensive metabolic profiling of these tolerogenic DCs and identified that they meet their energy requirements through enhanced glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), supported by fatty acid oxidation-driven oxygen consumption. In addition, the reduced pyruvate and glutamine oxidation with a broken TCA cycle maintains the tolerogenic state of the cells. Mechanistically, the AKT-mTOR-HIF-1α-axis mediated glycolysis and CPT1a-driven β-oxidation were enhanced in these tolerogenic DCs. To confirm these observations, we used synthetic metabolic inhibitors and found that the combined inhibition of HIF-1α and CPT1a using KC7F2 and etomoxir, respectively, compromised the overall transcriptional signature of immunological tolerance including the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Functionally, treatment of tolerogenic DCs with dual KC7F2 and etomoxir treatment perturbed the polarization of co-cultured naïve CD4+ T helper (Th) cells towards Th1 than Tregs, ex vivo and in vivo. Physiologically, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection model depicted significantly reduced bacterial burden in BMcDC1 ex vivo and in CD103+ lung DCs in Mtb infected NCoR1DC-/-mice. The spleen of these infected animals also showed increased Th1-mediated responses in the inhibitor-treated group. These findings suggested strong involvement of NCoR1 in immune tolerance. Our validation in primary human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) showed diminished NCOR1 expression in dexamethasone-derived tolerogenic moDCs along with suppression of CD4+T cell proliferation and Th1 polarization. Furthermore, the combined KC7F2 and etomoxir treatment rescued the decreased T cell proliferative capacity and the Th1 phenotype. Overall, for the first time, we demonstrated here that NCoR1 mediated control of glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation fine-tunes immune tolerance versus inflammation balance in murine and human DCs.
    Keywords:  FAO; Glycolysis; HIF-1α; NCoR1; OXPHOS; Th1; Tregs
  15. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2022 Dec 27.
      Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of lipids in biological tissues is useful for correlating molecular distribution with pathological results, which could provide useful information for both biological research and disease diagnosis. It is well understood that the lipidome could not be clearly deciphered without tandem mass spectrometry analysis, but this is challenging to achieve in MSI due to the limitation in sample amount at each image spot. Here we develop a multiplexed MS2 imaging (MS2I) method that can provide MS2 images for 10 lipid species or more for each sampling spot, providing spatial structural lipidomic information. Coupling with on-tissue photochemical derivatization, imaging of 20 phospholipid C=C location isomers is also realized, showing enhanced molecular images with high definition in structure for mouse brain and human liver cancer tissue sections. Spatially mapped t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding has also been adopted to visualize the tumor margin with enhancement by structural lipidomic information.
    Keywords:  Lipidomics; MS/MS imaging; lipid biomarker; lipid isomer; mass spectrometry imaging
  16. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Dec 26. 13(12): 1072
      Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced liver injury with severe cell death is a major complication of liver transplantation. Transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A), a component of hepatocyte Ca2+-activated chloride channel, has been implicated in a variety of liver diseases. However, its role in hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. Here, mice with hepatocyte-specific TMEM16A knockout or overexpression were generated to examine the effect of TMEM16A on hepatic I/R injury. TMEM16A expression increased in liver samples from patients and mice with I/R injury, which was correlated with liver damage progression. Hepatocyte-specific TMEM16A knockout alleviated I/R-induced liver damage in mice, ameliorating inflammation and ferroptotic cell death. However, mice with hepatic TMEM16A overexpression showed the opposite phenotype. In addition, TMEM16A ablation decreased inflammatory responses and ferroptosis in hepatocytes upon hypoxia/reoxygenation insult in vitro, whereas TMEM16A overexpression promoted the opposite effects. The ameliorating effects of TMEM16A knockout on hepatocyte inflammation and cell death were abolished by chemically induced ferroptosis, whereas chemical inhibition of ferroptosis reversed the potentiated role of TMEM16A in hepatocyte injury. Mechanistically, TMEM16A interacted with glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) to induce its ubiquitination and degradation, thereby enhancing ferroptosis. Disruption of TMEM16A-GPX4 interaction abrogated the effects of TMEM16A on GPX4 ubiquitination, ferroptosis, and hepatic I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that TMEM16A exacerbates hepatic I/R injury by promoting GPX4-dependent ferroptosis. TMEM16A-GPX4 interaction and GPX4 ubiquitination are therefore indispensable for TMEM16A-regulated hepatic I/R injury, suggesting that blockades of TMEM16A-GPX4 interaction or TMEM16A inhibition in hepatocytes may represent promising therapeutic strategies for acute liver injury.
  17. Pharmacol Res. 2022 Dec 21. pii: S1043-6618(22)00554-0. [Epub ahead of print]187 106608
      Mitochondrial metabolism plays a pivotal role in various cellular processes and fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying mitochondrial metabolic function and liver fibrosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we determined whether mitochondrial metabolism mediates liver fibrosis using cells, animal models, and clinical samples to elucidate the potential effects and underlying mechanism of mitochondrial metabolism in liver fibrosis. We report that AlkB Homolog 5 (ALKBH5) decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR), suppresses mitochondrial fission and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and migration and ameliorates liver fibrosis. Enhancement of mitochondrial fission, an essential event during HSC proliferation and migration, is dependent on decreased ALKBH5 expression. Furthermore, we reveal that low ALKBH5 expression is associated with elevated N6-methyladenosine (m6A) mRNA levels. Mechanistically, ALKBH5 mediates m6A demethylation in the 3'UTR of Drp1 mRNA and induces its translation in a YTH domain family proteins 1 (YTHDF1)-independent manner. Subsequently, in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induced HSC, Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) mediates mitochondrial fission and increases cell proliferation and migration. Decreased Drp1 expression inhibits mitochondrial fission and suppresses HSC proliferation and migration. Notably, human fibrotic liver and heart tissue exhibited enhanced mitochondrial fission; increased YTHDF1, Drp1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I expression; decreased ALKBH5 expression and increased liver fibrosis. Our results highlight a novel mechanism by which ALKBH5 suppresses mitochondrial fission and HSC proliferation and migration by reducing Drp1 methylation in an m6A-YTHDF1-dependent manner, which may indicate a demethylation-based approach for liver fibrosis diagnosis and therapy.
    Keywords:  ALKBH5; Drp1; Hepatic stellate cells; Liver fibrosis; Mitochondrial fission; YTHDF1
  18. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 1079642
      Introduction: Immune function changes across the life course; the fetal immune system is characterised by tolerance while that of seniors is less able to respond effectively to antigens and is more pro-inflammatory than in younger adults. Lipids are involved centrally in immune function but there is limited information about how T cell lipid metabolism changes during the life course.Methods and Results: We investigated whether life stage alters fatty acid composition, lipid droplet content and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω-3) metabolism in human fetal CD3+ T lymphocytes and in CD3+ T lymphocytes from adults (median 41 years) and seniors (median 70 years). Quiescent fetal T cells had higher saturated (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents than adults or seniors. Activation-induced changes in fatty acid composition differed between life stages. The principal metabolic fates of [13C]18:3ω-3 were constitutive hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid synthesis and β-oxidation and carbon recycling into SFA and MUFA. These processes declined progressively across the life course. Longer chain ω-3 PUFA synthesis was a relatively minor metabolic fate of 18:3ω-3 at all life stages. Fetal and adult T lymphocytes had similar lipid droplet contents, which were lower than in T cells from seniors. Variation in the lipid droplet content of adult T cells accounted for 62% of the variation in mitogen-induced CD69 expression, but there was no significant relationship in fetal cells or lymphocytes from seniors.
    Discussion: Together these findings show that fatty acid metabolism in human T lymphocytes changes across the life course in a manner that may facilitate the adaptation of immune function to different life stages.
    Keywords:  CD69; T lymphocyte; essential fatty acid; fatty acid (composition); hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids; life course; lipid droplet; α-linolenic acid
  19. Nat Commun. 2022 12 24. 13(1): 7929
      Phagocytic clearance of dying cells, termed efferocytosis, is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis, yet our understanding of efferocytosis regulation remains incomplete. Here we perform a FACS-based, genome-wide CRISPR knockout screen in primary mouse macrophages to search for novel regulators of efferocytosis. The results show that Wdfy3 knockout in macrophages specifically impairs uptake, but not binding, of apoptotic cells due to defective actin disassembly. Additionally, WDFY3 interacts with GABARAP, thus facilitating LC3 lipidation and subsequent lysosomal acidification to permit the degradation of apoptotic cell components. Mechanistically, while the C-terminus of WDFY3 is sufficient to rescue the impaired degradation induced by Wdfy3 knockout, full-length WDFY3 is required to reconstitute the uptake of apoptotic cells. Finally, WDFY3 is also required for efficient efferocytosis in vivo in mice and in vitro in primary human macrophages. This work thus expands our knowledge of the mechanisms of macrophage efferocytosis, as well as supports genome-wide CRISPR screen as a platform for interrogating complex functional phenotypes in primary macrophages.
  20. Nat Immunol. 2022 Dec 28.
      Our previous study using systems vaccinology identified an association between the sterol regulatory binding protein (SREBP) pathway and humoral immune response to vaccination in humans. To investigate the role of SREBP signaling in modulating immune responses, we generated mice with B cell- or CD11c+ antigen-presenting cell (APC)-specific deletion of SCAP, an essential regulator of SREBP signaling. Ablation of SCAP in CD11c+ APCs had no effect on immune responses. In contrast, SREBP signaling in B cells was critical for antibody responses, as well as the generation of germinal centers,memory B cells and bone marrow plasma cells. SREBP signaling was required for metabolic reprogramming in activated B cells. Upon mitogen stimulation, SCAP-deficient B cells could not proliferate and had decreased lipid rafts. Deletion of SCAP in germinal center B cells using AID-Cre decreased lipid raft content and cell cycle progression. These studies provide mechanistic insights coupling sterol metabolism with the quality and longevity of humoral immunity.
  21. Cell Rep. 2022 Dec 27. pii: S2211-1247(22)01778-8. [Epub ahead of print]41(13): 111882
      Cholesterol is crucial for neuronal synaptic transmission, assisting in the molecular and structural organization of lipid rafts, ion channels, and exocytic proteins. Although cholesterol absence was shown to result in impaired neurotransmission, how cholesterol locally traffics and its route of action are still under debate. Here, we characterized the lipid transfer protein ORP2 in murine hippocampal neurons. We show that ORP2 preferentially localizes to the presynapse. Loss of ORP2 reduces presynaptic cholesterol levels by 50%, coinciding with a profoundly reduced release probability, enhanced facilitation, and impaired presynaptic calcium influx. In addition, ORP2 plays a cholesterol-transport-independent role in regulating vesicle priming and spontaneous release, likely by competing with Munc18-1 in syntaxin1A binding. To conclude, we identified a dual function of ORP2 as a physiological modulator of the synaptic cholesterol content and a regulator of neuronal exocytosis.
    Keywords:  CP: Neuroscience; ORP2; SNAP-25; SNARE; Stx1A; autapse; cholesterol; exocytosis; neurotransmitter release
  22. Mol Cells. 2022 Dec 31. 45(12): 963-975
      Exogenous polyamines are able to induce life span and improve glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. However, the effects of exogenous polyamines on adipocyte differentiation and which polyamine transporters mediate them have not been elucidated yet. Here, we identified for the first time that exogenous polyamines can clearly stimulate adipocyte differentiation through polyamine transporters, solute carrier family 3 member A2 (SLC3A2) and SLC7A1. Exogenous polyamines markedly promote 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by increasing the intracellular lipid accumulation and the expression of both adipogenic and lipogenic genes in a concentration-dependent manner. In particular, exogenous putrescine mainly regulates adipocyte differentiation in the early and intermediate stages. Moreover, we have assessed the expression of polyamine transporter genes in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes. Interestingly, the putrescine-induced adipocyte differentiation was found to be significantly suppressed in response to a treatment with a polyamine transporter inhibitor (AMXT-1501). Furthermore, knockdown experiments using siRNA that specifically targeted SLC3A2 or SLC7A2, revealed that both SLC3A2 and SLC7A2 act as important transporters in the cellular importing of exogenous putrescine. Thus, the exogenous putrescine entering the adipocytes via cellular transporters is involved in adipogenesis through a modulation of both the mitotic clonal expansion and the expression of master transcription factors. Taken together, these results suggest that exogenous polyamines (such as putrescine) entering the adipocytes through polyamine transporters, can stimulate adipogenesis.
    Keywords:  adipocyte; adipogenesis; differentiation; polyamine; putrescine
  23. iScience. 2023 Jan 20. 26(1): 105739
      Inhibition of the heterodimeric amino acid carrier SLC7A5/SLC3A2 (LAT1/CD98) has been widely studied in tumor biology but its role in physiological conditions remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SLC7A5/SLC3A2 heterodimer is constitutively present at different stages of erythroid differentiation but absent in mature erythrocytes. Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) further induces SLC7A5/SLC3A2 expression in circulating reticulocytes, as it also occurs in anemic conditions. Although Slc7a5 gene inactivation in the erythrocyte lineage does not compromise the total number of circulating red blood cells (RBCs), their size and hemoglobin content are significantly reduced accompanied by a diminished erythroblast mTORC1 activity. Furthermore circulating Slc7a5-deficient reticulocytes are characterized by lower transferrin receptor (CD71) expression as well as mitochondrial activity, suggesting a premature transition to mature RBCs. These data reveal that SLC7A5/SLC3A2 ensures adequate maturation of reticulocytes as well as the proper size and hemoglobin content of circulating RBCs.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Molecular physiology
  24. Cell Rep. 2022 Dec 27. pii: S2211-1247(22)01796-X. [Epub ahead of print]41(13): 111897
      Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by IL-17. However, the molecular mechanism through which IL-17 signaling in keratinocytes triggers skin inflammation remains not fully understood. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a glycolytic enzyme, has been shown to have non-metabolic functions. Here, we report that PKM2 mediates IL-17A signaling in keratinocytes triggering skin psoriatic inflammation. We find high expression of PKM2 in the epidermis of psoriatic patients and mice undergoing psoriasis models. Specific depletion of PKM2 in keratinocytes attenuates the development of experimental psoriasis by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Mechanistically, PKM2 forms a complex with Act1 and TRAF6 regulating NF-κB transcriptional signaling downstream of the IL-17 receptor. As IL-17 also induces PKM2 expression in keratinocytes, our findings reveal a sustained signaling circuit critical for the psoriasis-driving effects of IL-17A, suggesting that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for psoriasis.
    Keywords:  Act1; CP: Immunology; IL-17A; NF-κB; PKM2; TRAF6; inflammation; keratinocyte; psoriasis; skin
  25. Mol Genet Metab. 2022 Dec 23. pii: S1096-7192(22)00460-7. [Epub ahead of print]138(1): 106982
      Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inborn error of long chain fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) with limited treatment options. Patients present with heterogeneous clinical phenotypes affecting predominantly heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. While VLCAD deficiency is a systemic disease, restoration of liver FAO has the potential to improve symptoms more broadly due to increased total body ATP production and reduced accumulation of potentially toxic metabolites. We explored the use of synthetic human VLCAD (hVLCAD) mRNA and lipid nanoparticle encapsulated hVLCAD mRNA (LNP-VLCAD) to generate functional VLCAD enzyme in patient fibroblasts derived from VLCAD deficient patients, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, hepatocytes isolated from VLCAD knockout (Acadvl-/-) mice, and Acadvl-/- mice to reverse the metabolic effects of the deficiency. Transfection of all cell types with hVLCAD mRNA resulted in high level expression of protein that localized to mitochondria with increased enzyme activity. Intravenous administration of LNP-VLCAD to Acadvl-/- mice produced a significant amount of VLCAD protein in liver, which declined over a week. Treated Acadvl-/- mice showed reduced hepatic steatosis, were more resistant to cold stress, and accumulated less toxic metabolites in blood than untreated animals. Results from this study support the potential for hVLCAD mRNA for treatment of VLCAD deficiency.
    Keywords:  Acadvl(-/-) mouse; Fatty acid β-oxidation; Fibroblasts; Synthetic mRNA; Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency