bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2023‒03‒26
seven papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis
University of New England

  1. Cell Death Discov. 2023 Mar 21. 9(1): 100
      While the mechanism of lipotoxicity by palmitic acid (PA), an effector of metabolic stress in vitro and in vivo, has been extensively investigated, molecular details of lipotoxicity are still not fully characterized. Since recent studies reported that PA can exert lysosomal stress in addition to well-known ER and mitochondrial stress, we studied the role of lysosomal events in lipotoxicity by PA, focusing on lysosomal Ca2+. We found that PA induced accumulation of mitochondrial ROS and that mitochondrial ROS induced release of lysosomal Ca2+ due to lysosomal Ca2+ exit channel activation. Lysosomal Ca2+ release led to increased cytosolic Ca2+ which induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). Chelation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ or blockade of mPT with olesoxime or decylubiquinone (DUB) suppressed lipotoxicity. Lysosomal Ca2+ release led to reduced lysosomal Ca2+ content which was replenished by ER Ca2+, the largest intracellular Ca2+ reservoir (ER → lysosome Ca2+ refilling), which in turn activated store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Inhibition of ER → lysosome Ca2+ refilling by blockade of ER Ca2+ exit channel using dantrolene or inhibition of SOCE using BTP2 inhibited lipotoxicity in vitro. Dantrolene or DUB also inhibited lipotoxic death of hepatocytes in vivo induced by administration of ethyl palmitate together with LPS. These results suggest a novel pathway of lipotoxicity characterized by mPT due to lysosomal Ca2+ release which was supplemented by ER → lysosome Ca2+ refilling and subsequent SOCE, and also suggest the potential role of modulation of ER → lysosome Ca2+ refilling by dantrolene or other blockers of ER Ca2+ exit channels in disease conditions characterized by lipotoxicity such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiomyopathy or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
  2. Clin Transl Med. 2023 Mar;13(3): e1229
      BACKGROUND: T cell malignancies proliferate vigorously, are highly dependent on lysosomal function, with limited therapeutic options. Deregulation of lysosomal structure and function has been confirmed to be a key role in the treatment of hematologic malignant disease.METHODS: Cell counting kit 8 and Annexin V/PI staining were used to assess the cell viability and apoptosis rate. Flow cytometry, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, immunofluorescence and western blot were performed to detect the effect on lysosomes. Drug affinity responsive target stability, molecular docking and cellular thermal shift assay were employed to confirm the target protein of V8 on lysosomes. A xenograft model was constructed in NOD/SCID mice to assess the effect and mechanism.
    RESULTS: V8, a new lysosomotropic compound, could be rapidly trapped by lysosomes and accumulation in lysosomes, contributing to lysosomal-dependent cell death by evoking lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), accompanied with disrupted lysosome and autophagic flux. Mechanistically, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was identified as the binding target of V8 in lysosome. As a downstream effect of targeting HSP70, enzymatic activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) was inhibited, which induced disturbance of lipid metabolism, instability of lysosomal membrane, and leakage of cathepsin B and D, leading to LMP-mediated cell death. In vivo study showed V8 well controlled the growth of the tumour and confirmed lysosomal cell death induced by V8.
    CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, this study suggests targeting lysosomal HSP70-ASM axis by V8 illustrates the great value of drug therapy for T cell malignancies and the unlimited potential of lysosomal targeting for cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  T cell malignancies; acid sphingomyelinase; heat shock protein 70; lipid metabolism; lysosomal membrane permeabilization; lysosome
  3. Mol Cancer Res. 2023 Mar 24. pii: MCR-22-0843. [Epub ahead of print]
      Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) regulates tumor growth and proliferation when cells are exposed to proteotoxic stress, such as during treatment with certain chemotherapeutics. Consequently, cancer cells depend to a greater extent on stress signaling, and require the integrated stress response (ISR), amino acid metabolism, and efficient protein folding and degradation pathways to survive. To define how these interconnected pathways are wired when cancer cells are challenged with proteotoxic stress, we investigated how amino acid abundance influences cell survival when Hsp70, a master proteostasis regulator, is inhibited. We previously demonstrated that cancer cells exposed to a specific Hsp70 inhibitor induce the ISR via the action of two sensors, GCN2 and PERK, in stress-resistant and sensitive cells, respectively. In resistant cells, the induction of GCN2 and autophagy supported resistant cell survival, yet the mechanism by which these events were induced remained unclear. We now report that amino acid availability reconfigures the proteostasis network. Amino acid supplementation, and in particular arginine addition, triggered cancer cell death by blocking autophagy. Consistent with the importance of amino acid availability, which when limited activates GCN2, resistant cancer cells succumbed when challenged with a potentiator for another amino acid sensor, mTORC1, in conjunction with Hsp70 inhibition. Implications: These data position amino acid abundance, GCN2, mTORC1, and autophagy as integrated therapeutic targets whose coordinated modulation regulates the survival of proteotoxic-resistant breast cancer cells.
  4. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2023 Mar 22. 80(4): 104
      Targeted therapy is a new cancer treatment approach, involving drugs that particularly target specific proteins in cancer cells, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) which are involved in promoting growth and proliferation, Therefore inhibiting these proteins could impede cancer progression. An understanding of RTKs and the relevant signaling cascades, has enabled the development of many targeted drug therapies employing RTK inhibitors (RTKIs) some of which have entered clinical application. Here we discuss RTK structures, activation mechanisms and functions. Moreover, we cover the potential effects of combination drug therapy (including chemotherapy or immunotherapy agents with one RTKI or multiple RTKIs) especially for drug resistant cancers.
    Keywords:  Cancer therapy; Drug resistance; Immune therapy; RTK inhibitors; Targeted therapy
  5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Mar 28. 120(13): e2216796120
      Programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) mediate T cell-dependent immunity against tumors. The abundance of cell surface PD-L1 is a key determinant of the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade therapy targeting PD-L1. However, the regulation of cell surface PD-L1 is still poorly understood. Here, we show that lysosomal degradation of PD-L1 is regulated by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) during the intracellular trafficking pathway. O-GlcNAc modifies the hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HGS), a key component of the endosomal sorting machinery, and subsequently inhibits its interaction with intracellular PD-L1, leading to impaired lysosomal degradation of PD-L1. O-GlcNAc inhibition activates T cell-mediated antitumor immunity in vitro and in immune-competent mice in a manner dependent on HGS glycosylation. Combination of O-GlcNAc inhibition with PD-L1 antibody synergistically promotes antitumor immune response. We also designed a competitive peptide inhibitor of HGS glycosylation that decreases PD-L1 expression and enhances T cell-mediated immunity against tumor cells. Collectively, our study reveals a link between O-GlcNAc and tumor immune evasion, and suggests strategies for improving PD-L1-mediated immune checkpoint blockade therapy.
    Keywords:  O-GlcNAcylation; PD-L1; cancer immune evasion; intracellular trafficking
  6. Methods Mol Biol. 2023 ;2643 135-148
      Peroxisomes are essential organelles in mammals, which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism and redox homeostasis. They do not function as isolated entities but cooperate and interact with other subcellular organelles, in particular the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and lipid droplets. Those interactions are often mediated by membrane contact sites. Tether proteins at those sites bring the organelles in close proximity to facilitate metabolite and lipid transfer as well as organelle communication. There is great interest in the investigation of the physiological functions of peroxisome-organelle contacts and how they are regulated. Here, we present an antibody- and fluorescence-based proximity ligation approach used successfully in our laboratory for the detection and quantification of peroxisome-organelle interactions in cultured mammalian cells.
    Keywords:  Cell culture; Immunofluorescence; Membrane contact sites; Organelle interaction; Peroxisome; Proximity ligation; Transfection
  7. Cell Calcium. 2023 Mar 11. pii: S0143-4160(23)00027-1. [Epub ahead of print]111 102715
      Cell swelling as a result of hypotonic stress is counteracted in mammalian cells by a process called regulatory volume decrease (RVD). We have recently discovered that RVD of human keratinocytes requires the LRRC8 volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) and that Ca2+ exerts a modulatory function on RVD. However, the ion channel that is responsible for Ca2+ influx remains unknown. We investigated in this study whether the Ca2+-permeable TRPV4 ion channel, which functions as cell volume sensor in many cell types, may be involved in cell volume regulation during hypotonic stress response of human keratinocytes. We interfered with TRPV4 function in two human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT and NHEK-E6/E7) by using two TRPV4-specific inhibitors (RN1734 and GSK2193874), and by creating a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic TRPV4-/- knockout in HaCaT cells. We employed electrophysiological patch clamp analysis, fluorescence-based Ca2+ imaging and cell volume measurements to determine the functional importance of TRPV4. We could show that both hypotonic stress and direct activation of TRPV4 by the specific agonist GSK1016790A triggered intracellular Ca2+ response. Strikingly, the Ca2+ increase upon hypotonic stress was neither affected by genetic knockout of TRPV4 in HaCaT cells nor by pharmacological inhibition of TRPV4 in both keratinocyte cell lines. Accordingly, hypotonicity-induced cell swelling, downstream activation of VRAC currents as well as subsequent RVD were unaffected both in TRPV4 inhibitor-treated keratinocytes and in HaCaT-TRPV4-/- cells. In summary, our study shows that keratinocytes do not require TRPV4 for coping with hypotonic stress, which implies the involvement of other, yet unidentified Ca2+ channels.
    Keywords:  Calcium; Cell volume; Keratinocyte; Regulatory volume decrease; TRPV4; VRAC