bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2023‒09‒24
two papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis, University of New England

  1. EMBO Rep. 2023 Sep 20. e57574
      Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that acts as a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, lysosomal exocytosis, and macro-autophagy. TFEB contributes to a wide range of physiological functions, including mitochondrial biogenesis and innate and adaptive immunity. As such, TFEB is an essential component of cellular adaptation to stressors, ranging from nutrient deprivation to pathogenic invasion. The activity of TFEB depends on its subcellular localisation, turnover, and DNA-binding capacity, all of which are regulated at the post-translational level. Pathological states are characterised by a specific set of stressors, which elicit post-translational modifications that promote gain or loss of TFEB function in the affected tissue. In turn, the resulting increase or decrease in survival of the tissue in which TFEB is more or less active, respectively, may either benefit or harm the organism as a whole. In this way, the post-translational modifications of TFEB account for its otherwise paradoxical protective and deleterious effects on organismal fitness in diseases ranging from neurodegeneration to cancer. In this review, we describe how the intracellular environment characteristic of different diseases alters the post-translational modification profile of TFEB, enabling cellular adaptation to a particular pathological state.
    Keywords:  TFEB; autophagy; lysosome; mitochondria; post-translational modification
  2. Mol Cell. 2023 Sep 21. pii: S1097-2765(23)00652-4. [Epub ahead of print]83(18): 3333-3346.e5
      The proteasome is responsible for removal of ubiquitinated proteins. Although several aspects of its regulation (e.g., assembly, composition, and post-translational modifications) have been unraveled, studying its adaptive compartmentalization in response to stress is just starting to emerge. We found that following amino acid starvation, the proteasome is translocated from its large nuclear pool to the cytoplasm-a response regulated by newly identified mTOR-agonistic amino acids-Tyr, Trp, and Phe (YWF). YWF relay their signal upstream of mTOR through Sestrin3 by disrupting its interaction with the GATOR2 complex. The triad activates mTOR toward its downstream substrates p62 and transcription factor EB (TFEB), affecting both proteasomal and autophagic activities. Proteasome translocation stimulates cytosolic proteolysis which replenishes amino acids, thus enabling cell survival. In contrast, nuclear sequestration of the proteasome following mTOR activation by YWF inhibits this proteolytic adaptive mechanism, leading to cell death, which establishes this newly identified pathway as a key stress-coping mechanism.
    Keywords:  UPS; aromatic amino acids; mTOR; proteasome dynamics; protein quality control; proteolysis; stress response