bims-meluca Biomed News
on Metabolism of non-small cell lung carcinoma
Issue of 2023‒09‒24
five papers selected by
the Muñoz-Pinedo/Nadal (PReTT) lab, L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. Oncology. 2023 Sep 19.
      BACKGROUND: Biomarkers for predicting the outcome of ipilimumab plus nivolumab (Nivo-Ipi) treatment in cancer patients have not been identified. Herein, we investigated the prognostic significance of inflammatory and nutritional markers in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving Nivo-Ipi.METHODS: Our study retrospectively analyzed 101 patients with advanced NSCLC who received Nivo-Ipi at a single institution. Inflammatory and nutritional indices were correlated with patient outcomes and included the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI), and Glasgow prognostic score (GPS).
    RESULTS: The NLR significantly correlated with the PLR, SII, PNI, ALI, and GPS. Regarding therapeutic efficacy, the NLR, SII, and PNI predicted a partial response, and all indices predicted progressive disease. In subgroup analyses, the SII, PNI, and ALI predicted the outcome of patients with adenocarcinoma, whereas only the PNI predicted the outcome of patients with non-adenocarcinoma. The PNI and SII were the most useful indices in patients with a programmed death ligand-1 expression level of <1% and ≥1%, respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The NLR, PLR, SII, PNI, ALI, and GPS were significantly associated with the outcome of Nivo-Ipi treatment in patients with NSCLC. The PNI was the most suitable marker regardless of histological type. The SII and PNI were the most promising markers for patients with and without PD-L1 expression, respectively.
  2. Cell Death Dis. 2023 Sep 20. 14(9): 617
      Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is an NAD+-dependent enzyme that is closely related to tumor development. However, its role in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been elucidated. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of ALDH3A1 and identify potential therapeutic targets for NSCLC. Here, for the first time, we found that ALDH3A1 expression could be induced by a hypoxic environment in NSCLC. ALDH3A1 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissue, especially in some late-stage patients, and was associated with a poor prognosis. In mechanistic terms, ALDH3A1 enhances glycolysis and suppresses oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to promote cell proliferation by activating the HIF-1α/LDHA pathway in NSCLC. In addition, the results showed that ALDH3A1 was a target of β-elemene. ALDH3A1 can be downregulated by β-elemene to inhibit glycolysis and enhance OXPHOS, thus suppressing NSCLC proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, hypoxia-induced ALDH3A1 is related to the energy metabolic status of tumors and the efficacy of β-elemene, providing a new theoretical basis for better clinical applications in NSCLC.
  3. Cancer Sci. 2023 Sep 20.
      Neoadjuvant immunotherapy has significantly changed the therapeutic approach for treating patients with surgically resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, peripheral blood inflammation-based biomarkers as well as previously less focused eosinophil fraction, modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were systematically included to comprehensively analyze their potential in predicting neoadjuvant immunotherapy efficacy and prognosis. We enrolled 189 patients (94 in training and 95 in validation cohorts) with stage I-III B surgically resectable NSCLC treated with neoadjuvant immunotherapy from the National Cancer Center of China. Baseline and post-treatment eosinophils fraction, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), PNI, mGPS, and their changes were calculated and analyzed for correlation with neoadjuvant immunotherapy efficacy and prognosis. In patients in the major pathological response (MPR) group, the post-treatment eosinophil fraction was significantly high, and NLR, PLR, SII, and MLR were significantly lower compared to the non-MPR group in both the training and validation cohorts. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that post-treatment, eosinophil fraction and SII and their changing were two of the most important factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that post-treatment eosinophil fraction, SII, mGPS, and ΔSII could independently predict MPR in patients treated with neoadjuvant immunotherapy. Survival analysis showed a significant correlation between high post-treatment NLR, PLR, SII, mGPS, and their changes in ΔNLR and ΔSII elevation with poor overall survival and event-free survival of patients. Our results suggest that inflammatory biomarkers could predict the patient's response to neoadjuvant immunotherapy and prognosis.
    Keywords:  inflammatory biomarkers; major pathological response; neoadjuvant immunotherapy; non-small cell lung cancer; prognosis
  4. Br J Cancer. 2023 Sep 20.
      BACKGROUND: Delta-like ligand 3 (DLL3) is a therapeutic target in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, how DLL3 expression status affects the tumor microenvironment (TME) and clinical outcomes in SCLC remains unclear.METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with postoperative limited-stage (LS)-SCLC and extensive-stage (ES)-SCLC treated with platinum and etoposide (PE) plus anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody. We investigated the relationship of DLL3 expression with TME, mutation status, tumor neoantigens, and immunochemotherapy.
    RESULTS: In the LS-SCLC cohort (n = 59), whole-exome sequencing revealed that DLL3High cases had significantly more neoantigens (P = 0.004) and a significantly higher rate of the signature SBS4 associated with smoking (P = 0.02) than DLL3Low cases. Transcriptome analysis in the LS-SCLC cohort revealed that DLL3High cases had significantly suppressed immune-related pathways and dendritic cell (DC) function. SCLC with DLL3High had significantly lower proportions of T cells, macrophages, and DCs than those with DLL3Low. In the ES-SCLC cohort (n = 30), the progression-free survival associated with PE plus anti-PD-L1 antibody was significantly worse in DLL3High cases than in DLL3Low cases (4.7 vs. 7.4 months, P = 0.01).
    CONCLUSIONS: Although SCLC with DLL3High had a higher neoantigen load, these tumors were resistant to immunochemotherapy due to suppressed tumor immunity by inhibiting antigen-presenting functions.
  5. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2023 Sep 19.
      BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of non-cancer-related prognostic factors, such as body composition, has gained extensive attention in oncological research. Compared with sarcopenia, the prognostic significance of adipose tissue for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer remains unclear. We investigated the prognostic value of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.METHODS: This retrospective study included 4434 patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer between January 2014 and December 2016. Cross-sectional areas of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous fat were measured, and the pericardial fat volume was automatically calculated. The skeletal muscle index and subcutaneous fat index were calculated as skeletal muscle area and subcutaneous fat area divided by height squared, respectively, and the pericardial fat index was calculated as pericardial fat volume divided by body surface area. The association between body composition and outcomes was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards model.
    RESULTS: A total of 750 patients (501 males [66.8%] and 249 females [33.2%]; mean age, 60.9 ± 9.8 years) were included. Sarcopenia (60.8% vs. 52.7%; P < 0.001), decreased subcutaneous fat index (51.4% vs. 25.2%; P < 0.001) and decreased pericardial fat index (55.4% vs. 16.5%; P < 0.001) were more commonly found in the deceased group than survived group. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, after adjusting for clinical variables, increased subcutaneous fat index (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.66, P < 0.001) and increased pericardial fat index (HR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.40-0.56, P < 0.001) were associated with longer overall survival. For stage I-III patients, increased subcutaneous fat index (HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.48-0.76, P < 0.001) and increased pericardial fat index (HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.34-0.54, P < 0.001) were associated with better 5-year overall survival rate. Similar results were recorded in stage IV patients. For patients with surgery, the prognostic value of increased subcutaneous fat index (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.80, P = 0.001) and increased pericardial fat index (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.38-0.68, P < 0.001) remained and predicted favourable overall survival. Non-surgical patients showed similar results as surgical patients. No association was noted between sarcopenia and overall survival (P > 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Increased subcutaneous fat index and pericardial fat index were associated with a higher 5-year overall survival rate, independent of sarcopenia, in non-small cell lung cancer and may indicate a reduced risk of non-cancer-related death.
    Keywords:  Adipose tissue; Body composition; Body mass index; Non-small cell lung cancer; Skeletal muscle