bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2023‒07‒09
three papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis
University of New England

  1. Trends Cancer. 2023 Jul 01. pii: S2405-8033(23)00106-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      The microphthalmia/transcription factor E (MiT/TFE) transcription factors (TFs; TFEB, TFE3, MITF, and TFEC) play a central role in cellular catabolism and quality control and are subject to extensive layers of regulation that influence their localization, stability, and activity. Recent studies have highlighted a broader role for these TFs in driving diverse stress-adaptation pathways, which manifest in a context- and tissue-dependent manner. Several human cancers upregulate the MiT/TFE factors to survive extreme fluctuations in nutrients, energy, and pharmacological challenges. Emerging data suggest that reduced activity of the MiT/TFE factors can also promote tumorigenesis. Here, we outline recent findings relating to novel mechanisms of regulation and activity of MiT/TFE proteins across some of the most aggressive human cancers.
    Keywords:  TFE3; TFEB; autophagy; cancer; lysosome; mTORC1; metabolism
  2. Sci Rep. 2023 07 04. 13(1): 10757
      ARL-17477 is a selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) inhibitor that has been used in many preclinical studies since its initial discovery in the 1990s. In the present study, we demonstrate that ARL-17477 exhibits a NOS1-independent pharmacological activity that involves inhibition of the autophagy-lysosomal system and prevents cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Initially, we screened a chemical compound library for potential anticancer agents, and identified ARL-17477 with micromolar anticancer activity against a wide spectrum of cancers, preferentially affecting cancer stem-like cells and KRAS-mutant cancer cells. Interestingly, ARL-17477 also affected NOS1-knockout cells, suggesting the existence of a NOS1-independent anticancer mechanism. Analysis of cell signals and death markers revealed that LC3B-II, p62, and GABARAP-II protein levels were significantly increased by ARL-17477. Furthermore, ARL-17477 had a chemical structure similar to that of chloroquine, suggesting the inhibition of autophagic flux at the level of lysosomal fusion as an underlying anticancer mechanism. Consistently, ARL-17477 induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization, impaired protein aggregate clearance, and activated transcription factor EB and lysosomal biogenesis. Furthermore, in vivo ARL-17477 inhibited the tumor growth of KRAS-mutant cancer. Thus, ARL-17477 is a dual inhibitor of NOS1 and the autophagy-lysosomal system that could potentially be used as a cancer therapeutic.
  3. Front Oncol. 2023 ;13 1203359
      VPS4 series proteins play a crucial role in the endosomal sorting complexes required for the transport (ESCRT) pathway, which is responsible for sorting and trafficking cellular proteins and is involved in various cellular processes, including cytokinesis, membrane repair, and viral budding. VPS4 proteins are ATPases that mediate the final steps of membrane fission and protein sorting as part of the ESCRT machinery. They disassemble ESCRT-III filaments, which are vital for forming multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and the release of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs), ultimately leading to the sorting and degradation of various cellular proteins, including those involved in cancer development and progression. Recent studies have shown a potential relationship between VPS4 series proteins and cancer. Evidence suggests that these proteins may have crucial roles in cancer development and progression. Several experiments have explored the association between VPS4 and different types of cancer, including gastrointestinal and reproductive system tumors, providing insight into the underlying mechanisms. Understanding the structure and function of VPS4 series proteins is critical in assessing their potential role in cancer. The evidence supporting the involvement of VPS4 series proteins in cancer provides a promising avenue for future research and therapeutic development. However, further researches are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between VPS4 series proteins and cancer and to develop effective strategies for targeting these proteins in cancer therapy. This article aims to review the structures and functions of VPS4 series proteins and the previous experiments to analyze the relationship between VPS4 series proteins and cancer.
    Keywords:  Vps4; cancer; cell death; exosome; mechanisms