bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2022‒05‒22
five papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis
University of New England

  1. Sci Rep. 2022 May 19. 12(1): 8455
      We have shown previously that the lysosomal a3 isoform of the a subunit of vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase) interacts with inactive (GDP-bound form) Rab7, a small GTPase that regulates late endosome/lysosome trafficking, and that a3 recruits Rab7 to secretory lysosomes in mouse osteoclasts. This is essential for outward trafficking of secretory lysosomes and thus for bone resorption. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the recruitment of Rab7 by a3 remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we showed that a3 interacts with the Mon1A-Ccz1 complex, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rab7, using HEK293T cells. The interaction was mediated by the amino-terminal half domain of a3 and the longin motifs of Mon1A and Ccz1. Exogenous expression of the GEF promoted the interaction between a3 and Rab7. Mon1A mutants that interact inefficiently with Rab7 interacted with a3 at a similar level to wild-type Mon1A. Lysosomal localization of endogenous Ccz1 was abolished in osteoclasts lacking a3. These results suggest that the lysosomal a3 isoform of V-ATPase interacts with Mon1A-Ccz1, and that a3 is important for Mon1A-Ccz1 localization to secretory lysosomes, which mediates Rab7 recruitment to the organelle.
  2. iScience. 2022 May 20. 25(5): 104288
      The accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in the liver is a hallmark of steatosis, which is often associated with lysosomal dysfunction. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, using Huh7 cells loaded with oleate as a model to study LD metabolism, we show that cellular content and distribution of LDs are correlated with those of the lysosome and regulated by oleate and septin 9. High expression of septin 9 promotes perinuclear clustering of lysosomes which co-localized with Golgi and not with their surrounding LDs. On the other hand, knockdown of septin 9 disperses the two organelles which colocalize at the cell periphery. The Rab7 is present around these peripheral LDs. PtdIns5P which binds septin 9 and MTMR3 which converts PtdIns(3,5)P2 into PtdIns(5) recapitulates the effects of septin 9. By contrast, PtdIns(3,5)P2 promotes LD/lysosome co-localization. Overall, our data reveal a phosphoinositide/septin 9-dependent mechanism that regulates LD behavior through the control of their association with lysosomes.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Functional aspects of cell biology; Organizational aspects of cell biology
  3. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2022 May 15. pii: S0955-0674(22)00032-1. [Epub ahead of print]76 102086
      Phosphoinositide signaling lipids are crucial for eukaryotes and regulate many aspects of cell function. These signaling molecules are difficult to study because they are extremely low abundance. Here, we focus on two of the lowest abundance phosphoinositides, PI(3,5)P2 and PI(5)P, which play critical roles in cellular homeostasis, membrane trafficking and transcription. Their levels are tightly regulated by a protein complex that includes PIKfyve, Fig4 and Vac14. Importantly, mutations in this complex that decrease PI(3,5)P2 and PI(5)P are linked to human diseases, especially those of the nervous system. Paradoxically, PIKfyve inhibitors which decrease PI(3,5)P2 and PI(5)P, are currently being tested for some neurodegenerative diseases, as well as other diverse diseases including some cancers, and as a treatment for SARS-CoV2 infection. A more comprehensive picture of the pathways that are regulated by PIKfyve will be critical to understand the roles of PI(3,5)P2 and PI(5)P in normal human physiology and in disease.
    Keywords:  Fig4; PIKfyve; Vac14; endomembrane trafficking; endosomes; phosphoinositide
  4. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 May 19.
      Phosphoinositides are signalling lipids derived from phosphatidylinositol, a ubiquitous phospholipid in the cytoplasmic leaflet of eukaryotic membranes. Initially discovered for their roles in cell signalling, phosphoinositides are now widely recognized as key integrators of membrane dynamics that broadly impact on all aspects of cell physiology and on disease. The past decade has witnessed a vast expansion of our knowledge of phosphoinositide biology. On the endocytic and exocytic routes, phosphoinositides direct the inward and outward flow of membrane as vesicular traffic is coupled to the conversion of phosphoinositides. Moreover, recent findings on the roles of phosphoinositides in autophagy and the endolysosomal system challenge our view of lysosome biology. The non-vesicular exchange of lipids, ions and metabolites at membrane contact sites in between organelles has also been found to depend on phosphoinositides. Here we review our current understanding of how phosphoinositides shape and direct membrane dynamics to impact on cell physiology, and provide an overview of emerging concepts in phosphoinositide regulation.
  5. Front Mol Biosci. 2022 ;9 895814
      Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal channels capable of sensing environmental stimuli, which are widely expressed on the plasma membrane of cells and play an essential role in the physiological or pathological processes of cells as sensors. TRPs often form functional homo- or heterotetramers that act as cation channels to flow Na+ and Ca2+, change membrane potential and [Ca2+]i (cytosolic [Ca2+]), and change protein expression levels, channel attributes, and regulatory factors. Under normal circumstances, various TRP channels respond to intracellular and extracellular stimuli such as temperature, pH, osmotic pressure, chemicals, cytokines, and cell damage and depletion of Ca2+ reserves. As cation transport channels and physical and chemical stimulation receptors, TRPs play an important role in regulating secretion, interfering with cell proliferation, and affecting neural activity in these glands and their adenocarcinoma cells. Many studies have proved that TRPs are widely distributed in the pancreas, adrenal gland, and other glands. This article reviews the specific regulatory mechanisms of various TRP channels in some common glands (pancreas, salivary gland, lacrimal gland, adrenal gland, mammary gland, gallbladder, and sweat gland).
    Keywords:  TRP; calcium channels; endocrine-related diseases; gland; transient receptor potential channels