bims-medhac Biomed News
on Metabolism dependent histone acetylation
Issue of 2020‒07‒05
ten papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. Cell Stem Cell. 2020 Jun 24. pii: S1934-5909(20)30272-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Self-renewing embryonic stem cells (ESCs) respond to environmental cues by exiting pluripotency or entering a quiescent state. The molecular basis underlying this fate choice remains unclear. Here, we show that histone acetyltransferase MOF plays a critical role in this process through directly activating fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the ground-state ESCs. We further show that the ground-state ESCs particularly rely on elevated FAO for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and energy production. Mof deletion or FAO inhibition induces bona fide quiescent ground-state ESCs with an intact core pluripotency network and transcriptome signatures akin to the diapaused epiblasts in vivo. Mechanistically, MOF/FAO inhibition acts through reducing mitochondrial respiration (i.e., OXPHOS), which in turn triggers reversible pluripotent quiescence specifically in the ground-state ESCs. The inhibition of FAO/OXPHOS also induces quiescence in naive human ESCs. Our study suggests a general function of the MOF/FAO/OXPHOS axis in regulating cell fate determination in stem cells.
    Keywords:  FAO; MOF; cell fate decision; embryo development; epigenetics; quiescence; self-renewal; stem cell metabolism
  2. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 30. 10(1): 10665
      Mitochondrial lysine acetylation regulates several metabolic pathways in cardiac cells. The current study investigated whether GCN5L1-mediated lysine acetylation regulates cardiac mitochondrial metabolic proteins in response to a high fat diet (HFD). GCN5L1 cardiac-specific knockout (cKO) mice showed significantly reduced mitochondrial protein acetylation following a HFD relative to wildtype (WT) mice. GCN5L1 cKO mice did not display any decrease in ex vivo cardiac workload in response to a HFD. In contrast, ex vivo cardiac function in HFD-fed WT mice dropped ~ 50% relative to low fat diet (LFD) fed controls. The acetylation status of electron transport chain Complex I protein NDUFB8 was significantly increased in WT mice fed a HFD, but remained unchanged in GCN5L1 cKO mice relative to LFD controls. Finally, we observed that inhibitory acetylation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) at K122 was increased in WT (but not cKO mice) on a HFD. This correlated with significantly increased cardiac lipid peroxidation in HFD-fed WT mice relative to GCN5L1 cKO animals under the same conditions. We conclude that increased GCN5L1 expression in response to a HFD promotes increased lysine acetylation, and that this may play a role in the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage caused by nutrient excess.
  3. PLoS Biol. 2020 Jun;18(6): e3000732
      Coordination of gene expression with nutrient availability supports proliferation and homeostasis and is shaped by protein acetylation. Yet how physiological/pathological signals link acetylation to specific gene expression programs and whether such responses are cell-type-specific is unclear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy sensor, activated by glucose limitation to resolve nutrient supply-demand imbalances, critical for diabetes and cancer. Unexpectedly, we show here that, in gastrointestinal cancer cells, glucose activates AMPK to selectively induce EP300, but not CREB-binding protein (CBP). Consequently, EP300 is redirected away from nuclear receptors that promote differentiation towards β-catenin, a driver of proliferation and colorectal tumorigenesis. Importantly, blocking glycogen synthesis permits reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and AMPK activation in response to glucose in previously nonresponsive cells. Notably, glycogen content and activity of the ROS/AMPK/EP300/β-catenin axis are opposite in healthy versus tumor sections. Glycogen content reduction from healthy to tumor tissue may explain AMPK switching from tumor suppressor to activator during tumor evolution.
  4. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2020 Jun 27. 22(8): 73
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the important role that metabolism plays in driving maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.RECENT FINDINGS: Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes provide a model system for human cardiac biology. However, these models have been unable to fully recapitulate the maturity observed in the adult heart. By simulating the glucose to fatty acid transition observed in neonatal mammals, human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes undergo structural and functional maturation also accompanied by transcriptional changes and cell cycle arrest. The role of metabolism in energy production, signaling, and epigenetic modifications illustrates that metabolism and cellular phenotype are intimately linked. Further understanding of key metabolic factors driving cardiac maturation will facilitate the generation of more mature human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte models. This will increase our understanding of cardiac biology and potentially lead to novel therapeutics to enhance heart function.
    Keywords:  Cardiac maturation; Cardiomyocyte; Fatty acid oxidation; Human pluripotent stem cells; Metabolism; Mevalonate pathway
  5. J Cell Physiol. 2020 Jul 02.
      Cancer cells metabolize glucose through glycolysis to promote cell proliferation even with abundant oxygen. Multiple glycolysis genes are deregulated during cancer development. Despite intensive effort, the cause of their deregulation remains incompletely understood. Here in this study, we discovered that DHX33 plays a critical role in Warburg effect of cancer cells. DHX33 deficient cells have markedly reduced glycolysis activity. Through RNA-seq analysis, we found multiple critical genes involved in Warburg effect were downregulated after DHX33 deficiency. These genes include lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), enolase 1 (ENO1), ENO2, hexokinase 1/2, among others. With LDHA, PDK1, and PKM2 as examples, we further revealed that DHX33 altered the epigenetic marks around the promoter of glycolytic genes. This is through DHX33 in complex with Gadd45a-a growth arrest and DNA damage protein. DHX33 is required for the loading of Gadd45a and DNA dioxygenase Tet1 at the promoter sites, which resulted in active DNA demethylation and enhanced histone H4 acetylation. We conclude that DHX33 changes local epigenetic marks in favor of the transcription of glycolysis genes to promote cancer cell proliferation. Our study highlights the significance of RNA helicase DHX33 in Warburg effect and cancer therapeutics.
    Keywords:  DHX33; Gadd45a; RNA helicase; Warburg effect; demethylation; glycolysis
  6. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 480
      Mitochondria are crucial organelles that control cellular metabolism through an integrated mechanism of energy generation via oxidative phosphorylation. Apart from this canonical role, it is also integral for ROS production, fatty acid metabolism and epigenetic remodeling. Recently, a role for the mitochondria in effecting stem cell fate decisions has gained considerable interest. This is important for skeletal muscle, which exhibits a remarkable property for regeneration following injury, owing to satellite cells (SCs), the adult myogenic stem cells. Mitochondrial function is associated with maintaining and dictating SC fates, linked to metabolic programming during quiescence, activation, self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. Notably, mitochondrial adaptation might take place to alter SC fates and function in the presence of different environmental cues. This review dissects the contribution of mitochondria to SC operational outcomes, focusing on how their content, function, dynamics and adaptability work to influence SC fate decisions.
    Keywords:  epigenetics; metabolism; mitochondria; myogenic stem cells; satellite cell fates
  7. Biol Reprod. 2020 Jul 01. pii: ioaa114. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mammalian sperm are stored in the epididymis in a dormant state. Upon ejaculation, they must immediately start producing sufficient energy to maintain motility and support capacitation. While this increased energy demand during capacitation is well-established, it remains unclear how mouse sperm modify their metabolism to meet this need. We now show that capacitating mouse sperm enhance glucose uptake, identifying glucose uptake as a functional marker of capacitation. Using an extracellular flux analyzer, we show that glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation increase during capacitation. Furthermore, this increase in oxidative phosphorylation is dependent on glycolysis, providing experimental evidence for a link between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in mouse sperm.
    Keywords:  Capacitation; energy production; glucose uptake; glycolysis; oxidative phosphorylation
  8. Plant Mol Biol. 2020 Jul 03.
      Acetylation and deacetylation of histones are important for regulating a series of biological processes in plants. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) control the histone deacetylation that plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stress. In our study, we show the evidence that GhHDT4D (a member of the HD2 subfamily of HDACs) is involved in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) response to drought stress. Overexpression of GhHDT4D in Arabidopsis increased plant tolerance to drought, whereas silencing GhHDT4D in cotton resulted in plant sensitivity to drought. Simultaneously, the H3K9 acetylation level was altered in the GhHDT4D silenced cotton, compared with the controls. Further study revealed that GhHDT4D suppressed the transcription of GhWRKY33, which plays a negative role in cotton defense to drought, by reducing its H3K9 acetylation level. The expressions of the stress-related genes, such as GhDREB2A, GhDREB2C, GhSOS2, GhRD20-1, GhRD20-2 and GhRD29A, were significantly decreased in the GhHDT4D silenced cotton, but increased in the GhWRKY33 silenced cotton. Given these data together, our findings suggested that GhHDT4D may enhance drought tolerance by suppressing the expression of GhWRKY33, thereby activating the downstream drought response genes in cotton.
    Keywords:  Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum); Drought stress; H3K9 acetylation; Histone deacetylase (HDAC)
  9. Cell Rep. 2020 Jun 30. pii: S2211-1247(20)30813-5. [Epub ahead of print]31(13): 107832
      Protein ensembles control genome function by establishing, maintaining, and deconstructing cell-type-specific chromosomal landscapes. A plethora of small molecules orchestrate cellular functions and therefore may link physiological processes with genome biology. The metabolic enzyme and hemoglobin cofactor heme induces proteolysis of a transcriptional repressor, Bach1, and regulates gene expression post-transcriptionally. However, whether heme controls genome function broadly or through prescriptive actions is unclear. Using assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq), we establish a heme-dependent chromatin atlas in wild-type and mutant erythroblasts lacking enhancers that confer normal heme synthesis. Amalgamating chromatin landscapes and transcriptomes in cells with sub-physiological heme and post-heme rescue reveals parallel Bach1-dependent and Bach1-independent mechanisms that target heme-sensing chromosomal hotspots. The hotspots harbor a DNA motif demarcating heme-regulated chromatin and genes encoding proteins not known to be heme regulated, including metabolic enzymes. The heme-omics analysis establishes how an essential biochemical cofactor controls genome function and cellular physiology.
    Keywords:  ATAC-seq; Bach1; GATA1; chromatin; erythroblast; erythroid; heme; transcriptome
  10. PeerJ. 2020 ;8 e9407
      Background: Maternal malnutrition is a critical factor in determining the risk of obesity and glucose intolerance in offspring. However, little is known about the effects of a maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on the β cell phenotype in offspring, which is a major factor in glucose homeostasis, especially during the early life of offspring.Methods: Dams were randomly fed a HFD (60% kcal from fat) or a chow diet before pregnancy and during gestation and lactation. Glucose metabolism and the β cell phenotype were assessed in male offspring at weaning.
    Results: Dams fed a HFD showed impaired glucose tolerance. A HFD predisposed the offspring to increased impairment of metabolic health, including obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, compared with offspring from chow diet-fed dams. Furthermore, increased islet sizes and islet densities were observed in male offspring from HFD-fed dams at weaning. There were increases in the insulin-positive area, β cell mass and β cell proliferation in male offspring from HFD-fed dams at weaning age. Next, we further determined whether a maternal HFD could affect β cell apoptosis in mouse offspring and found that there was no significant change in β cell apoptosis between the HFD and control groups.
    Conclusion: Our study is novel in showing that a maternal HFD predisposes offspring to impaired glucose metabolism and has a profound effect on β cell mass and proliferation in offspring mice, which is observed in mice as early as at weaning age. However, further study to clarify the underlying mechanisms is warranted.
    Keywords:  Glucose metabolism; Maternal high-fat diet; Offspring; Weaning; β cell