bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2022‒11‒27
eleven papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis
University of New England

  1. Autophagy. 2022 Nov 21. 1-18
      Lysosomes are the primary degradative compartment within cells and there have been significant advances over the past decade toward understanding how lysosome homeostasis is maintained. Lysosome repopulation ensures sustained autophagy function, a fundamental process that protects against disease. During macroautophagy/autophagy, cellular debris is sequestered into phagophores that mature into autophagosomes, which then fuse with lysosomes to generate autolysosomes in which contents are degraded. Autophagy cannot proceed without the sufficient generation of lysosomes, and this can be achieved via their de novo biogenesis. Alternatively, during autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), lysosomes are generated via the recycling of autolysosome membranes. During this process, autolysosomes undergo significant membrane remodeling and scission to generate membrane fragments, that mature into functional lysosomes. By utilizing membranes already formed during autophagy, this facilitates an efficient pathway for re-deriving lysosomes, particularly under conditions of prolonged autophagic flux. ALR dysfunction is emerging as an important disease mechanism including for neurodegenerative disorders such as hereditary spastic paraplegia and Parkinson disease, neuropathies including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, lysosome storage disorders, muscular dystrophy, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory and liver disorders. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of ALR, including an overview of its dynamic spatiotemporal regulation by MTOR and phosphoinositides, and the role ALR dysfunction plays in many diseases.
    Keywords:  Autophagic lysosome reformation; MTOR; PtdIns(4,5)P2; PtdIns4P; lysosome; phosphoinositide
  2. PLoS One. 2022 ;17(11): e0277058
      Isomeric lysosphingolipids, galactosylsphingosine (GalSph) and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph), are present in only minute levels in healthy cells. Due to defects in their lysosomal hydrolysis, they accumulate at high levels and cause cytotoxicity in patients with Krabbe and Gaucher diseases, respectively. Here, we show that GalSph and GlcSph induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization, a hallmark of lysosome-dependent cell death, in human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and primary fibroblasts. Supporting lysosomal leakage as a causative event in lysosphingolipid-induced cytotoxicity, treatment of MCF7 cells with lysosome-stabilizing cholesterol prevented GalSph- and GlcSph-induced cell death almost completely. In line with this, fibroblasts from a patient with Niemann-Pick type C disease, which is caused by defective lysosomal cholesterol efflux, were significantly less sensitive to lysosphingolipid-induced lysosomal leakage and cell death. Prompted by the data showing that MCF7 cells with acquired resistance to lysosome-destabilizing cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) were partially resistant to the cell death induced by GalSph and GlcSph, we compared these cell death pathways with each other. Like CADs, GalSph and GlcSph activated the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathway, and cAMP-inducing forskolin sensitized cells to cell death induced by low concentrations of lysosphingolipids. Contrary to CADs, lysosphingolipid-induced cell death was independent of lysosomal Ca2+ efflux through P2X purinerigic receptor 4. These data reveal GalSph and GlcSph as lysosome-destabilizing lipids, whose putative use in cancer therapy should be further investigated. Furthermore, the data supports the development of lysosome stabilizing drugs for the treatment of Krabbe and Gaucher diseases and possibly other sphingolipidoses.
  3. Trends Cell Biol. 2022 Nov 19. pii: S0962-8924(22)00235-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cellular quiescence - reversible exit from the cell cycle - is an important feature of many cell types important for organismal health. Aging and cellular dysfunction compromise the survival and reactivation of quiescent cells over time. Studies suggest that autophagic processes and lysosomal function are critical to maintaining the function of quiescent cells, especially adult stem cells, throughout life. Findings also point to both pro-senescence and anti-senescence functions for macroautophagy depending on context. In this review, we will discuss these findings, unanswered questions on the role of macroautophagy and lysosomal function in quiescent and senescent cells, and the possibility for interventions that stimulate macroautophagy and lysosomes to promote quiescent cell function and tissue regeneration.
    Keywords:  aging; autophagy; lysosomes; quiescence; senescence
  4. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2022 Nov 24.
      Nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and lipids are fundamental sources for the maintenance of essential cellular processes and homeostasis in all organisms. The nutrient-sensing kinases mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are expressed in many cell types and have key roles in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and survival, ultimately contributing to the physiological development and functions of various organs, including the kidney. Dysregulation of these kinases leads to many human health problems, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders and kidney diseases. In the kidney, physiological levels of mTOR and AMPK activity are required to support kidney cell growth and differentiation and to maintain kidney cell integrity and normal nephron function, including transport of electrolytes, water and glucose. mTOR forms two functional multi-protein kinase complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Hyperactivation of mTORC1 leads to podocyte and tubular cell dysfunction and vulnerability to injury, thereby contributing to the development of chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic kidney disease, obesity-related kidney disease and polycystic kidney disease. Emerging evidence suggests that targeting mTOR and/or AMPK could be an effective therapeutic approach to controlling or preventing these diseases.
  5. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Nov 21. pii: 5710. [Epub ahead of print]14(22):
      Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most prevalent kidney cancer, of which the incidence is increasing worldwide with a high mortality rate. Bioactive peptides are considered a significant class of natural medicines. We applied mass spectrometry-based peptidomic analysis to explore the peptide profile of human renal clear cell carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues. A total of 18,031 peptides were identified, of which 105 unique peptides were differentially expressed (44 were up-regulated and 61 were down-regulated in ccRCC tissues). Through bioinformatic analysis, we finally selected one peptide derived from the HSPB1 protein (amino acids 12-35 of the N-terminal region of HSPB1). Next, we fused this peptide to the HIV-Tat, generated a novel peptide named Tat-hspb1, and found that Tat-hspb1 inhibited ccRCC cells' viability while being less cytotoxic to normal epithelial cells. Furthermore, Tat-hspb1 induced apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation and migration of ccRCC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Tat-hspb1 was predominantly localized in lysosomes after entering the ccRCC cell and induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and the release of cathepsin D from lysosomes. Taken together, Tat-hspb1 has the potential to serve as a new anticancer drug candidate.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP); peptide; renal cancer
  6. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Nov 08. pii: 5478. [Epub ahead of print]14(22):
      BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting men often resulting in aggressive tumors with poor prognosis. Even with new treatment strategies, drug resistance often occurs in advanced prostate cancers. The use of lysosomotropic agents offers a new treatment possibility since they disrupt lysosomal membranes and can trigger a series of events leading to cell death. In addition, combining lysosomotropic agents with targeted inhibitors can induce increased cell death in different cancer types, but prostate cancer cells have not been investigated.METHODS: We treated prostate cancer cells with lysosomotropic agents and determine their cytotoxicity, lysosome membrane permeabilization (LMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, we treated cells with lysosomotropic agent in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lapatinib, and determined cell death, and the role of ROS in this cell death.
    RESULTS: Herein, we found that siramesine was the most effective lysosomotropic agent at inducing LMP, increasing ROS, and inducing cell death in three different prostate cancer cell lines. Siramesine was also effective at increasing cell death in combination with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lapatinib. This increase in cell death was mediated by lysosome membrane permeabilization, an increased in ROS levels, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in mitochondrial ROS levels. The combination of siramesine and lapatinib induced apoptosis, cleavage of PARP and decreased expression of Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation occurred with siramesine treatment alone or in combination with lapatinib. Treating cells with the lipid peroxidation inhibitor alpha-tocopherol resulted in reduced siramesine induced cell death alone or in combination with lapatinib. The combination of siramesine and lapatinib failed to increase cell death responses in normal prostate epithelial cells.
    CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that lysomotropic agents such as siramesine in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors induces cell death mediated by ROS and could be an effective treatment strategy in advanced prostate cancer.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; lipid peroxidation; lysosomotrophic drug; siramesine reactive oxygen species
  7. EMBO J. 2022 Nov 21. e112677
      Lysosome integrity is essential for cell viability, and lesions in lysosome membranes are repaired by the ESCRT machinery. Here, we describe an additional mechanism for lysosome repair that is activated independently of ESCRT recruitment. Lipidomic analyses showed increases in lysosomal phosphatidylserine and cholesterol after damage. Electron microscopy demonstrated that lysosomal membrane damage is rapidly followed by the formation of contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which depends on the ER proteins VAPA/B. The cholesterol-binding protein ORP1L was recruited to damaged lysosomes, accompanied by cholesterol accumulation by a mechanism that required VAP-ORP1L interactions. The PtdIns 4-kinase PI4K2A rapidly produced PtdIns4P on lysosomes upon damage, and knockout of PI4K2A inhibited damage-induced accumulation of ORP1L and cholesterol and led to the failure of lysosomal membrane repair. The cholesterol-PtdIns4P transporter OSBP was also recruited upon damage, and its depletion caused lysosomal accumulation of PtdIns4P and resulted in cell death. We conclude that ER contacts are activated on damaged lysosomes in parallel to ESCRTs to provide lipids for membrane repair, and that PtdIns4P generation and removal are central in this response.
    Keywords:  cholesterol; lysosome; membrane contact site; membrane repair; phosphoinositide
  8. J Cell Biol. 2023 Feb 06. pii: e202204099. [Epub ahead of print]222(2):
      The lipid phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a master regulator of plasma membrane (PM) function. Its effector proteins regulate transport, signaling, and cytoskeletal processes that define PM structure and function. How a single type of lipid regulates so many parallel processes is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that spatially separate PI(4,5)P2 pools associate with different PM complexes. The mobility of PI(4,5)P2 was measured using biosensors by single-particle tracking. We found that PM lipids including PI(4,5)P2 diffuse rapidly (∼0.3 µm2/s) with Brownian motion, although they spend one third of their time diffusing more slowly. Surprisingly, areas of the PM occupied by PI(4,5)P2-dependent complexes did not slow PI(4,5)P2 lateral mobility. Only the spectrin and septin cytoskeletons showed reduced PI(4,5)P2 diffusion. We conclude that even structures with high densities of PI(4,5)P2 effector proteins, such as clathrin-coated pits and focal adhesions, do not corral unbound PI(4,5)P2, questioning a role for spatially segregated PI(4,5)P2 pools in organizing and regulating PM functions.
  9. Cell Calcium. 2022 Nov 12. pii: S0143-4160(22)00146-4. [Epub ahead of print]108 102673
      Innate and acquired resistances to therapeutic agents are responsible for the failure of cancer treatments. Due to the multifactorial nature of resistance, the identification of new therapeutic targets is required to improve cancer treatment. Calcium is a universal second messenger that regulates many cellular functions such as proliferation, migration, and survival. Calcium channels, pumps and exchangers tightly regulate the duration, location and magnitude of calcium signals. Many studies have implicated dysregulation of calcium signaling in several pathologies, including cancer. Abnormal calcium fluxes due to altered channel expression or activation contribute to carcinogenesis and promote tumor development. However, there is limited information on the role of calcium signaling in cancer resistance to therapeutic drugs. This review discusses the role of calcium signaling as a mediator of cancer resistance, and assesses the potential value of combining anticancer therapy with calcium signaling modulators to improve the effectiveness of current treatments.
    Keywords:  Calcium channels; Calcium signaling; Cancer; Chemoresistance; Potassium channels
  10. Membranes (Basel). 2022 Nov 17. pii: 1161. [Epub ahead of print]12(11):
      Membrane proteins are broadly classified as transmembrane (TM) or peripheral, with functions that pertain to only a single bilayer at a given time. Here, we explicate a class of proteins that contain both transmembrane and peripheral domains, which we dub transmembrane membrane readers (TMMRs). Their transmembrane and peripheral elements anchor them to one bilayer and reversibly attach them to another section of bilayer, respectively, positioning them to tether and fuse membranes while recognizing signals such as phosphoinositides (PIs) and modifying lipid chemistries in proximity to their transmembrane domains. Here, we analyze full-length models from AlphaFold2 and Rosetta, as well as structures from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, using the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA) program to map their membrane-binding surfaces. Eukaryotic TMMRs include phospholipid-binding C1, C2, CRAL-TRIO, FYVE, GRAM, GTPase, MATH, PDZ, PH, PX, SMP, StART and WD domains within proteins including protrudin, sorting nexins and synaptotagmins. The spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viruses are also TMMRs, seeing as they are anchored into the viral membrane while mediating fusion with host cell membranes. As such, TMMRs have key roles in cell biology and membrane trafficking, and include drug targets for diseases such as COVID-19.
    Keywords:  C2 domain; FYVE domain; PH domain; PX domain; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus spike; lipid recognition; peripheral membrane protein; sorting nexin; synaptotagmin; transmembrane protein
  11. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Nov 08. pii: 13679. [Epub ahead of print]23(22):
      Metabolic stress impairs pancreatic β-cell survival and function in diabetes. Although the pathophysiology of metabolic stress is complex, aberrant tissue damage and β-cell death are brought on by an imbalance in redox equilibrium due to insufficient levels of endogenous antioxidant expression in β-cells. The vulnerability of β-cells to oxidative damage caused by iron accumulation has been linked to contributory β-cell ferroptotic-like malfunction under diabetogenic settings. Here, we take into account recent findings on how iron metabolism contributes to the deregulation of the redox response in diabetic conditions as well as the ferroptotic-like malfunction in the pancreatic β-cells, which may offer insights for deciphering the pathomechanisms and formulating plans for the treatment or prevention of metabolic stress brought on by β-cell failure.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase; diabetes; ferroptosis; iron; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species