bims-mepmim Biomed News
on Metabolites in pathological microenvironments and immunometabolism
Issue of 2022‒11‒06
twenty-six papers selected by
Erika Mariana Palmieri
NIH/NCI Laboratory of Cancer ImmunoMetabolism

  1. Mol Cell. 2022 Oct 31. pii: S1097-2765(22)00962-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Inhibition of the electron transport chain (ETC) prevents the regeneration of mitochondrial NAD+, resulting in cessation of the oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and a consequent dependence upon reductive carboxylation for aspartate synthesis. NAD+ regeneration alone in the cytosol can rescue the viability of ETC-deficient cells. Yet, how this occurs and whether transfer of oxidative equivalents to the mitochondrion is required remain unknown. Here, we show that inhibition of the ETC drives reversal of the mitochondrial aspartate transaminase (GOT2) as well as malate and succinate dehydrogenases (MDH2 and SDH) to transfer oxidative NAD+ equivalents into the mitochondrion. This supports the NAD+-dependent activity of the mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and thereby enables anaplerosis-the entry of glutamine-derived carbon into the TCA cycle and connected biosynthetic pathways. Thus, under impaired ETC function, the cytosolic redox state is communicated into the mitochondrion and acts as a rheostat to support GDH activity and cell viability.
    Keywords:  anaplerosis; cancer; cancer metabolism; metabolism; mitochondrion; redox; redox transfer; respiration
  2. Nat Metab. 2022 Nov 03.
      Iron is essential to many fundamental biological processes, but its cellular compartmentalization and concentration must be tightly controlled. Although iron overload can contribute to obesity-associated metabolic deterioration, the subcellular localization and accumulation of iron in adipose tissue macrophages is largely unknown. Here, we show that macrophage mitochondrial iron levels control systemic metabolism in male mice by altering adipocyte iron concentrations. Using various transgenic mouse models to manipulate the macrophage mitochondrial matrix iron content in an inducible fashion, we demonstrate that lowering macrophage mitochondrial matrix iron increases numbers of M2-like macrophages in adipose tissue, lowers iron levels in adipocytes, attenuates inflammation and protects from high-fat-diet-induced metabolic deterioration. Conversely, elevating macrophage mitochondrial matrix iron increases M1-like macrophages and iron levels in adipocytes, exacerbates inflammation and worsens high-fat-diet-induced metabolic dysfunction. These phenotypes are robustly reproduced by transplantation of a small amount of fat from transgenic to wild-type mice. Taken together, we identify macrophage mitochondrial iron levels as a crucial determinant of systemic metabolic homeostasis in mice.
  3. Cell Metab. 2022 Nov 01. pii: S1550-4131(22)00460-0. [Epub ahead of print]34(11): 1613-1615
      Diverse ion channels have dysregulated functional expression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Chen et al. reveal that high intratumoral K+ ions restrict the plasticity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Inhibition of the Kir2.1 potassium channel induced metabolic reprogramming and repolarization of pro-tumor M2-TAMs to tumoricidal M1-like states.
  4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Nov 08. 119(45): e2212178119
      Citrate is a critical metabolic substrate and key regulator of energy metabolism in mammalian cells. It has been known for decades that the skeleton contains most (>85%) of the body's citrate, but the question of why and how this metabolite should be partitioned in bone has received singularly little attention. Here, we show that osteoblasts use a specialized metabolic pathway to regulate uptake, endogenous production, and the deposition of citrate into bone. Osteoblasts express high levels of the membranous Na+-dependent citrate transporter solute carrier family 13 member 5 (Slc13a5) gene. Inhibition or genetic disruption of Slc13a5 reduced osteogenic citrate uptake and disrupted mineral nodule formation. Bones from mice lacking Slc13a5 globally, or selectively in osteoblasts, showed equivalent reductions in cortical thickness, with similarly compromised mechanical strength. Surprisingly, citrate content in mineral from Slc13a5-/- osteoblasts was increased fourfold relative to controls, suggesting the engagement of compensatory mechanisms to augment endogenous citrate production. Indeed, through the coordinated functioning of the apical membrane citrate transporter SLC13A5 and a mitochondrial zinc transporter protein (ZIP1; encoded by Slc39a1), a mediator of citrate efflux from the tricarboxylic acid cycle, SLC13A5 mediates citrate entry from blood and its activity exerts homeostatic control of cytoplasmic citrate. Intriguingly, Slc13a5-deficient mice also exhibited defective tooth enamel and dentin formation, a clinical feature, which we show is recapitulated in primary teeth from children with SLC13A5 mutations. Together, our results reveal the components of an osteoblast metabolic pathway, which affects bone strength by regulating citrate deposition into mineral hydroxyapatite.
    Keywords:  Slc13a5; citrate; metabolism; mineralization; osteoblasts
  5. Nat Commun. 2022 Nov 04. 13(1): 6661
      Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, plays an essential role in mitochondrial quality control. However, the mechanisms by which Parkin connects mitochondrial homeostasis with cellular metabolism in adipose tissue remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Park2 gene (encodes Parkin) deletion specifically from adipose tissue protects mice against high-fat diet and aging-induced obesity. Despite a mild reduction in mitophagy, mitochondrial DNA content and mitochondrial function are increased in Park2 deficient white adipocytes. Moreover, Park2 gene deletion elevates mitochondrial biogenesis by increasing Pgc1α protein stability through mitochondrial superoxide-activated NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (Nqo1). Both in vitro and in vivo studies show that Nqo1 overexpression elevates Pgc1α protein level and mitochondrial DNA content and enhances mitochondrial activity in mouse and human adipocytes. Taken together, our findings indicate that Parkin regulates mitochondrial homeostasis by balancing mitophagy and Pgc1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in white adipocytes, suggesting a potential therapeutic target in adipocytes to combat obesity and obesity-associated disorders.
  6. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 966158
      Macrophages are prominent immune cells in the tumor microenvironment that can be educated into pro-tumoral phenotype by tumor cells to favor tumor growth and metastasis. The mechanisms that mediate a mutualistic relationship between tumor cells and macrophages remain poorly characterized. Here, we have shown in vitro that different human and murine cancer cell lines release branched-chain α-ketoacids (BCKAs) into the extracellular milieu, which influence macrophage polarization in an monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1)-dependent manner. We found that α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and α-keto-β-methylvalerate (KMV) induced a pro-tumoral macrophage state, whereas α-ketoisovalerate (KIV) exerted a pro-inflammatory effect on macrophages. This process was further investigated by a combined metabolomics/proteomics platform. Uptake of KMV and KIC fueled macrophage tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and increased polyamine metabolism. Proteomic and pathway analyses revealed that the three BCKAs, especially KMV, exhibited divergent effects on the inflammatory signal pathways, phagocytosis, apoptosis and redox balance. These findings uncover cancer-derived BCKAs as novel determinants for macrophage polarization with potential to be selectively exploited for optimizing antitumor immune responses.
    Keywords:  BCKAs Fc-gamma receptor (FCgR)-mediated phagocytosis; apoptosis; macrophage polarization; panomics; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) -mediated inflammatory pathway; tumor-associated macrophages
  7. Nat Commun. 2022 Nov 03. 13(1): 6320
      The plasma multimeric glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF) plays a critical role in primary hemostasis by tethering platelets to exposed collagen at sites of vascular injury. Recent studies have identified additional biological roles for VWF, and in particular suggest that VWF may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses. However, the molecular mechanisms through which VWF exerts its immuno-modulatory effects remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that VWF binding to macrophages triggers downstream MAP kinase signaling, NF-κB activation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, VWF binding also drives macrophage M1 polarization and shifts macrophage metabolism towards glycolysis in a p38-dependent manner. Cumulatively, our findings define an important biological role for VWF in modulating macrophage function, and thereby establish a novel link between primary hemostasis and innate immunity.
  8. Neurochem Res. 2022 Nov 02.
      Glutamine is an essential cerebral metabolite. Several critical brain processes are directly linked to glutamine, including ammonia homeostasis, energy metabolism and neurotransmitter recycling. Astrocytes synthesize and release large quantities of glutamine, which is taken up by neurons to replenish the glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter pools. Astrocyte glutamine hereby sustains the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle, synaptic transmission and general brain function. Cerebral glutamine homeostasis is linked to the metabolic coupling of neurons and astrocytes, and relies on multiple cellular processes, including TCA cycle function, synaptic transmission and neurotransmitter uptake. Dysregulations of processes related to glutamine homeostasis are associated with several neurological diseases and may mediate excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration. In particular, diminished astrocyte glutamine synthesis is a common neuropathological component, depriving neurons of an essential metabolic substrate and precursor for neurotransmitter synthesis, hereby leading to synaptic dysfunction. While astrocyte glutamine synthesis is quantitatively dominant in the brain, oligodendrocyte-derived glutamine may serve important functions in white matter structures. In this review, the crucial roles of glial glutamine homeostasis in the healthy and diseased brain are discussed. First, we provide an overview of cellular recycling, transport, synthesis and metabolism of glutamine in the brain. These cellular aspects are subsequently discussed in relation to pathological glutamine homeostasis of hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Further studies on the multifaceted roles of cerebral glutamine will not only increase our understanding of the metabolic collaboration between brain cells, but may also aid to reveal much needed therapeutic targets of several neurological pathologies.
    Keywords:  Astrocytes; Brain energy and neurotransmitter metabolism; GABA-glutamine cycle; Glutamate-glutamine cycle; Glutamine transporters; Neurodegenerative diseases; Oligodendrocytes
  9. Mol Syst Biol. 2022 11;18(11): e11033
      Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to support growth and invasion. While previous work has highlighted how single altered reactions and pathways can drive tumorigenesis, it remains unclear how individual changes propagate at the network level and eventually determine global metabolic activity. To characterize the metabolic lifestyle of cancer cells across pathways and genotypes, we profiled the intracellular metabolome of 180 pan-cancer cell lines grown in identical conditions. For each cell line, we estimated activity for 49 pathways spanning the entirety of the metabolic network. Upon clustering, we discovered a convergence into only two major metabolic types. These were functionally confirmed by 13 C-flux analysis, lipidomics, and analysis of sensitivity to perturbations. They revealed that the major differences in cancers are associated with lipid, TCA cycle, and carbohydrate metabolism. Thorough integration of these types with multiomics highlighted little association with genetic alterations but a strong association with markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Our analysis indicates that in absence of variations imposed by the microenvironment, cancer cells adopt distinct metabolic programs which serve as vulnerabilities for therapy.
    Keywords:  cancer metabolism; cell lines; metabolic flux; metabolomics; omics
  10. Nat Commun. 2022 Nov 04. 13(1): 6634
      Mitochondria are paramount to the metabolism and survival of cardiomyocytes. Here we show that Mitochondrial Fission Process 1 (MTFP1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) protein that is dispensable for mitochondrial division yet essential for cardiac structure and function. Constitutive knockout of cardiomyocyte MTFP1 in mice resulted in a fatal, adult-onset dilated cardiomyopathy accompanied by extensive mitochondrial and cardiac remodeling during the transition to heart failure. Prior to the onset of disease, knockout cardiac mitochondria displayed specific IMM defects: futile proton leak dependent upon the adenine nucleotide translocase and an increased sensitivity to the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, with which MTFP1 physically and genetically interacts. Collectively, our data reveal new functions of MTFP1 in the control of bioenergetic efficiency and cell death sensitivity and define its importance in preventing pathogenic cardiac remodeling.
  11. Front Mol Biosci. 2022 ;9 1004602
      The combination of high-resolution LC-MS untargeted metabolomics with stable isotope-resolved tracing is a promising approach for the global exploration of metabolic pathway activities. In our established workflow we combine targeted isotopologue feature extraction with the non-targeted X13CMS routine. Metabolites, detected by X13CMS as differentially labeled between two biological conditions are subsequently integrated into the original targeted library. This strategy enables monitoring of changes in known pathways as well as the discovery of hitherto unknown metabolic alterations. Here, we demonstrate this workflow in a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) null breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-468) exploring metabolic pathway activities in the absence and presence of the selective PI3Kβ inhibitor AZD8186. Cells were fed with [U-13C] glucose and treated for 1, 3, 6, and 24 h with 0.5 µM AZD8186 or vehicle, extracted by an optimized sample preparation protocol and analyzed by LC-QTOF-MS. Untargeted differential tracing of labels revealed 286 isotope-enriched features that were significantly altered between control and treatment conditions, of which 19 features could be attributed to known compounds from targeted pathways. Other 11 features were unambiguously identified based on data-dependent MS/MS spectra and reference substances. Notably, only a minority of the significantly altered features (11 and 16, respectively) were identified when preprocessing of the same data set (treatment vs. control in 24 h unlabeled samples) was performed with tools commonly used for label-free (i.e. w/o isotopic tracer) non-targeted metabolomics experiments (Profinder´s batch recursive feature extraction and XCMS). The structurally identified metabolites were integrated into the existing targeted isotopologue feature extraction workflow to enable natural abundance correction, evaluation of assay performance and assessment of drug-induced changes in pathway activities. Label incorporation was highly reproducible for the majority of isotopologues in technical replicates with a RSD below 10%. Furthermore, inter-day repeatability of a second label experiment showed strong correlation (Pearson R 2 > 0.99) between tracer incorporation on different days. Finally, we could identify prominent pathway activity alterations upon PI3Kβ inhibition. Besides pathways in central metabolism, known to be changed our workflow revealed additional pathways, like pyrimidine metabolism or hexosamine pathway. All pathways identified represent key metabolic processes associated with cancer metabolism and therapy.
    Keywords:  13C labeling; LC-QTOF-MS; PI3K; TCA cycle; cancer metabolism; glycolysis; non-targeted analysis; stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM)
  12. Redox Biol. 2022 Oct 28. pii: S2213-2317(22)00291-9. [Epub ahead of print]58 102519
      Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by cystathionine γ lyase (CSE), is an important endogenous gasotransmitter to maintain heart function. However, the molecular mechanism for how H2S influences the mitochondrial morphology during heart failure remains poorly understood. Here, we found that CSE/H2S pathway mediated cardiac function and mitochondrial morphology through regulating dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) activity and translocation. Mechanistically, elevation of H2S levels by CSE overexpression declined protein level, phosphorylation (Ser 616), oligomerization and GTPase activity of Drp1 by S-sulfhydration in mouse hearts. Interestingly, Drp1 S-sulfhydration directly competed with S-nitrosylation by nitric oxide at the specific cysteine 607. The non-S-sulfhydration of Drp1 mutation (C607A) attenuated the regulatory effect of H2S on Drp1 activation, mitochondrial fission and heart function. Moreover, the non-canonical role of Drp1 mediated isoprenaline-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death through interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel 1. These results uncover that a novel mechanism that H2S S-sulfhydrated Drp1 at cysteine 607 to prevent heart failure through modulating its activity and mitochondrial translocation. Our findings also provide initial evidence demonstrating that Drp1 may be a critical regulator as well as an effective strategy for heart dysfunction.
    Keywords:  Dynamin related protein 1; Heart failure; Hydrogen sulfide; Mitochondrial fission; S-Sulfhydration
  13. Nat Commun. 2022 Oct 30. 13(1): 6499
      Fibrosis is a progressive biological condition, leading to organ dysfunction in various clinical settings. Although fibroblasts and macrophages are known as key cellular players for fibrosis development, a comprehensive functional model that considers their interaction in the metabolic/immunologic context of fibrotic tissue has not been set up. Here we show, by transcriptome-based mathematical modeling in an in vitro system that represents macrophage-fibroblast interplay and reflects the functional effects of inflammation, hypoxia and the adaptive immune context, that irreversible fibrosis development is associated with specific combinations of metabolic and inflammatory cues. The in vitro signatures are in good alignment with transcriptomic profiles generated on laser captured glomeruli and cortical tubule-interstitial area, isolated from human transplanted kidneys with advanced stages of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, two clinically relevant conditions associated with organ failure in renal allografts. The model we describe here is validated on tissue based quantitative immune-phenotyping of biopsies from transplanted kidneys, demonstrating its feasibility. We conclude that the combination of in vitro and in silico modeling represents a powerful systems medicine approach to dissect fibrosis pathogenesis, applicable to specific pathological conditions, and develop coordinated targeted approaches.
  14. Immunity. 2022 Oct 26. pii: S1074-7613(22)00545-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Prior exposure to microenvironmental signals could fundamentally change the response of macrophages to subsequent stimuli. It is believed that T helper-2 (Th2)-cell-type cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand-activated transcriptional programs mutually antagonize each other, and no remarkable convergence has been identified between them. In contrast, here, we show that IL-4-polarized macrophages established a hyperinflammatory gene expression program upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. This phenomenon, which we termed extended synergy, was supported by IL-4-directed epigenomic remodeling, LPS-activated NF-κB-p65 cistrome expansion, and increased enhancer activity. The EGR2 transcription factor contributed to the extended synergy in a macrophage-subtype-specific manner. Consequently, the previously alternatively polarized macrophages produced increased amounts of immune-modulatory factors both in vitro and in vivo in a murine Th2 cell-type airway inflammation model upon LPS exposure. Our findings establish that IL-4-induced epigenetic reprogramming is responsible for the development of inflammatory hyperresponsiveness to TLR activation and contributes to lung pathologies.
    Keywords:  EGR2; IL-4; LPS; STAT6; Th2-type airway inflammation; epigenetic reprogramming; inflammation; macrophage; synergistic gene activation
  15. Cell Metab. 2022 Oct 22. pii: S1550-4131(22)00453-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Despite its central importance in cellular metabolism, many details remain to be determined regarding subcellular lactate metabolism and its regulation in physiology and disease, as there is sensitive spatiotemporal resolution of lactate distribution, and dynamics remains a technical challenge. Here, we develop and characterize an ultrasensitive, highly responsive, ratiometric lactate sensor, named FiLa, enabling the monitoring of subtle lactate fluctuations in living cells and animals. Utilizing FiLa, we demonstrate that lactate is highly enriched in mammalian mitochondria and compile an atlas of subcellular lactate metabolism that reveals lactate as a key hub sensing various metabolic activities. In addition, FiLa sensors also enable direct imaging of elevated lactate levels in diabetic mice and facilitate the establishment of a simple, rapid, and sensitive lactate assay for point-of-care clinical screening. Thus, FiLa sensors provide powerful, broadly applicable tools for defining the spatiotemporal landscape of lactate metabolism in health and disease.
    Keywords:  highly responsive lactate sensors; lactate metabolism; point-of-care clinical screening; real-time monitoring; subcellular lactate landscape
  16. EMBO Rep. 2022 Nov 02. e54978
      Mitochondrial Ca2+ ions are crucial regulators of bioenergetics and cell death pathways. Mitochondrial Ca2+ content and cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis strictly depend on Ca2+ transporters. In recent decades, the major players responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and release have been identified, except the mitochondrial Ca2+ /H+ exchanger (CHE). Originally identified as the mitochondrial K+ /H+ exchanger, LETM1 was also considered as a candidate for the mitochondrial CHE. Defining the mitochondrial interactome of LETM1, we identify TMBIM5/MICS1, the only mitochondrial member of the TMBIM family, and validate the physical interaction of TMBIM5 and LETM1. Cell-based and cell-free biochemical assays demonstrate the absence or greatly reduced Na+ -independent mitochondrial Ca2+ release in TMBIM5 knockout or pH-sensing site mutants, respectively, and pH-dependent Ca2+ transport by recombinant TMBIM5. Taken together, we demonstrate that TMBIM5, but not LETM1, is the long-sought mitochondrial CHE, involved in setting and regulating the mitochondrial proton gradient. This finding provides the final piece of the puzzle of mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters and opens the door to exploring its importance in health and disease, and to developing drugs modulating Ca2+ exchange.
    Keywords:  LETM1; TMBIM5 (MICS1); mitochondrial Ca2+-H+ exchanger; mitochondrial metabolism; permeability transition pore
  17. Sci Rep. 2022 Nov 03. 12(1): 18561
      Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging were used to identify the biochemical and structural features of human cancer lung cells (CCL-185) and the cancer cells supplemented with glucose and deuterated glucose at normal and hyperglycemia conditions. We found that isotope substitution of glucose by deuterated glucose allows to separate de novo lipid synthesis from exogenous uptake of lipids obtained from the diet. We demonstrated that glucose is largely utilized for de novo lipid synthesis. Our results provide a direct evidence that high level of glucose decreases the metabolism via oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria in cancer cells and shifts the metabolism to glycolysis via Warburg effect. It suggests that hyperglycemia is a factor that may contribute to a more malignant phenotype of cancer cells by inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis.
  18. iScience. 2022 Nov 18. 25(11): 105317
      Immunotherapy for cancer that aims to promote T cell anti-tumor activity has changed current clinical practice, where some previously lethal cancers have now become treatable. However, clinical trials with low response rates have been disappointing for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). One suggested explanation is the accumulation of dominantly immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Using retrospectively collected tumor specimens and transcriptomic data from PDAC, we demonstrate that expression of the scavenger receptor MARCO correlates with poor prognosis and a lymphocyte-excluding tumor phenotype. PDAC cell lines produce IL-10 and induce high expression of MARCO in myeloid cells, and this was further enhanced during hypoxic conditions. These myeloid cells suppressed effector T and natural killer (NK) cells and blocked NK cell tumor infiltration and tumor killing in a PDAC 3D-spheroid model. Anti-human MARCO (anti-hMARCO) antibody targeting triggered the repolarization of tumor-associated macrophages and activated the inflammasome machinery, resulting in IL-18 production. This in turn enhanced T cell and NK cell functions. The targeting of MARCO thus remodels the TME and represents a rational approach to make immunotherapy more efficient in PDAC patients.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Components of the immune system; Immunology
  19. ACS Omega. 2022 Oct 25. 7(42): 37509-37519
      Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a cytosolic methyltransferase, catalyzing N-methylation of nicotinamide (NAM) to form 1-methylnicotinamide (1-MNAM), in which S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) is the methyl donor. It has been well documented that NNMT is elevated in multiple cancers and promotes tumor aggressiveness. In the present study, we investigated the effects of NNMT overexpression on cellular metabolism and proinflammatory responses. We found that NNMT overexpression reduced NAD+ and SAM levels, and activated the STAT3 signaling pathway. Consequently, STAT3 activation upregulated interleukin 1β (IL1β) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), leading to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) accumulation. On the other hand, NNMT downregulated 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) which catalyzes PGE2 into inactive molecules. Moreover, secretomic data indicated that NNMT promoted secretion of collagens, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins, confirming NNMT aggravated inflammatory responses to promote cell growth, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and chemoresistance. Taken together, we showed that NNMT played a pro-inflammatory role in cancer cells by activating the STAT3/IL1β/PGE2 axis and proposed that NNMT was a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.
  20. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2022 Oct 30. e2204697
      Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury remains a common issue lacking effective strategy and validated pharmacological targets. Here, using an unbiased metabolomics screen, this study finds that following murine hepatic IR, liver 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) and quinolinic acid (QA) decline while kynurenine and kynurenic acid (KYNA) increase. Kynurenine aminotransferases 2, functioning at the key branching point of the kynurenine pathway (KP), is markedly upregulated in hepatocytes during ischemia, shifting the kynurenine metabolic route from 3-HAA and QA to KYNA synthesis. Defects in QA synthesis impair de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis, rendering the hepatocytes relying on the salvage pathway for maintenance of NAD and cellular antioxidant defense. Blocking the salvage pathway following IR by the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitor FK866 exacerbates liver oxidative damage and enhanced IR susceptibility, which can be rescued by the lipid peroxidation inhibitor Liproxstatin-1. Notably, nicotinamide mononucleotide administration once following IR effectively boosts NAD and attenuated IR-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death in the murine model. Collectively, the findings reveal that metabolic rewiring of the KP partitions it away from NAD synthesis in hepatic IR pathophysiology, and provide proof of concept that NAD augmentation is a promising therapeutic measure for IR-induced liver injury.
    Keywords:  hepatic ischemia-reperfusion; kynurenine pathway; metabolic rewiring; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD); redox
  21. Nat Commun. 2022 Nov 01. 13(1): 6547
      Lipids are a structurally diverse class of biomolecules which can undergo a variety of chemical modifications. Among them, lipid (per)oxidation attracts most of the attention due to its significance in the regulation of inflammation, cell proliferation and death programs. Despite their apparent regulatory significance, the molecular repertoire of oxidized lipids remains largely elusive as accurate annotation of lipid modifications is complicated by their low abundance and often unknown, biological context-dependent structural diversity. Here, we provide a workflow based on the combination of bioinformatics and LC-MS/MS technologies to support identification and relative quantification of oxidized complex lipids in a modification type- and position-specific manner. The developed methodology is used to identify epilipidomics signatures of lean and obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. The characteristic signature of lipid modifications in lean individuals, dominated by the presence of modified octadecanoid acyl chains in phospho- and neutral lipids, is drastically shifted towards lipid peroxidation-driven accumulation of oxidized eicosanoids, suggesting significant alteration of endocrine signalling by oxidized lipids in metabolic disorders.
  22. Nature. 2022 Nov 02.
    JRI IBD Live Cell Bank Consortium
      Dietary fibres can exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects through microbially fermented short-chain fatty acid metabolites1,2, although the immunoregulatory roles of most fibre diets and their microbiota-derived metabolites remain poorly defined. Here, using microbial sequencing and untargeted metabolomics, we show that a diet of inulin fibre alters the composition of the mouse microbiota and the levels of microbiota-derived metabolites, notably bile acids. This metabolomic shift is associated with type 2 inflammation in the intestine and lungs, characterized by IL-33 production, activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells and eosinophilia. Delivery of cholic acid mimics inulin-induced type 2 inflammation, whereas deletion of the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor diminishes the effects of inulin. The effects of inulin are microbiota dependent and were reproduced in mice colonized with human-derived microbiota. Furthermore, genetic deletion of a bile-acid-metabolizing enzyme in one bacterial species abolishes the ability of inulin to trigger type 2 inflammation. Finally, we demonstrate that inulin enhances allergen- and helminth-induced type 2 inflammation. Taken together, these data reveal that dietary inulin fibre triggers microbiota-derived cholic acid and type 2 inflammation at barrier surfaces with implications for understanding the pathophysiology of allergic inflammation, tissue protection and host defence.
  23. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2022 Oct 31.
      INTRODUCTION: In physiological concentrations, heme is nontoxic to the cell and is essential for cell survival and proliferation. Increasing intracellular heme concentrations beyond normal levels, however, will lead to carcinogenesis and facilitate the survival of tumor cells. Simultaneously, heme in an abnormally high quantity is also a potent inducer of tumor cell death, contributing to its ability to generate oxidative stress on the cells by boosting oxidative phosphorylation and suppressing tumors through ferroptosis. During tumorigenesis and progression, therefore, heme works as a double-edged sword. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, which converts heme into physiologically active catabolites of carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and ferrous iron (Fe2+). HO-1 maintains redox equilibrium in healthy cells and functions as a carcinogenesis inhibitor. It is widely recognized that HO-1 is involved in the adaptive response to cellular stress and the anti-inflammation effect. Notably, its expression level in cancer cells corresponds with tumor growth, aggressiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Besides, heme-binding transcription factor BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) play a critical regulatory role in heme homeostasis, oxidative stress and senescence, cell cycle, angiogenesis, immune cell differentiation, and autoimmune disorders. Moreover, it was found that Bach1 influences cancer cells' metabolism and metastatic capacity. Bach1 controls heme level by adjusting HO-1 expression, establishing a negative feedback loop.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, the authors review recent studies on heme, HO-1, and Bach1 in cancer. Specifically, they cover the following areas: (1) the carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic aspects of heme; (2) the carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic aspects of HO-1; (3) the carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic aspects of Bach1; (4) the interactions of the heme/HO-1/Bach1 axis involved in tumor progression.
    CONCLUSION: This review summarized the literature about the dual role of the heme/HO-1/Bach1 axis and their mutual dependence in the carcinogenesis and anti-carcinogenesis intersection.
    Keywords:  Anticarcinogenic; Carcinogenic; Heme homeostasis; Heme/HO-1/Bach1 axis; Oxidative stress; ROS
  24. Nat Commun. 2022 Nov 02. 13(1): 6579
      The limited efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients is attributed to sparse or unresponsive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, but the mechanisms that lead to a therapy resistant tumor immune microenvironment are incompletely known. Here we show a strong correlation between MYC expression and loss of immune signatures in human TNBC. In mouse models of TNBC proficient or deficient of breast cancer type 1 susceptibility gene (BRCA1), MYC overexpression dramatically decreases lymphocyte infiltration in tumors, along with immune signature remodelling. MYC-mediated suppression of inflammatory signalling induced by BRCA1/2 inactivation is confirmed in human TNBC cell lines. Moreover, MYC overexpression prevents the recruitment and activation of lymphocytes in both human and mouse TNBC co-culture models. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing reveals that MYC, together with its co-repressor MIZ1, directly binds promoters of multiple interferon-signalling genes, resulting in their downregulation. MYC overexpression thus counters tumor growth inhibition by a Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) agonist via suppressing induction of interferon signalling. Together, our data reveal that MYC suppresses innate immunity and facilitates tumor immune escape, explaining the poor immunogenicity of MYC-overexpressing TNBCs.
  25. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Nov 03.
      Beige adipocytes in mammalian white adipose tissue (WAT) can reinforce fat catabolism and energy expenditure. Promoting beige adipocyte biogenesis is a tantalizing tactic for combating obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. Here, we report that a previously unidentified phosphorylation pattern (Thr166) in the DNA-binding domain of PPARγ regulates the inducibility of beige adipocytes. This unique posttranslational modification (PTM) pattern influences allosteric communication between PPARγ and DNA or coactivators, which impedes the PPARγ-mediated transactivation of beige cell-related gene expression in WAT. The genetic mutation mimicking T166 phosphorylation (p-T166) hinders the inducibility of beige adipocytes. In contrast, genetic or chemical intervention in this PTM pattern favors beige cell formation. Moreover, inhibition of p-T166 attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. Our results uncover a mechanism involved in beige cell fate determination. Moreover, our discoveries provide a promising strategy for guiding the development of novel PPARγ agonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.
  26. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Nov 08. 119(45): e2207402119
      The intracellular metabolism of organelles, like lysosomes and mitochondria, is highly coordinated spatiotemporally and functionally. The activities of lysosomal enzymes significantly rely on the cytoplasmic temperature, and heat is constantly released by mitochondria as the byproduct of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation during active metabolism. Here, we developed temperature-sensitive LysoDots and MitoDots to monitor the in situ thermal dynamics of lysosomes and mitochondria. The design is based on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with high-density surface modifications to achieve the exceptionally high sensitivity of 2.7% K-1 and low uncertainty of 0.8 K for nanothermometry to be used in living cells. We show the measurement is independent of the ion concentrations and pH values. With Ca2+ ion shock, the temperatures of both lysosomes and mitochondria increased by ∼2 to 4 °C. Intriguingly, with chloroquine (CQ) treatment, the lysosomal temperature was observed to decrease by up to ∼3 °C, while mitochondria remained relatively stable. Lastly, with oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor treatment, we observed an ∼3 to 7 °C temperature increase and a thermal transition from mitochondria to lysosomes. These observations indicate different metabolic pathways and thermal transitions between lysosomes and mitochondria inside HeLa cells. The nanothermometry probes provide a powerful tool for multimodality functional imaging of subcellular organelles and interactions with high spatial, temporal, and thermal dynamics resolutions.
    Keywords:  lysosome; mitochondria; nanothermometry; upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)