bims-mepmim Biomed News
on Metabolites in pathological microenvironments and immunometabolism
Issue of 2022‒08‒14
34 papers selected by
Erika Mariana Palmieri
NIH/NCI Laboratory of Cancer ImmunoMetabolism

  1. Autophagy. 2022 Aug 08. 1-2
      Mitophagy neutralizes defective mitochondria via lysosomal elimination. Increased levels of mitophagy hallmark metabolic transitions and are induced by iron depletion, yet its metabolic basis has not been studied in-depth. How mitophagy integrates with different homeostatic mechanisms to support metabolic integrity is incompletely understood. We examined metabolic adaptations in cells treated with deferiprone (DFP), a therapeutic iron chelator known to induce PINK1-PRKN-independent mitophagy. We found that iron depletion profoundly rewired the cellular metabolome, remodeling lipid metabolism within minutes of treatment. DGAT1-dependent lipid droplet biosynthesis occurs upstream of mitochondrial turnover, with many LDs bordering mitochondria upon iron chelation. Surprisingly, DGAT1 inhibition restricts mitophagy in vitro by lysosomal dysfunction. Genetic depletion of mdy/DGAT1 in vivo impairs neuronal mitophagy and locomotor function in Drosophila, demonstrating the physiological relevance of our findings.
    Keywords:  DGAT1; iron; lipid droplet; metabolism; mitophagy
  2. Nat Commun. 2022 Aug 10. 13(1): 4684
      Obesity and obesity-related health complications are increasing in prevalence. Adipose tissue from obese subjects has low-grade, chronic inflammation, leading to insulin resistance. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are a source of proinflammatory cytokines that further aggravate adipocyte dysfunction. In response to a high fat diet (HFD), ATM numbers initially increase by proliferation of resident macrophages, but subsequent increases also result from infiltration in response to chemotactic signals from inflamed adipose tissue. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms regulating the increases in ATMs and their proinflammatory phenotype, we investigated the role of activation of ATM epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A high fat diet increased expression of EGFR and its ligand amphiregulin in ATMs. Selective deletion of EGFR in ATMs inhibited both resident ATM proliferation and monocyte infiltration into adipose tissue and decreased obesity and development of insulin resistance. Therefore, ATM EGFR activation plays an important role in adipose tissue dysfunction.
  3. Cells. 2022 Aug 02. pii: 2373. [Epub ahead of print]11(15):
      Metabolic alterations and direct cell-cell interactions in the tumor microenvironment (TME) affect the prognostic molecular landscape of tumors; thus, it is imperative to investigate metabolic activity at the single-cell level rather than in bulk samples to understand the high-resolution mechanistic influences of cell-type specific metabolic pathway alterations on tumor cells. To investigate tumor metabolic reprogramming and intercellular communication at the single-cell level, we analyzed eighty-four metabolic pathways, seven metabolic signatures, and tumor-stroma cell interaction using 21,084 cells comprising gastric cancer and paired normal tissue. High EMT-score cells and stem-like subtype tumors showed elevated glycosaminoglycan metabolism, which was associated with poor patient outcome. Adenocarcinoma and macrophage cells had higher reactive oxidative species levels than the normal controls; they largely constituted the highest stemness cluster. They were found to reciprocally communicate through the common ligand RPS19. Consequently, ligand-target regulated transcriptional reprogramming resulted in HS6ST2 expression in adenocarcinoma cells and SERPINE1 expression in macrophages. Gastric cancer patients with increased SERPINE1 and HS6ST2 expression had unfavorable prognoses, suggesting these as potential drug targets. Our findings indicate that malignant stem-like/EMT cancer cell state might be regulated through reciprocal cancer cell-macrophage intercellular communication and metabolic reprogramming in the heterogeneous TME of gastric cancer at the single-cell level.
    Keywords:  cancer stemness; gastric cancer; glycan metabolism; immunometabolism; single cell
  4. Nat Commun. 2022 Aug 09. 13(1): 4674
      The MYC oncogene is a potent driver of growth and proliferation but also sensitises cells to apoptosis, which limits its oncogenic potential. MYC induces several biosynthetic programmes and primary cells overexpressing MYC are highly sensitive to glutamine withdrawal suggesting that MYC-induced sensitisation to apoptosis may be due to imbalance of metabolic/energetic supply and demand. Here we show that MYC elevates global transcription and translation, even in the absence of glutamine, revealing metabolic demand without corresponding supply. Glutamine withdrawal from MRC-5 fibroblasts depletes key tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites and, in combination with MYC activation, leads to AMP accumulation and nucleotide catabolism indicative of energetic stress. Further analyses reveal that glutamine supports viability through TCA cycle energetics rather than asparagine biosynthesis and that TCA cycle inhibition confers tumour suppression on MYC-driven lymphoma in vivo. In summary, glutamine supports the viability of MYC-overexpressing cells through an energetic rather than a biosynthetic mechanism.
  5. Mol Cell. 2022 Aug 09. pii: S1097-2765(22)00647-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lactate accumulates to a significant amount in glioblastomas (GBMs), the most common primary malignant brain tumor with an unfavorable prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether lactate is metabolized by GBMs. Here, we demonstrated that lactate rescued patient-derived xenograft (PDX) GBM cells from nutrient-deprivation-mediated cell death. Transcriptome analysis, ATAC-seq, and ChIP-seq showed that lactate entertained a signature of oxidative energy metabolism. LC/MS analysis demonstrated that U-13C-lactate elicited substantial labeling of TCA-cycle metabolites, acetyl-CoA, and histone protein acetyl-residues in GBM cells. Lactate enhanced chromatin accessibility and histone acetylation in a manner dependent on oxidative energy metabolism and the ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY). Utilizing orthotopic PDX models of GBM, a combined tracer experiment unraveled that lactate carbons were substantially labeling the TCA-cycle metabolites. Finally, pharmacological blockage of oxidative energy metabolism extended overall survival in two orthotopic PDX models in mice. These results establish lactate metabolism as a novel druggable pathway for GBM.
    Keywords:  ATAC-seq; ChIP-seq; glioblastoma; lactate; metabolic flux analysis; tumor metabolism
  6. J Lipid Res. 2022 Aug 07. pii: S0022-2275(22)00092-X. [Epub ahead of print] 100259
      Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) is a Golgi-resident type 2 transmembrane protein known to be overexpressed in several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as in viral infections. However, the role of GOLM1 in lipid metabolism remains enigmatic. In this study, we employed siRNA-mediated GOLM1 depletion in Huh-7 HCC cells to study the role of GOLM1 in lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric lipidomic analysis in GOLM1 knockdown cells showed an aberrant accumulation of sphingolipids such as ceramides, hexosylceramides, dihexosylceramides, sphinganine, sphingosine, and ceramide phosphate, along with cholesterol esters. Further, we observed a reduction in phosphatidylethanolamines and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. In addition, Seahorse extracellular flux analysis indicated a reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate upon GOLM1 depletion. Finally, alterations in Golgi structure and distribution were observed both by EM imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. Importantly, we found that GOLM1 depletion also affected cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in Huh-7 HCC cells. The Golgi structural defects induced by GOLM1 reduction might potentially affect the trafficking of proteins and lipids leading to distorted intracellular lipid homeostasis which may result in organelle dysfunction and altered cell growth. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GOLM1 depletion affects sphingolipid metabolism, mitochondrial function, Golgi structure, and proliferation of HCC cells.
    Keywords:  Ceramide; Cholesterol ester; Dihexosylceramide; GOLPH2; GP73; Glycosphingolipid; Golgi; Hexosylceramide; Mitochondrial function; Phosphatidylethanolamine
  7. Sci Rep. 2022 Aug 12. 12(1): 13719
      Metabolic regulation in skeletal muscle is essential for blood glucose homeostasis. Obesity causes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, leading to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we performed multiomic analysis of the skeletal muscle of wild-type (WT) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice, and constructed regulatory transomic networks for metabolism after oral glucose administration. Our network revealed that metabolic regulation by glucose-responsive metabolites had a major effect on WT mice, especially carbohydrate metabolic pathways. By contrast, in ob/ob mice, much of the metabolic regulation by glucose-responsive metabolites was lost and metabolic regulation by glucose-responsive genes was largely increased, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways. We present some characteristic metabolic regulatory pathways found in central carbon, branched amino acids, and ketone body metabolism. Our transomic analysis will provide insights into how skeletal muscle responds to changes in blood glucose and how it fails to respond in obesity.
  8. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 911050
      Cellular metabolism modulates effector functions in human CD4+ T (Th) cells by providing energy and building blocks. Conversely, cellular metabolic responses are modulated by various influences, e.g., age. Thus, we hypothesized that metabolic reprogramming in human Th cells during aging modulates effector functions and contributes to "inflammaging", an aging-related, chronic, sterile, low-grade inflammatory state characterized by specific proinflammatory cytokines. Analyzing the metabolic response of human naive and memory Th cells from young and aged individuals, we observed that memory Th cells exhibit higher glycolytic and mitochondrial fluxes than naive Th cells. In contrast, the metabolism of the latter was not affected by donor age. Memory Th cells from aged donors showed a higher respiratory capacity, mitochondrial content, and intracellular ROS production than those from young donors without altering glucose uptake and cellular ATP levels, which finally resulted in higher secreted amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, e.g., IFN-γ, IP-10 from memory Th cells taken from aged donors after TCR-stimulation which were sensitive to ROS inhibition. These findings suggest that metabolic reprogramming in human memory Th cells during aging results in an increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines through enhanced ROS production, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammaging.
    Keywords:  ROS; aging; cytokines; memory Th cells; metabolism; proliferation
  9. Free Radic Biol Med. 2022 Aug 03. pii: S0891-5849(22)00498-1. [Epub ahead of print]190 1-14
      INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial transfer is a new cell-to-cell communication manner. Whether the mitochondrial transfer is also involved in the macrophage infiltration-induced cardiac injury is unclear.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether macrophage mitochondria can be transferred to cardiomyocytes, and to investigate its possible role and mechanism.
    METHODS: Mitochondrial transfer between macrophages and cardiomyocytes was detected using immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry. Cellular metabolites were analyzed using LC-MS technique. Differentially expressed mRNAs were identified using RNA-seq technique.
    RESULTS: (1) After cardiomyocytes were cultured with macrophage-conditioned medium (COND + group), macrophage-derived mitochondria have been found in cardiomyocytes, which could be blocked by dynasore (an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis). (2) Compared with control (CM) group, there were 545 altered metabolites found in COND + group, most of which were lipids and lipid-like molecules. The altered metabolites were mainly enriched in the β-oxidation of fatty acids and glutathione metabolism. And there were 4824 differentially expressed mRNAs, which were highly enriched in processes like lipid metabolism-associated pathway. (3) Both RNA-seq and qRT-PCR results found that ferroptosis-related mRNAs such as Ptgs2 and Acsl4 increased, and Gpx4 mRNA decreased in COND + group (P < 0.05 vs CM group). (4) The levels of cellular free Fe2+ and mitochondrial lipid peroxidation were increased; while GSH/GSSG ratio, mitochondrial aspect ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP production were decreased in cardiomyocytes of COND + group (P < 0.05 vs CM group). All the above phenomena could be blocked by a ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Macrophages could transfer mitochondria to cardiomyocytes. Macrophage-derived mitochondria were internalized into cardiomyocytes through clathrin- and/or lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. Uptake of exogenous macrophage mitochondria induced cardiomyocyte injury via triggering ferroptosis.
    Keywords:  Cardiomyocytes; Ferroptosis; Macrophages; Mitochondrial transfer
  10. Redox Biol. 2022 Jul 21. pii: S2213-2317(22)00189-6. [Epub ahead of print]55 102417
      Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by widespread relapsing inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is one of the most serious complications of a prolonged history of UC. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important physiological mediator of gastrointestinal homeostasis, limiting mucosal inflammation and promoting tissue healing in response to injury. Inhibition of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE)-dependent H2S production in animal models of UC has been shown to exacerbate colitis and delay tissue repair. It is unknown whether CSE plays a role in CAC, or the downregulation of CSE expression and/or activity promotes CAC development. In humans, we observed a significant decrease in CSE expression in colonic biopsies from patients with UC. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of epithelium injury-induced colitis and global CSE KO mouse strain, we demonstrated that CSE is critical in limiting mucosal inflammation and stimulating epithelial cell proliferation in response to injury. In vitro studies showed that CSE activity stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, basal and cytokine-stimulated cell migration, as well as cytokine regulation of transepithelial permeability. In the azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS model of CAC, the loss of CSE expression accelerated both the development and progression of CAC. The increased tumor multiplicity and severity of CAC observed in CSE-KO mice were associated with reduced levels of mucosal IL-10 expression and increased levels of IL-6. Restoring CSE expression in bone marrow (BM) cells of CSE-KO mice through reciprocal BM transplantation raised mucosal IL-10 expression, decreased IL-6 level, and reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci and tumors in AOM/DSS-treated mice. These studies demonstrate that CSE expression in BM cells plays a critical role in suppressing CAC in mice. Furthermore, the data suggest that the inhibitory effects of CSE on the development of CAC are due, in part, to the modulation of mucosal pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression.
    Keywords:  Bone marrow; Colorectal cancer; Hydrogen sulfide; Inflammatory bowel disease; Transsulfuration pathway; Ulcerative colitis
  11. Circ Res. 2022 Aug 12. 101161CIRCRESAHA121320717
      BACKGROUND: Inhibiting SDH (succinate dehydrogenase), with the competitive inhibitor malonate, has shown promise in ameliorating ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, key for translation to the clinic is understanding the mechanism of malonate entry into cells to enable inhibition of SDH, its mitochondrial target, as malonate itself poorly permeates cellular membranes. The possibility of malonate selectively entering the at-risk heart tissue on reperfusion, however, remains unexplored.METHODS: C57BL/6J mice, C2C12 and H9c2 myoblasts, and HeLa cells were used to elucidate the mechanism of selective malonate uptake into the ischemic heart upon reperfusion. Cells were treated with malonate while varying pH or together with transport inhibitors. Mouse hearts were either perfused ex vivo (Langendorff) or subjected to in vivo left anterior descending coronary artery ligation as models of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Succinate and malonate levels were assessed by LC-MS/MS, in vivo by mass spectrometry imaging, and infarct size by TTC staining.
    RESULTS: Malonate was robustly protective against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, but only if administered at reperfusion and not when infused before ischemia. The extent of malonate uptake into the heart was proportional to the duration of ischemia. Malonate entry into cardiomyocytes in vivo and in vitro was dramatically increased at the low pH (≈6.5) associated with ischemia. This increased uptake of malonate was blocked by selective inhibition of MCT1 (monocarboxylate transporter 1). Reperfusion of the ischemic heart region with malonate led to selective SDH inhibition in the at-risk region. Acid-formulation greatly enhances the cardioprotective potency of malonate.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cardioprotection by malonate is dependent on its entry into cardiomyocytes. This is facilitated by the local decrease in pH that occurs during ischemia, leading to its selective uptake upon reperfusion into the at-risk tissue, via MCT1. Thus, malonate's preferential uptake in reperfused tissue means it is an at-risk tissue-selective drug that protects against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.
    Keywords:  ischemia; mitochondria; myocardial infarction; reactive oxygen species; reperfusion
  12. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jul 30. pii: 8475. [Epub ahead of print]23(15):
      Endosome-localized Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 9 are expressed and functionally active in adipocytes. The functionality and role of TLR7 in adipocyte biology and innate immunity of adipose tissue (AT) is poorly characterized. We analyzed TLR7 mRNA and protein expression in murine 3T3-L1 and primary adipocytes, in co-cultures of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with murine J774A.1 monocytes and in human AT. The effects of TLR7 agonists imiquimod (IMQ) and cell-free nucleic acids (cfDNA) on adipokine concentration in cell-culture supernatants and gene expression profile were investigated. We found that TLR7 expression is strongly induced during adipocyte differentiation. TLR7 gene expression in adipocytes and AT stroma-vascular cells (SVC) seems to be independent of TLR9. IMQ downregulates resistin concentration in adipocyte cell-culture supernatants and modulates gene expression of glucose transporter Glut4. Adipocyte-derived cfDNA reduces adiponectin and resistin in cell-culture supernatants and potentially inhibits Glut4 gene expression. The responsiveness of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to imiquimod is preserved in co-culture with J774A.1 monocytes. Obesity-related, adipocyte-derived cfDNA engages adipocytic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), modulating AT immune and metabolic homeostasis during adipose inflammation.
    Keywords:  TLR7; adipocyte; adipokine; adipose tissue; cfDNA; inflammation; pattern recognition receptor
  13. J Hematol Oncol. 2022 Aug 10. 15(1): 104
      Characterized by the expression of the critical transcription factor forkhead box protein P3, regulatory T (Treg) cells are an essential part of the immune system, with a dual effect on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Targeting Tregs to reestablish the proinflammatory and immunogenic tumor microenvironment (TME) is an increasingly attractive strategy for cancer treatment and has been emphasized in recent years. However, attempts have been significantly hindered by the subsequent autoimmunity after Treg ablation owing to systemic loss of their suppressive capacity. Cellular metabolic reprogramming is acknowledged as a hallmark of cancer, and emerging evidence suggests that elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how intratumoral Tregs acquire metabolic fitness and superior immunosuppression in the TME may contribute to clinical benefits. In this review, we discuss the common and distinct metabolic profiles of Tregs in peripheral tissues and the TME, as well as the differences between Tregs and other conventional T cells in their metabolic preferences. By focusing on the critical roles of different metabolic programs, such as glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, and amino acid metabolism, as well as their essential regulators in modulating Treg proliferation, migration, and function, we hope to provide new insights into Treg cell-targeted antitumor immunotherapies.
    Keywords:  Amino acid metabolism; Fatty acid oxidation; Fatty acid synthesis; Glycolysis; Immunotherapy; Oxidative phosphorylation; Regulatory T cell; Tumor microenvironment
  14. Mol Metab. 2022 Aug 06. pii: S2212-8778(22)00131-4. [Epub ahead of print] 101562
      The mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) kinase (MNADK) mediates de novo mitochondrial NADP biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of NAD to yield NADP. In this study, we investigated the function and mechanistic basis by which MNADK regulates metabolic homeostasis. Generalized gene-set analysis by aggregating human patient genomic databases indicated that human MNADK common gene variants or decreased expression of the gene are significantly associated with the occurrence of type-2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ablation of the MNADK gene in mice led to decreased fat oxidation, coincident with increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and decreased energy expenditure upon energy demand triggered by endurance exercise or fasting. On an atherogenic high-fat diet (HFD), MNADK-null mice exhibited hepatic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, indicating a type-2 diabetes-like phenotype in the absence of MNADK. Further investigation revealed that MNADK deficiency led to a decrease in mitochondrial NADP(H) but an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse livers. Consistently, protein levels of the major metabolic regulators or enzymes were decreased, while their acetylation modifications were increased in the livers of MNADK-null mice. Further, feeding mice with a HFD caused S-nitrosylation (SNO) modification, a posttranslational modification that represses protein activities, on MNADK protein in the liver. Reconstitution of an SNO-resistant MNADK variant, MNADK-S193, into MNADK-null mice mitigated hepatic steatosis induced by HFD. In summary, our studies define that MNADK, the only known mammalian mitochondrial NAD kinase, plays important roles in preserving energy homeostasis to mitigate the risk of metabolic disorders.
  15. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Aug 16. 119(33): e2204619119
      Brain activity is constrained by local availability of chemical energy, which is generated through compartmentalized metabolic processes. By analyzing data of whole human brain gene expression, we characterize the spatial distribution of seven glucose and monocarboxylate membrane transporters that mediate astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle transfer of energy. We found that the gene coding for neuronal MCT2 is the only gene enriched in cerebral cortex where its abundance is inversely correlated with cortical thickness. Coexpression network analysis revealed that MCT2 was the only gene participating in an organized gene cluster enriched in K[Formula: see text] dynamics. Indeed, the expression of K[Formula: see text] subunits, which mediate lactate increases with spiking activity, is spatially coupled to MCT2 distribution. Notably, MCT2 expression correlated with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography task-dependent glucose utilization. Finally, the MCT2 messenger RNA gradient closely overlaps with functional MRI brain regions associated with attention, arousal, and stress. Our results highlight neuronal MCT2 lactate transporter as a key component of the cross-talk between astrocytes and neurons and a link between metabolism, cortical structure, and state-dependent brain function.
    Keywords:  ANLS; brain metabolism; cognition; gene expression; monocarboxylate transporters
  16. Cells. 2022 Aug 02. pii: 2369. [Epub ahead of print]11(15):
      In the mature central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes (OLs) provide support and insulation to axons thanks to the production of a myelin sheath. During their maturation to myelinating cells, OLs require energy and building blocks for lipids, which implies a great investment of energy fuels and molecular sources of carbon. The oligodendroglial G protein-coupled receptor 17 (GPR17) has emerged as a key player in OL maturation; it reaches maximal expression in pre-OLs, but then it has to be internalized to allow terminal maturation. In this study, we aim at elucidating the role of physiological GPR17 downregulation in OL metabolism by applying transcriptomics, metabolomics and lipidomics on differentiating OLs. After GPR17 silencing, we found a significant increase in mature OL markers and alteration of several genes involved in glucose metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. We also observed an increased release of lactate, which is partially responsible for the maturation boost induced by GPR17 downregulation. Concomitantly, GPR17 depletion also changed the kinetics of specific myelin lipid classes. Globally, this study unveils a functional link between GPR17 expression, lactate release and myelin composition, and suggests that innovative interventions targeting GPR17 may help to foster endogenous myelination in demyelinating diseases.
    Keywords:  energy metabolism; glycolysis; lactate; lipidomics; metabolomics; myelin lipids; myelination; oligodendrocyte; oligodendrocyte progenitor cell; transcriptomics
  17. J Biol Chem. 2022 Aug 09. pii: S0021-9258(22)00801-8. [Epub ahead of print] 102358
      The carbon dioxide/bicarbonate (CO2/HCO3-) molecular pair is ubiquitous in mammalian cells and tissues, mainly as a result of oxidative decarboxylation reactions that occur during intermediary metabolism. CO2 is in rapid equilibrium with HCO3-via the hydration reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrases. Far from being an inert compound in redox biology, CO2 enhances or redirects the reactivity of peroxides, modulating the velocity, extent, and type of one- and two-electron oxidation reactions mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-/ONOOH). Herein, we review the biochemical mechanisms by which CO2 engages in peroxide-dependent reactions, free radical production, redox signaling, and oxidative damage. First, we cover the metabolic formation of CO2 and its connection to peroxide formation and decomposition. Next, the reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and processes by which the CO2/peroxide interplay modulates mammalian cell redox biology are scrutinized in-depth. Importantly, CO2 also regulates gene expression related to redox and nitric oxide metabolism and as such influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Accumulated biochemical evidence in vitro, in cellula, and in vivo unambiguously show that the CO2 and peroxide metabolic pathways are intertwined and together participate in key redox events in mammalian cells.
  18. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 903033
      Approximately 25% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients experience systemic metastases, with the most frequent target organs being the liver and lung. Metabolic reprogramming has been recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Here, metabolic and functional differences between two CRC cells with different metastatic organotropisms (metastatic KM12SM CRC cells to the liver and KM12L4a to the lung when injected in the spleen and in the tail vein of mice) were analysed in comparison to their parental non-metastatic isogenic KM12C cells, for a subsequent investigation of identified metabolic targets in CRC patients. Meta-analysis from proteomic and transcriptomic data deposited in databases, qPCR, WB, in vitro cell-based assays, and in vivo experiments were used to survey for metabolic alterations contributing to their different organotropism and for the subsequent analysis of identified metabolic markers in CRC patients. Although no changes in cell proliferation were observed between metastatic cells, KM12SM cells were highly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondria, whereas KM12L4a cells were characterized by being more energetically efficient with lower basal respiration levels and a better redox management. Lipid metabolism-related targets were found altered in both cell lines, including LDLR, CD36, FABP4, SCD, AGPAT1, and FASN, which were also associated with the prognosis of CRC patients. Moreover, CD36 association with lung metastatic tropism of CRC cells was validated in vivo. Altogether, our results suggest that LDLR, CD36, FABP4, SCD, FASN, LPL, and APOA1 metabolic targets are associated with CRC metastatic tropism to the liver or lung. These features exemplify specific metabolic adaptations for invasive cancer cells which stem at the primary tumour.
    Keywords:  CRC (colorectal cancer); fatty acids (FA); metabolic reprograming; obesity; organotropism; tropism of metastasis
  19. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2022 Jun 15. 14(6): 1124-1140
      BACKGROUND: The functions of infiltrating CD8+ T cells are often impaired due to tumor cells causing nutrient deprivation in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, the mechanisms of CD8+ T cell dysfunction have become a hot research topic, and there is increased interest on how changes in metabolomics correlate with CD8+ T cell dysfunction.AIM: To investigate whether and how glutamine metabolism affects the function of infiltrating CD8+ T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma.
    METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence were performed on surgically resected liver tissues from patients. Differentially expressed genes in infiltrating CD8+ T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma were detected using RNA sequencing. Activated CD8+ T cells were co-cultured with Huh-7 cells for 3 d. The function and mitochondrial status of CD8+ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and transmission electron microscopy. Next, CD8+ T cells were treated with the mitochondrial protective and damaging agents. Functional alterations in CD8+ T cells were detected by flow cytometry. Then, complete medium without glutamine was used to culture cells and their functional changes and mitochondrial status were detected.
    RESULTS: There were a large number of infiltrating PD-1+CD8+ T cells in liver cancer tissues. Next, we co-cultured CD8+ T cells and Huh-7 cells to explore the regulatory effect of hepatoma cells on CD8+ T cells. Flow cytometry results revealed increased PD-1 expression and decreased secretion of perforin (PRF1) and granzyme B (GZMB) by CD8+ T cells in the co-culture group. Meanwhile, JC-1 staining was decreased and the levels of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis were increased in CD8+ T cells of the co-culture group; additionally, the mitochondria of these cells were swollen. When CD8+ T cells were treated with the mitochondrial protective and damaging agents, their function was restored and inhibited, respectively, through the mitochondrial damage and apoptotic pathways. Subsequently, complete medium without glutamine was used to culture cells. As expected, CD8+ T cells showed functional downregulation, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis.
    CONCLUSION: Glutamine deprivation impairs the function of infiltrating CD8+ T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma through the mitochondrial damage and apoptotic pathways.
    Keywords:  CD8+ T cells; Glutamine; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Mitochondrial damage; T cell function
  20. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Jul 31. pii: 3737. [Epub ahead of print]14(15):
      BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest of all cancers, having one of the lowest five-year survival rates. One of its hallmarks is a dense desmoplastic stroma consisting in the abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, especially Collagen I. This highly fibrotic stroma embeds the bulk cancer (parenchymal) cells (CPCs), cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the main producers of the stromal reaction, the Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs). Little is known about the role of the acellular ECM in the interplay of the CAFs with the different tumor cell types in determining their phenotypic plasticity and eventual cell fate.METHODS: Here, we analyzed the role of ECM collagen I in modulating the effect of CAF-derived signals by incubating PDAC CPCs and CSCs grown on ECM mimicking early (low collagen I levels) and late (high collagen I levels) stage PDAC stroma with conditioned medium from primary cultured CAFs derived from patients with PDAC in a previously described three-dimensional (3D) organotypic model of PDAC.
    RESULTS: We found that CAFs (1) reduced CPC growth while favoring CSC growth independently of the ECM; (2) increased the invasive capacity of only CPCs on the ECM mimicking the early tumor; and (3) favored vasculogenic mimicry (VM) especially of the CSCs on the ECM mimicking an early tumor.
    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the CAFs and acellular stromal components interact to modulate the tumor behaviors of the PDAC CPC and CSC cell types and drive metastatic progression by stimulating the phenotypic characteristics of each tumor cell type that contribute to metastasis.
    Keywords:  3D organotypic cultures; desmoplastic reaction; invadopodia; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; vasculogenic mimicry
  21. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Aug 06. 79(9): 472
      Cholesterol biosynthesis plays a critical role in rapidly proliferating tumor cells. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), which was first characterized as a basic leucine zipper-type transcription factor, exists in an unspliced (XBP1-u) and spliced (XBP1-s) form. Recent studies showed that unspliced XBP1 (XBP1-u) has unique biological functions independent from XBP1-s and could promote tumorigenesis; however, whether it is involved in tumor metabolic reprogramming remains unknown. Herein, we found that XBP1-u promotes tumor growth by enhancing cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Specifically, XBP1-u colocalizes with sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and inhibits its ubiquitination/proteasomal degradation. The ensuing stabilization of SREBP2 activates the transcription of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. We subsequently show that the XBP1-u/SREBP2/HMGCR axis is crucial for enhancing cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid accumulation as well as tumorigenesis in HCC cells. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel function of XBP1-u in promoting tumorigenesis through increased cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatocarcinoma cells. Hence, XBP1-u might be a potential target for anti-tumor therapeutic strategies that focus on cholesterol metabolism in HCC.
    Keywords:  Cholesterol biosynthesis; SREBP2; Tumorigenesis; Unspliced XBP1 (XBP1-u); XBP1
  22. Mol Med. 2022 Aug 12. 28(1): 95
      BACKGROUND: Albuminuria is a hallmark of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) that promotes its progression, leading to renal fibrosis. Renal macrophage function is complex and influenced by macrophage metabolic status. However, the metabolic state of diabetic renal macrophages and the impact of albuminuria on the macrophage metabolic state are poorly understood.METHODS: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blotting. Glycolytic enzyme expression in macrophages co-cultured with HSA-treated HK-2 cell-derived EVs was detected using RT-qPCR and western blotting. The potential role of EV-associated HIF-1α in the mediation of glycolysis was explored in HIF-1α siRNA pre-transfected macrophages co-cultured with HSA-treated HK-2 cell-derived EVs, and the extent of HIF-1α hydroxylation was measured using western blotting. Additionally, we injected db/db mice with EVs via the caudal vein twice a week for 4 weeks. Renal macrophages were isolated using CD11b microbeads, and immunohistofluorescence was applied to confirm the levels of glycolytic enzymes and HIF-1α in these macrophages.
    RESULTS: Glycolysis was activated in diabetic renal macrophages after co-culture with HSA-treated HK-2 cells. Moreover, HSA-treated HK-2 cell-derived EVs promoted macrophage glycolysis both in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of glycolysis activation in macrophages using the glycolysis inhibitor 2-DG decreased the expression of both inflammatory and fibrotic genes. Mechanistically, EVs from HSA-stimulated HK-2 cells were found to accelerate macrophage glycolysis by stabilizing HIF-1α. We also found that several miRNAs and lncRNAs, which have been reported to stabilize HIF-1α expression, were increased in HSA-treated HK-2 cell-derived EVs.
    CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that albuminuria induced renal macrophage glycolysis through tubular epithelial cell-derived EVs by stabilizing HIF-1α, indicating that regulation of macrophage glycolysis may offer a new treatment strategy for DKD patients, especially those with macroalbuminuria.
    Keywords:  Diabetic kidney disease; Extracellular vesicles; Glycolysis; Macrophage
  23. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 898792
      ADCK2 haploinsufficiency-mediated mitochondrial coenzyme Q deficiency in skeletal muscle causes mitochondrial myopathy associated with defects in beta-oxidation of fatty acids, aged-matched metabolic reprogramming, and defective physical performance. Calorie restriction has proven to increase lifespan and delay the onset of chronic diseases associated to aging. To study the possible treatment by food deprivation, heterozygous Adck2 knockout mice were fed under 40% calorie restriction (CR) and the phenotype was followed for 7 months. The overall glucose and fatty acids metabolism in muscle was restored in mutant mice to WT levels after CR. CR modulated the skeletal muscle metabolic profile of mutant mice, partially rescuing the profile of WT animals. The analysis of mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle demonstrated that CR increased both CoQ levels and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) based on both glucose and fatty acids substrates, along with mitochondrial mass. The elevated aerobic metabolism fits with an increase of type IIa fibers, and a reduction of type IIx in mutant muscles, reaching WT levels. To further explore the effect of CR over muscle stem cells, satellite cells were isolated and induced to differentiate in culture media containing serum from animals in either ad libitum or CR diets for 72 h. Mutant cells showed slower differentiation alongside with decreased oxygen consumption. In vitro differentiation of mutant cells was increased under CR serum reaching levels of WT isolated cells, recovering respiration measured by OCR and partially beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The overall increase of skeletal muscle bioenergetics following CR intervention is paralleled with a physical activity improvement, with some increases in two and four limbs strength tests, and weights strength test. Running wheel activity was also partially improved in mutant mice under CR. These results demonstrate that CR intervention, which has been shown to improve age-associated physical and metabolic decline in WT mice, also recovers the defective aerobic metabolism and differentiation of skeletal muscle in mice caused by ADCK2 haploinsufficiency.
    Keywords:  coenzyme Q; fatty acids; food deprivation; metabolism; mitochondria
  24. Nitric Oxide. 2022 Aug 05. pii: S1089-8603(22)00082-9. [Epub ahead of print]128 1-11
      The pro- or antitumoral properties of nitric oxide (NO) are dependent on local concentration, redox state, cellular status, duration of exposure and compartmentalization of NO generation. The intricate network of the tumor microenvironment (TME) is constituted by tumor cells, stromal and immune cells surrounded by active components of extracellular matrix that influence the biological behavior and, consequently, the treatment and prognosis of cancer. The review describes critical events in the crosstalk of cellular and stromal components in the TME, with special emphasis in the impact of NO generation in the regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The increased expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in tumors and NO-end products in plasma have been associated with poor prognosis of cancer. We have assessed the level of the different isoforms of NOS in tumors and its relation to cell proliferation and death markers, and cell death receptor expression in tumors, and apoptotic markers and ligands of TNF-α receptor family in blood from a cohort of patients with HCC from different etiologies submitted to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The high levels of NOS2 in tumors were associated with low plasma concentration of apoptotic markers (M30 and M65), FasL and TNF-α in HCV patients. By contrast, the low levels of NOS2 in tumors from alcohol-derived patients was associated with increased Trail-R1 expression in tumors, and circulating Trail levels compared to observed in plasma from HCV- and alcohol + HCV-derived patients. This study reinforces the association between increased NOS2 expression and potential risk of low patients' survival in HCC. However, a differential functional relevance of NOS expression in HCC seems to be influenced by etiologies.
    Keywords:  Cancer stem cells; Hepatocarcinoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Nitric oxide synthase; Tumor-associated fibroblasts; Tumor-associated macrophages
  25. Redox Biol. 2022 Aug 05. pii: S2213-2317(22)00201-4. [Epub ahead of print]55 102429
      Mitochondria-targeted H2S donors are thought to protect against acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury by releasing H2S that decreases oxidative damage. However, the rate of H2S release by current donors is too slow to be effective upon administration following reperfusion. To overcome this limitation here we develop a mitochondria-targeted agent, MitoPerSulf that very rapidly releases H2S within mitochondria. MitoPerSulf is quickly taken up by mitochondria, where it reacts with endogenous thiols to generate a persulfide intermediate that releases H2S. MitoPerSulf is acutely protective against cardiac IR injury in mice, due to the acute generation of H2S that inhibits respiration at cytochrome c oxidase thereby preventing mitochondrial superoxide production by lowering the membrane potential. Mitochondria-targeted agents that rapidly generate H2S are a new class of therapy for the acute treatment of IR injury.
    Keywords:  Hydrogen sulfide donors; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Mitochondria; Mitochondria targeting; Reverse electron transport (RET)
  26. Nutrients. 2022 Jul 29. pii: 3138. [Epub ahead of print]14(15):
      Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an emerging pandemic, paralleling the worldwide increase in obesity and diabetes mellitus. DKD is now the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease and is associated with an excessive risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. DKD is a consequence of systemic endothelial dysfunction. The endothelial-dependent cytoprotective coagulation protease activated protein C (aPC) ameliorates glomerular damage in DKD, in part by reducing mitochondrial ROS generation in glomerular cells. Whether aPC reduces mitochondrial ROS generation in the tubular compartment remains unknown. Here, we conducted expression profiling of kidneys in diabetic mice (wild-type and mice with increased plasma levels of aPC, APChigh mice). The top induced pathways were related to metabolism and in particular to oxidoreductase activity. In tubular cells, aPC maintained the expression of genes related to the electron transport chain, PGC1-α expression, and mitochondrial mass. These effects were associated with reduced mitochondrial ROS generation. Likewise, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and sterile inflammation, which are known to be linked to excess ROS generation in DKD, were reduced in diabetic APChigh mice. Thus, aPC reduces mitochondrial ROS generation in tubular cells and dampens the associated renal sterile inflammation. These studies support approaches harnessing the cytoprotective effects of aPC in DKD.
    Keywords:  activated protein C; diabetic nephropathy; inflammasome; reactive oxygen species; renal inflammation
  27. Mol Metab. 2022 Aug 06. pii: S2212-8778(22)00129-6. [Epub ahead of print] 101560
      OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial disorders are often characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. Null mutations in the heart-muscle adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) of both humans and mice cause cardiomyopathy and myopathy associated with exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. Here we decipher the molecular underpinnings of ANT1-deficiency-mediated exercise intolerance.METHODS: This was achieved by correlating exercise physiology, mitochondrial function and metabolomics of mice deficient in ANT1 and comparing this to control mice.
    RESULTS: We demonstrate a peripheral limitation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and a reduced complex I respiration in ANT1-deficient mice. Upon exercise, this results in a lack of NAD+ leading to a substrate limitation and stalling of the TCA cycle and mitochondrial respiration, further limiting skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. Treatment of ANT1-deficient mice with nicotinamide riboside increased NAD+ levels in skeletal muscle and liver, which increased the exercise capacity and the mitochondrial respiration.
    CONCLUSION: Increasing NAD + levels with nicotinamide riboside can alleviate the exercise intolerance associated to ANT1-deficiency, indicating the therapeutic potential of NAD+-stimulating compounds in mitochondrial myopathies.
    Keywords:  Exercise; Mitochondrial disorder; NAD(+)/NADH; Nicotinamide riboside
  28. Redox Biol. 2022 Jul 31. pii: S2213-2317(22)00180-X. [Epub ahead of print]55 102408
      Ferroptosis is a form of cell death triggered by phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOH) generated from the iron-dependent oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). To prevent ferroptosis, cells rely on the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), which serves as cofactor of the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) for the neutralization of PLOOHs. Some cancer cells can also limit ferroptosis through a GSH-independent axis, centered mainly on the ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (FSP1). The significance of these two anti-ferroptosis pathways is still poorly understood in cancers from hematopoietic origin. Here, we report that blood-derived cancer cells are selectively sensitive to compounds that block the GSH-dependent anti-ferroptosis axis. In T- and B- acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines and patient biopsies, the promoter of the gene coding for FSP1 is hypermethylated, silencing the expression of FSP1 and creating a selective dependency on GSH-centered anti-ferroptosis defenses. In-trans expression of FSP1 increases the resistance of leukemic cells to compounds targeting the GSH-dependent anti-ferroptosis pathway. FSP1 over-expression also favors ALL-tumor growth in an in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Hence, our results reveal a metabolic vulnerability of ALL that might be of therapeutic interest.
    Keywords:  Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; DNA Methylation; FSP1; Ferroptosis; GPX4; Glutathione
  29. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2022 Aug 04. pii: S1388-1981(22)00099-3. [Epub ahead of print]1867(11): 159209
      The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing globally. NAFLD includes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is the pathological form of the disease characterized by liver steatosis, inflammation, cell injury, and fibrosis. A fundamental contributor to NASH is the imbalance between lipid accretion and disposal. The accumulation of liver lipids precipitates lipotoxicity and the inflammatory contributions to disease progression. This review defines the role of dysregulated of lipid disposal in NAFLD pathophysiology. The characteristic changes in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism pathways and the factors promoting these changes across the spectrum of NAFLD severity are detailed. This includes pathway-specific and integrative perturbations in mitochondrial β-oxidation, citric acid cycle flux, oxidative phosphorylation, and ketogenesis. Moreover, well-recognized and emerging mechanisms through which dysregulated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism mediates inflammation, fibrosis, and disease progression are highlighted.
    Keywords:  Citric acid cycle; Inflammation; Ketogenesis; Lipid metabolism; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Oxidative phosphorylation
  30. STAR Protoc. 2022 Sep 16. 3(3): 101597
      Three-dimensional organoids, which resemble the pathophysiology and structural architecture of the original tissues, are a preferable in vitro model system for assessing metabolic activities in response to various environmental or nutritional changes. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols to establish and culture mouse and human hepatic tumor organoids. We also describe two straightforward and efficient approaches to harvest tumor organoids for investigating the effects of metabolites/drugs on viability and metabolic functions of tumor organoids. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Tong et al. (2018), Leung et al. (2020), Tong et al. (2021), and Xu et al. (2021).
    Keywords:  Cancer; Metabolism; Organoids
  31. FEBS Lett. 2022 Aug 02.
      The mitochondrial enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase domain-containing protein 1 (FAHD1) was identified to be upregulated in breast cancer tissues. Here, we show that FAHD1 is indispensable for the survival of BT-20 cells, representing the basal breast cancer cell type. A lentiviral knock-down of FAHD1 in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT-20 results in lower succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) activity. In luminal MCF-7 cells, this leads to reduced proliferation when cultured in medium containing only glutamine as the carbon source. Of note, both cell lines show attenuated protein levels of the enzyme glutaminase (GLS) which activates programmed cell death in BT-20. These findings demonstrate that FAHD1 is crucial for the functionality of complex II in breast cancer cells and acts on glutaminolysis in the mitochondria.
    Keywords:  FAHD1; MCF-7; TNBC; glutaminase; oxaloacetate; succinate dehydrogenase
  32. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2022 Aug 08. pii: a041263. [Epub ahead of print]
      Most cholesterol in mammalian cells is stored in the plasma membrane (PM). Cholesterol transport from the PM to low-sterol regulatory regions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) controls cholesterol synthesis and uptake, and thereby influences the rates of cholesterol flux between tissues of complex organisms. Cholesterol transfer to the ER is also required for steroidogenesis, oxysterol and bile acid synthesis, and cholesterol esterification. The ER-resident Aster proteins (Aster-A, -B, and -C) form contacts with the PM to move cholesterol to the ER in mammals. Mice lacking Aster-B have low adrenal cholesteryl ester stores and impaired steroidogenesis because of a defect in cholesterol transport from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to the ER. This work reviews the molecular characteristics of Asters, their role in HDL- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol movement, and how cholesterol transferred to the ER is utilized by cells. The roles of other lipid transporters and of membrane lipid organization in maintaining aspects of cholesterol homeostasis are also highlighted.
  33. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Aug 02. pii: 3769. [Epub ahead of print]14(15):
      Glioblastoma (GB) are the most frequent brain cancers. Aggressive growth and limited treatment options induce a median survival of 12-15 months. In addition to highly proliferative and invasive properties, GB cells show cancer-associated metabolic characteristics such as increased aerobic glycolysis. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a key enzyme complex at the crossroads between lactic fermentation and oxidative pathways, finely regulated by PDH kinases (PDHKs). PDHKs are often overexpressed in cancer cells to facilitate high glycolytic flux. We hypothesized that targeting PDHKs, by disturbing cancer metabolic homeostasis, would alter GB progression and render cells vulnerable to additional cancer treatment. Using patient databases, distinct expression patterns of PDHK1 and PDHK2 in GB tissues were obvious. To disturb protumoral glycolysis, we modulated PDH activity through the genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PDHK in patient-derived stem-like spheroids. Striking effects of PDHKs inhibition using dichloroacetate were observed in vitro on cell morphology and metabolism, resulting in increased intracellular ROS levels and decreased proliferation and invasion. In vivo findings confirmed a reduction in tumor size and better survival of mice implanted with PDHK1 and PDHK2 knockout cells. Adding a radiotherapeutic protocol further resulted in a reduction in tumor size and improved mouse survival in our model.
    Keywords:  DCA; glioblastoma; invasion; lactate; pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases
  34. Nutrients. 2022 Jul 28. pii: 3100. [Epub ahead of print]14(15):
      Alveolar macrophages (AM) are critical to defense against respiratory pathogens. This study evaluated cellular iron imbalance to immunometabolism in endotoxin-polarized porcine AMs (PAMs). PAMs collected from five 6-week-old pigs were treated with a basal media, iron chelator, or ferric ammonium citrate to maintain iron replete or induce iron deficiency or overload, respectively. After 24 h treatment, PAMs were challenged with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 6 h. Cells were analyzed for gene, protein, and untargeted metabolome. Cytokines were determined in culture media. Data were assessed using two-way ANOVA. Treatments successfully induced iron deficiency and overload. The mRNA of DMT1 and ZIP14 was increased up to 300-fold by LPS, but unaffected by iron. Surprisingly, both iron deprivation and overload attenuated LPS-induced inflammation, showing less TNFα production and lower mRNA of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines than iron-replete PAMs. Forty-eight metabolites were altered by either or both main effects. LPS enhanced the glycolysis and polyol pathways. Iron deprivation disrupted the TCA cycle. Iron overload increased intracellular cholesterol. Interestingly, iron deprivation augmented, whereas iron overload diminished, LPS-induced itaconic acid production, which has anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, iron-deficient PAMs may be more resistant to intracellular pathogens which use PAMs as a conduit for infection.
    Keywords:  alveolar macrophage; immunometabolism; iron deficiency; iron overload; itaconic acid