bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2023‒10‒01
six papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis, University of New England

  1. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2023 ;11 1266198
      Autophagy is a critical protein and organelle quality control system, which regulates cellular homeostasis and survival. Growing pieces of evidence suggest that autophagic dysfunction is strongly associated with many human diseases, including neurological diseases and cancer. Among various autophagic regulators, microphthalmia (MiT)/TFE transcription factors, including transcription factor EB (TFEB), have been shown to act as the master regulators of autophagosome and lysosome biogenesis in both physiological and pathological conditions. According to the previous studies, chlorpromazine (CPZ), an FDA-approved antipsychotic drug, affects autophagy in diverse cell lines, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In our present study, we find that CPZ treatment induces TFEB nuclear translocation through Rag GTPases, the upstream regulators of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Meanwhile, CPZ treatment also blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Notably, we find a significant accumulation of immature autophagosome vesicles in CPZ-treated cells, which may impede cellular homeostasis due to the dysfunction of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Interestingly and importantly, our data suggest that the expression of the active form of Rag GTPase heterodimers helps in reducing the accumulation of autophagosomes in CPZ-treated cells, further suggesting a major contribution of the Rag GTPase-mTORC1-TFEB signaling axis in CPZ-induced autophagic impairment.
    Keywords:  CPZ; Rag GTPases; TFEB; autophagy; mTORC1
  2. Cell Calcium. 2023 Sep 18. pii: S0143-4160(23)00112-4. [Epub ahead of print]116 102801
      Multiple families of Ca2+-permeable channels co-exist on lysosomal Ca2+ stores but how each family couples to its own unique downstream physiology is unclear. We have therefore investigated the Ca2+-signalling architecture underpinning different channels on the same vesicle that drive separate pathways, using phagocytosis as a physiological stimulus. Lysosomal Ca2+-channels are a major Ca2+ source driving particle uptake in macrophages, but different channels drive different aspects of Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis: TPC2 couples to dynamin activation, whilst TRPML1 couples to lysosomal exocytosis. We hypothesised that they are driven by discrete local plumes of Ca2+ around open channels (Ca2+ nanodomains). To test this, we optimized Ca2+-nanodomain recordings by screening panels of genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) fused to TPC2 to monitor the [Ca2+] next to the channel. Signal calibration accounting for the distance of the GECI from the channel mouth reveals that, during phagocytosis, TPC2 generates local Ca2+ nanodomains around itself of up to 42 µM, nearly a hundred-fold greater than the global cytosolic [Ca2+] rise. We further show that TPC2 and TRPML1, though on the same lysosomes, generate autonomous Ca2+ nanodomains of high [Ca2+] that are largely insulated from one another, a platform allowing their discrete Ca2+-decoding to promote unique respective physiologies.
    Keywords:  Ca(2+); Lysosome; Macrophages; Phagocytosis; TPC2; TRPML1
  3. Autophagy. 2023 Sep 29. 1-20
      MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase) complex 1 (MTORC1) orchestrates diverse environmental signals to facilitate cell growth and is frequently activated in cancer. Translocation of MTORC1 from the cytosol to the lysosomal surface by the RRAG GTPases is the key step in MTORC1 activation. Here, we demonstrated that transcription factors MEF2A and MEF2D synergistically regulated MTORC1 activation via modulating its cyto-lysosome shutting. Mechanically, MEF2A and MEF2D controlled the transcription of FNIP1 and FNIP2, the components of the FLCN-FNIP1 or FNIP2 complex that acts as a RRAGC-RRAGD GTPase-activating element to promote the recruitment of MTORC1 to lysosome and its activation. Furthermore, we determined that the pro-oncogenic protein kinase SRC/c-Src directly phosphorylated MEF2D at three conserved tyrosine residues. The tyrosine phosphorylation enhanced MEF2D transcriptional activity and was indispensable for MTORC1 activation. Finally, both the protein and tyrosine phosphorylation levels of MEF2D are elevated in human pancreatic cancers, positively correlating with MTORC1 activity. Depletion of both MEF2A and MEF2D or expressing the unphosphorylatable MEF2D mutant suppressed tumor cell growth. Thus, our study revealed a transcriptional regulatory mechanism of MTORC1 that promoted cell anabolism and proliferation and uncovered its critical role in pancreatic cancer progression.Abbreviation: ACTB: actin beta; ChIP: chromatin immunoprecipitation; EGF: epidermal growth factor; EIF4EBP1: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1; FLCN: folliculin; FNIP1: folliculin interacting protein 1; FNIP2: folliculin interacting protein 2; GAP: GTPase activator protein; GEF: guanine nucleotide exchange factors; GTPase: guanosine triphosphatase; LAMP2: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MEF2: myocyte enhancer factor 2; MEF2A: myocyte enhancer factor 2A; MEF2D: myocyte enhancer factor 2D; MEF2D-3YF: Y131F, Y333F, Y337F mutant; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTORC1: MTOR complex 1; NR4A1: nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1; RPTOR: regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1; RHEB: Ras homolog, mTORC1 binding; RPS6KB1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; RRAG: Ras related GTP binding; RT-qPCR: real time-quantitative PCR; SRC: SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase; TMEM192: transmembrane protein 192; WT: wild-type.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; cell metabolism; oncogenesis; protein kinase; transcription factor
  4. Glia. 2023 Sep 28.
      Myelination by oligodendrocytes is critical for fast axonal conduction and for the support and survival of neurons in the central nervous system. Recent studies have emphasized that myelination is plastic and that new myelin is formed throughout life. Nonetheless, the mechanisms that regulate the number, length, and location of myelin sheaths formed by individual oligodendrocytes are incompletely understood. Previous work showed that the lysosomal transcription factor TFEB represses myelination by oligodendrocytes and that the RagA GTPase inhibits TFEB, but the step or steps of myelination in which TFEB plays a role have remained unclear. Here, we show that TFEB regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and also controls the length of myelin sheaths formed by individual oligodendrocytes. In the dorsal spinal cord of tfeb mutants, individual oligodendrocytes produce myelin sheaths that are longer than those produced by wildtype cells. Transmission electron microscopy shows that there are more myelinated axons in the dorsal spinal cord of tfeb mutants than in wildtype animals, but no significant change in axon diameter. In contrast to tfeb mutants, oligodendrocytes in rraga mutants produce shorter myelin sheaths. The sheath length in rraga; tfeb double mutants is not significantly different from wildtype, consistent with the antagonistic interaction between RagA and TFEB. Finally, we find that the GTPase activating protein Flcn and the RagCa and RagCb GTPases are also necessary for myelination by oligodendrocytes. These findings demonstrate that TFEB coordinates myelin sheath length and number during myelin formation in the central nervous system.
    Keywords:  RagA; TFEB; myelin; oligodendrocyte; zebrafish
  5. Front Oncol. 2023 ;13 1258371
      Spontaneous dimerization of EGF receptors (EGFR) and dysregulation of EGFR signaling has been associated with the development of different cancers. Under normal physiological conditions and to maintain homeostatic cell growth, once EGFR signaling occurs, it needs to be attenuated. Activated EGFRs are rapidly internalized, sorted through early endosomes, and ultimately degraded in lysosomes by a process generally known as receptor down-regulation. Through alterations to EGFR trafficking, tumors develop resistance to current treatment strategies, thus highlighting the necessity for combination treatment strategies that target EGFR trafficking. This review covers EGFR structure, trafficking, and altered surface expression of EGFR receptors in cancer, with a focus on how therapy targeting EGFR trafficking may aid tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment of cancer.
    Keywords:  EGFR trafficking; cancer; clathrin-mediated endocytosis; dimerization; lysosome
  6. Sci Total Environ. 2023 Sep 23. pii: S0048-9697(23)05827-8. [Epub ahead of print]905 167200
      Carbon black (CB), a component of environmental particulate pollution derived from carbon sources, poses a significant threat to human health, particularly in the context of lung-related disease. This study aimed to investigate the detrimental effects of aggregated CB in the average micron scale on lung tissues and cells in vitro and in vivo. We observed that CB particles induced lung disorders characterized by enhanced expression of inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis-related factors in vivo. In alveolar epithelial cells, CB exposure resulted in decreased cell viability, induction of cell death, and generation of reactive oxidative species, along with altered expression of proteins associated with lung disorders. Our findings suggested that the damaging effects of CB on the lung involved the targeting of lysosomes. Specifically, CB promoted lysosomal membrane permeabilization, while lysosomal alkalization mitigated the harmfulness of CB on lung cells. Additionally, we explored the protective effects of alkaloids derived from Nelumbinis plumula, with a focus on neferine, against CB-induced lung disorders. In conclusion, these findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the pathophysiological effects of CB particles on the lungs and propose a potential therapeutic approach for pollution-related diseases.
    Keywords:  Carbon black; Inflammation; Lung disorder; Lysosome; Neferine