bims-madeba Biomed News
on Mal de débarquement syndrome
Issue of 2023‒08‒27
one paper selected by
Jun Maruta, Mount Sinai Health System

  1. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 2023 Aug;8(4): 1080-1093
      Objective: To characterize migraine pathophysiology, presentation, and current treatment strategies, specifically in regard to vestibulocochlear manifestations of migraine.Methods: Narrative review of available literature.
    Results: Migraine disorder can be described as a spectrum of otologic manifestations, with vestibular migraine now recognized with fully-fledged diagnostic criteria. Otologic manifestations are theorized to be due, in part, to trigeminal innervation of the inner ear structures and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression within the labyrinth. Patients can experience vertigo, aural fullness, enhanced tinnitus, and hearing loss without the characteristic migraine headache, leading to under recognition of these symptoms as migraine-related. Meniere's disease, mal de débarquement syndrome, persistent postural perceptual dizziness, and recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo have close associations to migraine and may exist on the migraine spectrum. Migraine treatment consists of two goals: halting acute attacks (abortive therapy) and preventing attacks (prophylactic therapy). Abortive medications include triptans, corticosteroids, anti-histamines, and anti-emetics. Pharmacologic prophylaxis in conjunction with lifestyle modifications can decrease frequency and severity of symptoms and include tricyclic antidepressants, calcium channel blockers, anti-epileptic medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, beta-blockers, gepants, and monoclonal antibodies to CGRP. Promising evidence is emerging regarding the ability of migraine medications to positively treat the various otologic symptoms of migraine.
    Conclusion: Migraine disorder manifesting with primarily cochleovestibular symptoms can be challenging to diagnose and manage for practicing clinicians. Patients with various vestibulopathies that are closely related to migraine may benefit from migraine treatment. Lifestyle choices and prophylactic medications are key to satisfactorily preventing acute migrainous attacks and improve function.
    Keywords:  lifestyle modifications; migraine diagnosis and evaluation; migraine spectrum; prophylactic medications; tinnitus; vestibular migraine; vestibulocochlear migraine