bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2023‒07‒02
two papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis
University of New England

  1. J Cell Biol. 2023 Sep 04. pii: e202209077. [Epub ahead of print]222(9):
      Phosphoinositide signaling lipids (PIPs) are key regulators of membrane identity and trafficking. Of these, PI(3,5)P2 is one of the least well-understood, despite key roles in many endocytic pathways including phagocytosis and macropinocytosis. PI(3,5)P2 is generated by the phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve, which is critical for phagosomal digestion and antimicrobial activity. However PI(3,5)P2 dynamics and regulation remain unclear due to lack of reliable reporters. Using the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, we identify SnxA as a highly selective PI(3,5)P2-binding protein and characterize its use as a reporter for PI(3,5)P2 in both Dictyostelium and mammalian cells. Using GFP-SnxA, we demonstrate that Dictyostelium phagosomes and macropinosomes accumulate PI(3,5)P2 3 min after engulfment but are then retained differently, indicating pathway-specific regulation. We further find that PIKfyve recruitment and activity are separable and that PIKfyve activation stimulates its own dissociation. SnxA is therefore a new tool for reporting PI(3,5)P2 in live cells that reveals key mechanistic details of the role and regulation of PIKfyve/PI(3,5)P2.
  2. Front Oncol. 2023 ;13 1141851
      Pathways that govern cellular bioenergetics are deregulated in tumor cells and represent a hallmark of cancer. Tumor cells have the capacity to reprogram pathways that control nutrient acquisition, anabolism and catabolism to enhance their growth and survival. Tumorigenesis requires the autonomous reprogramming of key metabolic pathways that obtain, generate and produce metabolites from a nutrient-deprived tumor microenvironment to meet the increased bioenergetic demands of cancer cells. Intra- and extracellular factors also have a profound effect on gene expression to drive metabolic pathway reprogramming in not only cancer cells but also surrounding cell types that contribute to anti-tumor immunity. Despite a vast amount of genetic and histologic heterogeneity within and between cancer types, a finite set of pathways are commonly deregulated to support anabolism, catabolism and redox balance. Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy in adults and remains incurable in the vast majority of patients. Genetic events and the hypoxic bone marrow milieu deregulate glycolysis, glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis in MM cells to promote their proliferation, survival, metastasis, drug resistance and evasion of immunosurveillance. Here, we discuss mechanisms that disrupt metabolic pathways in MM cells to support the development of therapeutic resistance and thwart the effects of anti-myeloma immunity. A better understanding of the events that reprogram metabolism in myeloma and immune cells may reveal unforeseen vulnerabilities and advance the rational design of drug cocktails that improve patient survival.
    Keywords:  fatty acid synthesis; glycolysis; metabolism; multiple myeloma; oxidative phosphorylation; proteasome inhibitor