bims-mepmim Biomed News
on Metabolites in pathological microenvironments and immunometabolism
Issue of 2022‒10‒02
28 papers selected by
Erika Mariana Palmieri
NIH/NCI Laboratory of Cancer ImmunoMetabolism

  1. Nature. 2022 Sep 28.
      CD4+ T cell differentiation requires metabolic reprogramming to fulfil the bioenergetic demands of proliferation and effector function, and enforce specific transcriptional programmes1-3. Mitochondrial membrane dynamics sustains mitochondrial processes4, including respiration and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism5, but whether mitochondrial membrane remodelling orchestrates CD4+ T cell differentiation remains unclear. Here we show that unlike other CD4+ T cell subsets, T helper 17 (TH17) cells have fused mitochondria with tight cristae. T cell-specific deletion of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), which regulates inner mitochondrial membrane fusion and cristae morphology6, revealed that TH17 cells require OPA1 for its control of the TCA cycle, rather than respiration. OPA1 deletion amplifies glutamine oxidation, leading to impaired NADH/NAD+ balance and accumulation of TCA cycle metabolites and 2-hydroxyglutarate-a metabolite that influences the epigenetic landscape5,7. Our multi-omics approach revealed that the serine/threonine kinase liver-associated kinase B1 (LKB1) couples mitochondrial function to cytokine expression in TH17 cells by regulating TCA cycle metabolism and transcriptional remodelling. Mitochondrial membrane disruption activates LKB1, which restrains IL-17 expression. LKB1 deletion restores IL-17 expression in TH17 cells with disrupted mitochondrial membranes, rectifying aberrant TCA cycle glutamine flux, balancing NADH/NAD+ and preventing 2-hydroxyglutarate production from the promiscuous activity of the serine biosynthesis enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH). These findings identify OPA1 as a major determinant of TH17 cell function, and uncover LKB1 as a sensor linking mitochondrial cues to effector programmes in TH17 cells.
  2. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 984560
      Aberrant lipid metabolism is nonnegligible for tumor cells to adapt to the tumor microenvironment (TME). It plays a significant role in the amount and function of immune cells, including tumor-associated macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells and marrow-derived suppressor cells. It is well-known that the immune response in TME is suppressed and lipid metabolism is closely involved in this process. Immunotherapy, containing anti-PD1/PDL1 therapy and adoptive T cell therapy, is a crucial clinical cancer therapeutic strategy nowadays, but they display a low-sensibility in certain cancers. In this review, we mainly discussed the importance of lipid metabolism in the formation of immunosuppressive TME, and explored the effectiveness and sensitivity of immunotherapy treatment by regulating the lipid metabolism.
    Keywords:  immune cells; immunotherapy; lipid metabolism; microenvironment; tumor
  3. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 918747
      Macrophages are innate immune cells with high phenotypic plasticity. Depending on the microenvironmental cues they receive, they polarize on a spectrum with extremes being pro- or anti-inflammatory. As well as responses to microenvironmental cues, cellular metabolism is increasingly recognized as a key factor influencing macrophage function. While pro-inflammatory macrophages mostly use glycolysis to meet their energetic needs, anti-inflammatory macrophages heavily rely on mitochondrial respiration. The relationship between macrophage phenotype and macrophage metabolism is well established, however its precise directionality is still under question. Indeed, whether cellular metabolism per se influences macrophage phenotype or whether macrophage polarization dictates metabolic activity is an area of active research. In this short perspective article, we sought to shed light on this area. By modulating several metabolic pathways in bone marrow-derived macrophages, we show that disruption of cellular metabolism does per se influence cytokine secretion profile and expression of key inflammatory genes. Only some pathways seem to be involved in these processes, highlighting the need for specific metabolic functions in the regulation of macrophage phenotype. We thus demonstrate that the intact nature of cellular metabolism influences macrophage phenotype and function, addressing the directionality between these two aspects of macrophage biology.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; energetics; macrophage; metabolism; mitochondria
  4. Elife. 2022 Sep 26. pii: e80919. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) dysfunction due to mutations in the nuclear or mitochondrial genome is a common cause of metabolic disease in humans and displays striking tissue specificity depending on the affected gene. The mechanisms underlying tissue specific phenotypes are not understood. Complex I (cI) is classically considered the entry point for electrons into the ETC, and in vitro experiments indicate that cI is required for basal respiration and maintenance of the NAD+/NADH ratio, an indicator of cellular redox status. This finding has largely not been tested in vivo. Here, we report that mitochondrial complex I is dispensable for homeostasis of the adult mouse liver; animals with hepatocyte-specific loss of cI function display no overt phenotypes or signs of liver damage, and maintain liver function, redox and oxygen status. Further analysis of cI-deficient livers did not reveal significant proteomic or metabolic changes, indicating little to no compensation is required in the setting of complex I loss. In contrast, complex IV (cIV) dysfunction in adult hepatocytes results in decreased liver function, impaired oxygen handling, steatosis, and liver damage, accompanied by significant metabolomic and proteomic perturbations. Our results support a model whereby complex I loss is tolerated in the mouse liver because hepatocytes use alternative electron donors to fuel the mitochondrial ETC.
    Keywords:  cell biology; genetics; genomics; mouse
  5. Nat Commun. 2022 Sep 28. 13(1): 5696
      Fatty liver is a highly heterogenous condition driven by various pathogenic factors in addition to the severity of steatosis. Protein insufficiency has been causally linked to fatty liver with incompletely defined mechanisms. Here we report that fatty liver is a sulfur amino acid insufficient state that promotes metabolic inflexibility via limiting coenzyme A availability. We demonstrate that the nutrient-sensing transcriptional factor EB synergistically stimulates lysosome proteolysis and methionine adenosyltransferase to increase cysteine pool that drives the production of coenzyme A and glutathione, which support metabolic adaptation and antioxidant defense during increased lipid influx. Intriguingly, mice consuming an isocaloric protein-deficient Western diet exhibit selective hepatic cysteine, coenzyme A and glutathione deficiency and acylcarnitine accumulation, which are reversed by cystine supplementation without normalizing dietary protein intake. These findings support a pathogenic link of dysregulated sulfur amino acid metabolism to metabolic inflexibility that underlies both overnutrition and protein malnutrition-associated fatty liver development.
  6. NPJ Breast Cancer. 2022 Sep 26. 8(1): 111
      Recurrent cancer cells that evade therapy is a leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. This risk is high for women showing an overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2). Cells that persist can rely on different substrates for energy production relative to their primary tumor counterpart. Here, we characterize metabolic reprogramming related to tumor dormancy and recurrence in a doxycycline-induced Her2+/Neu model of breast cancer with varying times to recurrence using longitudinal fluorescence microscopy. Glucose uptake (2-NBDG) and mitochondrial membrane potential (TMRE) imaging metabolically phenotype mammary tumors as they transition to regression, dormancy, and recurrence. "Fast-recurrence" tumors (time to recurrence ~55 days), transition from glycolysis to mitochondrial metabolism during regression and this persists upon recurrence. "Slow-recurrence" tumors (time to recurrence ~100 days) rely on both glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism during recurrence. The increase in mitochondrial activity in fast-recurrence tumors is attributed to a switch from glucose to fatty acids as the primary energy source for mitochondrial metabolism. Consequently, when fast-recurrence tumors receive treatment with a fatty acid inhibitor, Etomoxir, tumors report an increase in glucose uptake and lipid synthesis during regression. Treatment with Etomoxir ultimately prolongs survival. We show that metabolic reprogramming reports on tumor recurrence characteristics, particularly at time points that are essential for actionable targets. The temporal characteristics of metabolic reprogramming will be critical in determining the use of an appropriate timing for potential therapies; namely, the notion that metabolic-targeted inhibition during regression reports long-term therapeutic benefit.
  7. iScience. 2022 Oct 21. 25(10): 105086
      Endothelial cell (EC) metabolism has emerged as a driver of angiogenesis. While hypoxia inactivates the oxygen sensors prolyl-4 hydroxylase domain-containing proteins 1-3 (PHD1-3) and stimulates angiogenesis, the effects of PHDs on EC functions remain poorly defined. Here, we investigated the impact of chemical PHD inhibition by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) on angiogenic competence and metabolism of human vascular ECs. DMOG reduced EC proliferation, migration, and tube formation capacities, responses that were associated with an unfavorable metabolic reprogramming. While glycolytic genes were induced, multiple genes encoding sub-units of mitochondrial complex I were suppressed with concurrent decline in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels. Importantly, the DMOG-induced defects in EC migration could be partially rescued by augmenting NAD+ levels through nicotinamide riboside or citrate supplementation. In summary, by integrating functional assays, transcriptomics, and metabolomics, we provide insights into the effects of PHD inhibition on angiogenic competence and metabolism of human vascular ECs.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Metabolomics; Transcriptomics
  8. Cell Rep. 2022 Sep 27. pii: S2211-1247(22)01174-3. [Epub ahead of print]40(13): 111346
      Mast cells (MCs) are granulated cells implicated in inflammatory disorders because of their capacity to degranulate, releasing prestored proinflammatory mediators. As MCs have the unique capacity to reform granules following degranulation in vitro, their potential to regranulate in vivo is linked to their pathogenesis. It is not known what factors regulate regranulation, let alone if regranulation occurs in vivo. We report that mice can undergo multiple bouts of MC regranulation following successive anaphylactic reactions. mTORC1, a nutrient sensor that activates protein and lipid synthesis, is necessary for regranulation. mTORC1 activity is regulated by a glucose-6-phosphate transporter, Slc37a2, which increases intracellular glucose-6-phosphate and ATP during regranulation, two upstream signals of mTOR. Additionally, Slc37a2 concentrates extracellular metabolites within endosomes, which are trafficked into nascent granules. Thus, the metabolic switch associated with MC regranulation is mediated by the interactions of a cellular metabolic sensor and a transporter of extracellular metabolites into MC granules.
    Keywords:  CP: Metabolism; Slc37a2; mTOR; mast cell; metabolism; regranulation
  9. J Cell Mol Med. 2022 Sep 29.
      The dysregulation of lipid metabolic pathways (cholesterol uptake and efflux) in macrophages results in the formation of lipid-dense macrophages, named foam cells, that participate in plaque formation. NPY binding to NPY receptors in macrophages can modulate cell functions and affect the process of atherosclerotic plaques. The present study aimed to determine whether NPY affects the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells and its underlying mechanisms in macrophages. THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and treated with different concentrations of NPY. We analysed the relative levels of proteins related to cholesterol uptake and efflux. We found that NPY effectively increased cholesterol uptake and intracellular cholesterol content via the Y1 and Y5 receptors, and this effect was blocked by Y1 and Y5 antagonists. Mechanistically, NPY enhanced the expression of SRA and CD36 via the PKC/PPARγ pathways, promoting macrophage cholesterol uptake. Moreover, NPY significantly decreased cholesterol efflux to the extracellular cholesterol acceptors ApoA1 and HDL in macrophages. NPY mediated decreases in ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI expression through the inhibition of the JAK/STAT3 pathways. Our results suggest that NPY binding to the Y1 and Y5 receptors enhances foam cell formation by regulating cholesterol uptake and efflux in macrophages.
    Keywords:  NPY; THP-1; foam cell; macrophage
  10. Elife. 2022 Sep 29. pii: e74690. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Macrophages are a highly adaptive population of innate immune cells. Polarization with IFNγ and LPS into the 'classically activated' M1 macrophage enhances pro-inflammatory and microbicidal responses, important for eradicating bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. By contrast, 'alternatively activated' M2 macrophages, polarized with IL-4, oppose bactericidal mechanisms and allow mycobacterial growth. These activation states are accompanied by distinct metabolic profiles, where M1 macrophages favor near exclusive use of glycolysis, whereas M2 macrophages up-regulate oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Here we demonstrate that activation with IL-4 and IL-13 counterintuitively induces protective innate memory against mycobacterial challenge. In human and murine models, prior activation with IL-4/13 enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to a secondary stimulation with mycobacterial ligands. In our murine model, enhanced killing capacity is also demonstrated. Despite this switch in phenotype, IL-4/13 trained murine macrophages do not demonstrate M1-typical metabolism, instead retaining heightened use of OXPHOS. Moreover, inhibition of OXPHOS with oligomycin, 2-deoxy glucose or BPTES all impeded heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine responses from IL-4/13 trained macrophages. Lastly, this work identifies that IL-10 attenuates protective IL-4/13 training, impeding pro-inflammatory and bactericidal mechanisms. In summary, this work provides new and unexpected insight into alternative macrophage activation states in the context of mycobacterial infection.
    Keywords:  immunology; inflammation; mouse
  11. Sci Adv. 2022 Sep 30. 8(39): eabq0117
      The fate of pyruvate is a defining feature in many cell types. One major fate is mitochondrial entry via the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). We found that diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) consume mitochondrial pyruvate via glutamate-pyruvate transaminase 2 to enable α-ketoglutarate production as part of glutaminolysis. This led us to discover that glutamine exceeds pyruvate as a carbon source for the tricarboxylic acid cycle in DLBCLs. As a result, MPC inhibition led to decreased glutaminolysis in DLBCLs, opposite to previous observations in other cell types. We also found that MPC inhibition or genetic depletion decreased DLBCL proliferation in an extracellular matrix (ECM)-like environment and xenografts, but not in a suspension environment. Moreover, the metabolic profile of DLBCL cells in ECM is markedly different from cells in a suspension environment. Thus, we conclude that the synergistic consumption and assimilation of glutamine and pyruvate enables DLBCL proliferation in an extracellular environment-dependent manner.
  12. Nat Commun. 2022 Sep 30. 13(1): 5761
      The counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia that restores normal blood glucose levels is an essential physiological function. It is initiated, in large part, by incompletely characterized brain hypoglycemia sensing neurons that trigger the secretion of counterregulatory hormones, in particular glucagon, to stimulate hepatic glucose production. In a genetic screen of recombinant inbred BXD mice we previously identified Agpat5 as a candidate regulator of hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion. Here, using genetic mouse models, we demonstrate that Agpat5 expressed in agouti-related peptide neurons is required for their activation by hypoglycemia, for hypoglycemia-induced vagal nerve activity, and glucagon secretion. We find that inactivation of Agpat5 leads to increased fatty acid oxidation and ATP production and that suppressing Cpt1a-dependent fatty acid import into mitochondria restores hypoglycemia sensing. Collectively, our data show that AgRP neurons are involved in the control of glucagon secretion and that Agpat5, by partitioning fatty acyl-CoAs away from mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ATP generation, ensures that the fall in intracellular ATP, which triggers neuronal firing, faithfully reflects changes in glycemia.
  13. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Oct 04. 119(40): e2204296119
      Thymic stromal cells (TSCs) are critical regulators of T cell tolerance, but their basic biology has remained under-characterized because they are relatively rare and difficult to isolate. Recent work has revealed that constitutive autophagy in TSCs is required for self-antigen presentation and central T cell tolerance induction; however, the mechanisms regulating constitutive autophagy in TSCs are not well understood. Hydrogen peroxide has been shown to increase autophagy flux in other tissues, and we previously identified conspicuously low expression of the hydrogen peroxide-quenching enzyme catalase in TSCs. We investigated whether the redox status of TSCs established by low catalase expression regulates their basal autophagy levels and their capacity to impose central T cell tolerance. Transgenic overexpression of catalase diminished autophagy in TSCs and impaired thymocyte clonal deletion, concomitant with increased frequencies of spontaneous lymphocytic infiltrates in lung and liver and of serum antinuclear antigen reactivity. Effects on clonal deletion and autoimmune indicators were diminished in catalase transgenic mice when autophagy was rescued by expression of the Becn1F121A/F121A knock-in allele. These results suggest a metabolic mechanism by which the redox status of TSCs may regulate central T cell tolerance.
    Keywords:  thymus; tolerance
  14. Mass Spectrom Rev. 2022 Sep 26. e21812
      Adipose tissue is classically considered the primary site of lipid storage, but in recent years has garnered appreciation for its broad role as an endocrine organ, capable of remotely signaling to other tissues to alter their metabolic program. The adipose tissue is now recognized as a crucial regulator of cardiovascular health, mediated by the secretion of several bioactive products, with a wide range of endocrine and paracrine effects on the cardiovascular system. Thanks to the development and improvement of high-throughput mass spectrometry, the size and components of the human secretome have been characterized. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in mass spectrometry-based studies of the cell and tissue secretome for the understanding of adipose tissue biology, which may help to decipher the complex molecular mechanisms controlling the crosstalk between the adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system, and their possible clinical translation.
    Keywords:  adipose tissue; mass spectrometry; proteomics; secretome
  15. Mol Metab. 2022 Sep 20. pii: S2212-8778(22)00163-6. [Epub ahead of print] 101594
      OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue is a very dynamic metabolic organ that plays an essential role in regulating whole-body glucose homeostasis. Dysfunctional adipose tissue hypertrophy with obesity is associated with fibrosis and type 2 diabetes. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) is a transcription cofactor important in the Hippo signaling pathway. However, the role of YAP in adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis is unknown.METHODS: To study the role of YAP with metabolic stress, we assessed how increased weight and insulin resistance impact YAP in humans and mouse models. To further investigate the in vivo role of YAP specifically in adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis, we developed adipose tissue-specific YAP knockout mice and placed them on either chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 12-14 weeks. To further study the direct role of YAP in adipocytes we used 3T3-L1 cells.
    RESULTS: We found that YAP protein levels increase in adipose tissue from humans with type 2 diabetes and mouse models of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. This suggests that YAP signaling may contribute to adipocyte dysfunction and insulin resistance under metabolic stress conditions. On an HFD, adipose tissue YAP knockout mice had improved glucose tolerance compared to littermate controls. Perigonadal fat pad weight was also decreased in knockout animals, with smaller adipocyte size. Adipose tissue fibrosis and gene expression associated with fibrosis was decreased in vivo and in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells treated with a YAP inhibitor or siRNA.
    CONCLUSIONS: We show that YAP is increased in adipose tissue with weight gain and insulin resistance. Disruption of YAP in adipocytes prevents glucose intolerance and adipose tissue fibrosis, suggesting that YAP plays an important role in regulating adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis with metabolic stress.
    Keywords:  Adipose tissue; Diabetes; Insulin resistance; Obesity; Yes-associated protein
  16. STAR Protoc. 2022 Sep 26. pii: S2666-1667(22)00605-0. [Epub ahead of print]3(4): 101725
      Here, we describe an optimized protocol to analyze murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages using label-free data-independent acquisition (DIA) proteomics. We provide a complete step-by-step protocol describing sample preparation utilizing the S-Trap approach for on-column digestion and peptide purification. We then detail mass spectrometry data acquisition and approaches for data analysis. Single-shot DIA protocols achieve comparable proteomic depth with data-dependent MS approaches without the need for fractionation. This allows for better scaling for large sample numbers with high inter-experimental reproducibility. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Ryan et al. (2022).
    Keywords:  Bioinformatics; Immunology; Mass spectrometry; Protein biochemistry; Proteomics
  17. Cancer Immunol Res. 2022 Sep 26. pii: CIR-22-0113. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are antigen-specific effector cells with the ability to eradicate cancer cells in a contact-dependent manner. Metabolic perturbation compromises the CTL effector response in tumor subregions, resulting in failed cancer cell elimination despite infiltration of tumor-specific CTLs. Restoring the functionality of these tumor-infiltrating CTLs is key to improve immunotherapy. Extracellular adenosine is an immunosuppressive metabolite produced within the tumor microenvironment. Here, by applying single-cell reporter strategies in 3D collagen co-cultures in vitro and progressing tumors in vivo, we showed that adenosine weakened one-to-one pairing of activated effector CTLs with target cells, thereby dampening serial cytotoxic hit delivery and cumulative death induction. Adenosine also severely compromised CTL effector restimulation and expansion. Antagonization of adenosine A2a receptor (ADORA2a) signaling stabilized CTL-target cell conjugation and accelerated lethal hit delivery by both individual contacts and CTL swarms. Because adenosine signaling is a near-constitutive confounding parameter in metabolically perturbed tumors, ADORA2a targeting represents an orthogonal adjuvant strategy to enhance immunotherapy efficacy.
  18. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 937331
      Cellular energy metabolism plays a crucial role in the regulation of macrophage polarization and in the execution of immune functions. A recent study showed that Slc6a8-mediated creatine uptake from exogenous supplementation modulates macrophage polarization, yet little is known about the role of the de novo creatine de novobiosynthesis pathway in macrophage polarization. Here, we observed that glycine amidinotransferase (GATM), the rate-limiting enzyme for creatine synthesis, was upregulated in alternative (M2) polarized macrophages, and was dependent on the transcriptional factor STAT6, whereas GATM expression was suppressed in the classical polarized (M1) macrophage. Next, we revealed that exogenous creatine supplementation enhanced IL-4-induced M2 polarization, confirming recent work. Furthermore, we revealed that genetic ablation of GATM did not affect expression of M1 marker genes (Nos2, IL1b, IL12b) or the production of nitric oxide in both peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). By contrast, expression levels of M2 markers (Arg1, Mrc1, Ccl17 and Retnla) were lower following GATM deletion. Moreover, we found that deletion of GATM in resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) significantly blocked M2 polarization but with no obvious effect on the number of cells in knockout mice. Lastly, an upregulation of GATM was found in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid macrophages from HDM-induced asthmatic mice. Our study uncovers a previously uncharacterized role for the de novo creatine biosynthesis enzyme GATM in M2 macrophage polarization, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of related inflammatory diseases such as an T helper 2 (Th2)-associated allergic asthma.
    Keywords:  asthma; creatine; glycine amidinotransferase (GATM); macrophage; polarization
  19. World J Hepatol. 2022 Jul 27. 14(7): 1365-1381
      BACKGROUND: Lipid metabolism disorder and inflammatory-immune activation are vital triggers in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Various studies have shown that PPAR-γ exerts potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, little is known about the regulation of PPAR-γ activity in modulating cell crosstalk in NAFLD.AIM: To investigate whether the regulation of PPAR-γ activity in lipid-laden hepatocytes affects macrophage polarization and inflammation.
    METHODS: Primary hepatocytes were isolated from wild-type C57BL6/J mice or hepatocyte-specific PPAR-γ knockout mice and incubated with free fatty acids (FFAs). Macrophages were incubated with conditioned medium (CM) from lipid-laden hepatocytes with or without a PPAR-γ agonist. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet and administered rosiglitazone.
    RESULTS: Primary hepatocytes exhibited significant lipid deposition and increased ROS production after incubation with FFAs. CM from lipid-laden hepatocytes promoted macrophage polarization to the M1 type and activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. A PPAR-γ agonist ameliorated oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in lipid-laden hepatocytes and subsequently prevented M1 macrophage polarization. Hepatocyte-specific PPAR-γ deficiency aggravated oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in lipid-laden hepatocytes, which further promoted M1 macrophage polarization. Rosiglitazone administration improved oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HF diet-induced NAFLD mice in vivo.
    CONCLUSION: Upregulation of PPAR-γ activity in hepatocytes alleviated NAFLD by modulating the crosstalk between hepatocytes and macrophages via the reactive oxygen species-NLRP3-IL-1β pathway.
    Keywords:  Hepatocyte; Macrophage polarization; NLRP3; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Oxidative stress; PPAR-γ
  20. Proteome Sci. 2022 Sep 24. 20(1): 16
      BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, leading to permanent imbalance of liver lipid homeostasis and steatohepatitis. However, a detailed understanding of the metabolic genes and pathways involved remains elusive.METHODS: In vivo experiments were designed to analyze body weight and lipid metabolism changes of rats under hypoxia. After this, we combined microarray analysis and gene overexpression experiments to validate the core mechanisms involved in the response to hypoxia.
    RESULTS: The hypobaric hypoxia treated rats exhibited significantly increased serum triglycerides (TG) (p < 0.05), despite no significant changes in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and blood glucose (BG) were observed. In addition, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) greatly increased after 3 days and then returned to normal level at 30 days. Interestingly, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) showed an opposite pattern. Transcriptome analysis, qRT-PCR, ICC revealed that the genes PPARA, ANGPTL4, CPT-I, ACC and LPL play a crucial role in response to hypobaric hypoxia. IPA pathway analysis further confirmed that PPARA-mediated regulation of ANGPTL4 participated in TG clearance and lipoprotein metabolism. Finally, the PPARA-ANGPTL4 pathway was validated in rats and HL 7702 cells treated with Fenofibrate, a PPARA specific agonist.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed this pathway plays an important role on lipid metabolism caused by hypobaric hypoxia and the potential target genes associated with oxygen-dependent lipid homeostasis in the liver.
    Keywords:  ANGPTL4; Hypobaric hypoxia; Lipid metabolism; Microarray; PPARA
  21. Front Genet. 2022 ;13 969723
      With continued advances in cancer research, the crucial role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in regulating tumor progression and influencing immunotherapy outcomes has been realized over the years. A series of studies devoted to enhancing the response to immunotherapies through exploring efficient predictive biomarkers and new combination approaches. The microfluidic technology not only promoted the development of multi-omics analyses but also enabled the recapitulation of TME in vitro microfluidic system, which made these devices attractive across studies for optimization of immunotherapy. Here, we reviewed the application of microfluidic systems in modeling TME and the potential of these devices in predicting and monitoring immunotherapy effects.
    Keywords:  TME; microfluidic devices; microfluidics; multi-omic analyses; tumor immunotherapy
  22. iScience. 2022 Oct 21. 25(10): 105087
      The G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is found in immune cells and its expression is increased under inflammatory conditions. Activation of GPR84 by medium-chain fatty acids results in pro-inflammatory responses. Here, we screened available vertebrate genome data and found that GPR84 is present in vertebrates for more than 500 million years but absent in birds and a pseudogene in bats. Cloning and functional characterization of several mammalian GPR84 orthologs in combination with evolutionary and model-based structural analyses revealed evidence for positive selection of bear GPR84 orthologs. Naturally occurring human GPR84 variants are most frequent in Asian populations causing a loss of function. Further, we identified cis- and trans-2-decenoic acid, both known to mediate bacterial communication, as evolutionary highly conserved ligands. Our integrated set of approaches contributes to a comprehensive understanding of GPR84 in terms of evolutionary and structural aspects, highlighting GPR84 as a conserved immune cell receptor for bacteria-derived molecules.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Evolutionary biology; Evolutionary processes
  23. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2022 Sep 30.
      The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an inflammatory mediator and ligand for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. We investigated the atherogenic mechanisms set in motion by 2-AG. Therefore, we created two atherosclerotic mouse models with distinct cell-specific knockouts of the CB2 receptor on either myeloid or endothelial cells. These mice were treated with JZL184, resulting in elevated plasma levels of 2-AG. After a high-fat high-cholesterol diet, atherosclerotic plaques were analyzed. The atherogenic effect of 2-AG was abrogated in mice lacking myeloid expression of the CB2 receptor but not in mice lacking endothelial expression of the CB2 receptor. In vitro, treatment of human monocytes with 2-AG led to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-1β. In conclusion, 2-AG shows an atherogenic effect in vivo, dependent on the presence of the CB2 receptor on myeloid cells. In addition, our in vitro data revealed 2-AG to promote inflammatory signalling in monocytes. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol shows an atherogenic effect that is abrogated in mice lacking myeloid expression of the CB2 receptor.
    Keywords:  2-Arachidonoylglycerol; Atherosclerosis; Cannabinoid receptor type 2; Endocannabinoid system; JZL184; Reactive oxygen species
  24. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 ;13 866116
      The m6A methylation is the most numerous modification of mRNA in mammals, coordinated by RNA m6A methyltransferases, RNA m6A demethylases, and RNA m6A binding proteins. They change the RNA m6A methylation level in their specific manner. RNA m6A modification has a significant impact on lipid metabolic regulation. The "writer" METTL3/METTL14 and the "eraser" FTO can promote the accumulation of lipids in various cells by affecting the decomposition and synthesis of lipids. The "reader" YTHDF recognizes m6A methylation sites of RNA and regulates the target genes' translation. Due to this function that regulates lipid metabolism, RNA m6A methylation plays a pivotal role in metabolic diseases and makes it a great potential target for therapy.
    Keywords:  FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) gene; M6A; METTL3; lipid; obesity
  25. Liver Int. 2022 Sep 27.
      BACKGROUND & AIMS: Macrophages display remarkable plasticity and can interact with surrounding cells to affect hepatic immunity and tissue remodeling during the progression of liver diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) plays a critical role in macrophage maturation, polarization and metabolism. In this study, we investigated the role of PPARγ in macrophage-HSC interaction during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development.METHODS: Wild-type, Ppargfl/fl and PpargΔLyz2 mice were fed a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet to induce NASH. Depletion of macrophages was performed using injection of gadolinium chloride intraperitoneally. PPARγ-overexpressing or PPARγ-knockout macrophages were stimulated with saturated fatty acid (SFA) and cocultured with HSCs in conditioned medium or transwell coculture system.
    RESULTS: Depletion of macrophages inhibited HSC activation and ameliorated NASH progression in MCD diet-fed mice. Coculturing HSCs with macrophages or culturing HSCs in macrophage-conditioned medium facilitated HSC activation, and this effect was magnified when macrophages were metabolically activated by SFA. Moreover, the absence of PPARγ in macrophages enhanced metabolic activation, promoting the migration and activation of HSCs through IL-1β and CCL2. In contrast, overexpression of PPARγ in macrophages obtained the opposite effects. In vivo, macrophage-specific PPARγ knockout affected the phenotype of hepatic macrophages and HSCs, involving the MAPK and NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β signaling pathways. Infiltrating hepatic monocyte-derived macrophages became the predominant macrophages in NASH liver, especially in PpargΔLyz2 mice, paralleling with aggravated inflammation and fibrosis.
    CONCLUSIONS: Regulating macrophage PPARγ affected the metabolic activation of macrophages and their interaction with HSCs. Macrophage-specific PPARγ maybe an attractive therapeutic target for protecting against NASH-associated inflammation and fibrosis.
    Keywords:  PPAR gamma; fibrosis; hepatic stellate cells; inflammation; macrophages; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  26. Cell Rep. 2022 Sep 27. pii: S2211-1247(22)01278-5. [Epub ahead of print]40(13): 111437
      Ketone bodies are increasingly understood to have regulatory effects on immune cell function, with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) exerting a predominantly anti-inflammatory response. Dietary strategies to increase endogenous ketone body availability such as the ketogenic diet (KD) have recently been shown to alleviate inflammation of the respiratory tract. However, the role of BHB has not been addressed. Here, we observe that BHB suppresses group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2)-mediated airway inflammation. Central to this are mast cells, which support ILC2 proliferation through interleukin-2 (IL-2). Suppression of the mast cell/IL-2 axis by BHB attenuates ILC2 proliferation and the ensuing type 2 cytokine response and immunopathology. Mechanistically, BHB directly inhibits mast cell function in part through GPR109A activation. Similar effects are achieved with either the KD or 1,3-butanediol. Our data reveal the protective role of BHB in ILC2-driven airway inflammation, which underscores the potential therapeutic value of ketone body supplementation for the management of asthma.
    Keywords:  BHB; CP: Immunology; CP: Metabolism; IL-2; ILC2; allergic asthma; ketogenic diet; mast cells
  27. Front Mol Biosci. 2022 ;9 995421
      MitoNEET is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein that regulates energy metabolism, iron homeostasis, and production of reactive oxygen species in cells. Aberrant expression of mitoNEET in tissues has been linked to type II diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and several types of cancer. Structurally, the N-terminal domain of mitoNEET has a single transmembrane alpha helix that anchors the protein to mitochondrial outer membrane. The C-terminal cytosolic domain of mitoNEET hosts a redox active [2Fe-2S] cluster via an unusual ligand arrangement of three cysteine and one histidine residues. Here we report that the reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster in the C-terminal cytosolic domain of mitoNEET (mitoNEET45-108) is able to bind nitric oxide (NO) without disruption of the cluster. Importantly, binding of NO at the reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster effectively inhibits the redox transition of the cluster in mitoNEET45-108. While the NO-bound [2Fe-2S] cluster in mitoNEET45-108 is stable, light excitation releases NO from the NO-bound [2Fe-2S] cluster and restores the redox transition activity of the cluster in mitoNEET45-108. The results suggest that NO may regulate the electron transfer activity of mitoNEET in mitochondrial outer membrane via reversible binding to its reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster.
    Keywords:  electron transfer (ET); iron-sulfur; mitochondia; nitric oxide; oxidation reduction
  28. Science. 2022 Sep 30. 377(6614): 1519-1529
      Gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in human cancers result in the production of d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG), an oncometabolite that promotes tumorigenesis through epigenetic alterations. The cancer cell-intrinsic effects of d-2HG are well understood, but its tumor cell-nonautonomous roles remain poorly explored. We compared the oncometabolite d-2HG with its enantiomer, l-2HG, and found that tumor-derived d-2HG was taken up by CD8+ T cells and altered their metabolism and antitumor functions in an acute and reversible fashion. We identified the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a molecular target of d-2HG. d-2HG and inhibition of LDH drive a metabolic program and immune CD8+ T cell signature marked by decreased cytotoxicity and impaired interferon-γ signaling that was recapitulated in clinical samples from human patients with IDH1 mutant gliomas.