bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2022‒09‒11
three papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis
University of New England

  1. Nature. 2022 Sep 07.
      Lysosomal dysfunction has been increasingly linked to disease and normal ageing1,2. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), a hallmark of lysosome-related diseases, can be triggered by diverse cellular stressors3. Given the damaging contents of lysosomes, LMP must be rapidly resolved, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using an unbiased proteomic approach, we show that LMP stimulates a phosphoinositide-initiated membrane tethering and lipid transport (PITT) pathway for rapid lysosomal repair. Upon LMP, phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase type 2α (PI4K2A) accumulates rapidly on damaged lysosomes, generating high levels of the lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Lysosomal phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in turn recruits multiple oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein (ORP) family members, including ORP9, ORP10, ORP11 and OSBP, to orchestrate extensive new membrane contact sites between damaged lysosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. The ORPs subsequently catalyse robust endoplasmic reticulum-to-lysosome transfer of phosphatidylserine and cholesterol to support rapid lysosomal repair. Finally, the lipid transfer protein ATG2 is also recruited to damaged lysosomes where its activity is potently stimulated by phosphatidylserine. Independent of macroautophagy, ATG2 mediates rapid membrane repair through direct lysosomal lipid transfer. Together, our findings identify that the PITT pathway maintains lysosomal membrane integrity, with important implications for numerous age-related diseases characterized by impaired lysosomal function.
  2. Aging Cell. 2022 Sep 10. e13707
      Senescent cells accumulate in tissues over time, favoring the onset and progression of multiple age-related diseases. Senescent cells present a remarkable increase in lysosomal mass and elevated autophagic activity. Here, we report that two main autophagic pathways macroautophagy (MA) and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) are constitutively upregulated in senescent cells. Proteomic analyses of the subpopulations of lysosomes preferentially engaged in each of these types of autophagy revealed profound quantitative and qualitative changes in senescent cells, affecting both lysosomal resident proteins and cargo proteins delivered to lysosomes for degradation. These studies have led us to identify resident lysosomal proteins that are highly augmented in senescent cells and can be used as novel markers of senescence, such as arylsulfatase ARSA. The abundant secretome of senescent cells, known as SASP, is considered their main pathological mediator; however, little is known about the mechanisms of SASP secretion. Some secretory cells, including melanocytes, use the small GTPase RAB27A to perform lysosomal secretion. We found that this process is exacerbated in the case of senescent melanoma cells, as revealed by the exposure of lysosomal membrane integral proteins LAMP1 and LAMP2 in their plasma membrane. Interestingly, a subset of SASP components, including cytokines CCL2, CCL3, CXCL12, cathepsin CTSD, or the protease inhibitor SERPINE1, are secreted in a RAB27A-dependent manner in senescent melanoma cells. Finally, proteins previously identified as plasma biomarkers of aging are highly enriched in the lysosomes of senescent cells, including CTSD. We conclude that the lysosomal proteome of senescent cells is profoundly reconfigured, and that some senescent cells can be highly active in lysosomal exocytosis.
    Keywords:  SASP; aging; autophagy; cellular senescence; exocytosis; lysosome
  3. Science. 2022 Sep 08. eabn5637
      Mammalian cells can generate amino acids through macropinocytosis and lysosomal breakdown of extracellular proteins, which is exploited by cancer cells to grow in nutrient-poor tumors. Here, through genetic screens in defined nutrient conditions we characterized LYSET, a transmembrane protein (TMEM251) selectively required when cells consume extracellular proteins. LYSET was found to associate in the Golgi with GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, which targets catabolic enzymes to lysosomes through mannose-6-phosphate modification. Without LYSET, GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase was unstable owing to a hydrophilic transmembrane domain. Consequently, LYSET-deficient cells were depleted of lysosomal enzymes and impaired in turnover of macropinocytic and autophagic cargoes. Thus, LYSET represents a core component of the lysosomal enzyme trafficking pathway, underlies the pathomechanism for hereditary lysosomal storage disorders, and may represent a target to suppress metabolic adaptations in cancer.