bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2023‒06‒18
four papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis
University of New England

  1. J Mol Med (Berl). 2023 Jun 17.
      Transcription factor EB, a member of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF/TFE) family, is a master regulator of autophagy, lysosome biogenesis, and TAMs. Metastasis is one of the main reasons for the failure of tumor therapy. Studies on the relationship between TFEB and tumor metastasis are contradictory. On the positive side, TFEB mainly affects tumor cell metastasis via five aspects, including autophagy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), lysosomal biogenesis, lipid metabolism, and oncogenic signaling pathways; on the negative side, TFEB mainly affects tumor cell metastasis in two aspects, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and EMT. In this review, we described the detailed mechanism of TFEB-mediated regulation of metastasis. In addition, we also described the activation and inactivation of TFEB in several aspects, including the mTORC1 and Rag GTPase systems, ERK2, and AKT. However, the exact process by which TFEB regulates tumor metastasis remains unclear in some pathways, which requires further studies.
    Keywords:  Activation; Metastasis; Phosphorylation; TFEB; Tumor
  2. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2023 Jun 15. pii: 1673-1581(2023)06-0485-11. [Epub ahead of print]24(6): 485-495
      Tacrolimus (TAC), also called FK506, is one of the classical immunosuppressants to prevent allograft rejection after liver transplantation. However, it has been proved to be associated with post-transplant hyperlipemia. The mechanism behind this is unknown, and it is urgent to explore preventive strategies for hyperlipemia after transplantation. Therefore, we established a hyperlipemia mouse model to investigate the mechanism, by injecting TAC intraperitoneally for eight weeks. After TAC treatment, the mice developed hyperlipemia (manifested as elevated triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), as well as decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c)). Accumulation of lipid droplets was observed in the liver. In addition to lipid accumulation, TAC induced inhibition of the autophagy-lysosome pathway (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (LC3B) II/I and LC3B II/actin ratios, transcription factor EB (TFEB), protein 62 (P62), and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)) and downregulation of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in vivo. Overexpression of FGF21 may reverse TAC-induced TG accumulation. In this mouse model, the recombinant FGF21 protein ameliorated hepatic lipid accumulation and hyperlipemia through repair of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. We conclude that TAC downregulates FGF21 and thus exacerbates lipid accumulation by impairing the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Recombinant FGF21 protein treatment could therefore reverse TAC-caused lipid accumulation and hypertriglyceridemia by enhancing autophagy.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21); Lipid; Lipophagy; Lysosome; Tacrolimus; Transcription factor EB (TFEB)
  3. Autophagy. 2023 Jun 13. 1-2
      Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the lowest 5-year survival rates of any cancer in the United States. Our previous work has shown that autophagy can promote PDAC progression. We recently established the importance of autophagy in regulating bioavailable iron to control mitochondrial metabolism in PDAC. We found that inhibition of autophagy in PDAC leads to mitochondrial dysfunction due to abrogation of succinate dehydrogenase complex iron sulfur subunit B (SDHB) expression. Additionally, we observed that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) can provide iron to autophagy-inhibited PDAC tumor cells, thereby increasing their resistance to autophagy inhibition. To impede such metabolic compensation, we used a low iron diet together with autophagy inhibition and demonstrated a significant improvement of tumor response in syngeneic PDAC models.Abbreviations: PDAC: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; CAFs: cancer-associated fibroblasts; SDHB: succinate dehydrogenase complex iron sulfur subunit B; ISCA1: iron sulfur cluster assembly protein 1; FPN: ferroportin; LIP: labile iron pool; FAC: ferric ammonium chloride; OCR: oxygen consumption rate; OXPHOS: oxidative phosphorylation, IL6: interleukin 6; Fe-S: iron sulfur; ATP: adenosine triphosphate.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; cancer associated fibroblasts; iron metabolism; lysosome; mitochondria; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
  4. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 May 27. pii: 9364. [Epub ahead of print]24(11):
      The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a component of two signaling complexes that are known as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. We sought to identify mTOR-phosphorylated proteins that are differently expressed in clinically resected clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) relative to pair-matched normal renal tissue. Using a proteomic array, we found N-Myc Downstream Regulated 1 (NDRG1) showed the greatest increase (3.3-fold) in phosphorylation (on Thr346) in ccRCC. This was associated with an increase in total NDRG1. RICTOR is a required subunit in mTORC2, and its knockdown decreased total and phospho-NDRG1 (Thr346) but not NDRG1 mRNA. The dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor, Torin 2, significantly reduced (by ~100%) phospho-NDRG1 (Thr346). Rapamycin is a selective mTORC1 inhibitor that had no effect on the levels of total NDRG1 or phospho-NDRG1 (Thr346). The reduction in phospho-NDRG1 (Thr346) due to the inhibition of mTORC2 corresponded with a decrease in the percentage of live cells, which was correlated with an increase in apoptosis. Rapamycin had no effect on ccRCC cell viability. Collectively, these data show that mTORC2 mediates the phosphorylation of NDRG1 (Thr346) in ccRCC. We hypothesize that RICTOR and mTORC2-mediated phosphorylation of NDRG1 (Thr346) promotes the viability of ccRCC cells.
    Keywords:  N-Myc Downstream Regulated 1; NDRG1; clear cell renal cell carcinoma; mTOR; mTORC1; mTORC2; proteomics