bims-lymeca Biomed News
on Lysosome metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2022‒04‒17
seven papers selected by
Harilaos Filippakis
Harvard University

  1. J Cell Biol. 2022 May 02. pii: e202109084. [Epub ahead of print]221(5):
      The endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells is essential for cellular homeostasis during growth and proliferation. Previous work showed that a central regulator of growth, namely the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1), binds both membranes of vacuoles and signaling endosomes (SEs) that are distinct from multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Interestingly, the endosomal TORC1, which binds membranes in part via the EGO complex, critically defines vacuole integrity. Here, we demonstrate that SEs form at a branch point of the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways toward the vacuole and depend on MVB biogenesis. Importantly, function of the HOPS tethering complex is essential to maintain the identity of SEs and proper endosomal and vacuolar TORC1 activities. In HOPS mutants, the EGO complex redistributed to the Golgi, which resulted in a partial mislocalization of TORC1. Our study uncovers that SE function requires a functional HOPS complex and MVBs, suggesting a tight link between trafficking and signaling along the endolysosomal pathway.
  2. Int J Biol Sci. 2022 ;18(6): 2639-2651
      Due to increased drug and radiation tolerance, there is an urgent need to develop novel anticancer agents. In our previous study, we performed a series of structural modifications of ursolic acid (UA), a natural product of pentacyclic triterpenes, and found UA232, a derivative with stronger anti-tumor activity. In vitro experiments showed that UA232 inhibited proliferation, induced G0/G1 arrest, and promoted apoptosis in human breast cancer and cervical cancer cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that UA232 promoted apoptosis and induced protective autophagy via the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase/activating transcription factor 4/C/EBP homologous protein-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, we also found that UA232 induced lysosomal biogenesis, increased lysosomal membrane permeability, promoted lysosomal protease release, and led to lysosome-dependent cell death. Furthermore, UA232 suppressed tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. In conclusion, our study revealed that UA232 exerts multiple pharmacological effects against breast and cervical cancers by simultaneously triggering endoplasmic reticulum stress and lysosomal dysfunction. Thus, UA232 may be a promising drug candidate for cancer treatment.
    Keywords:  ER stress; apoptosis; autophagy; lysosomal membrane permeability
  3. Cell Rep. 2022 Apr 12. pii: S2211-1247(22)00399-0. [Epub ahead of print]39(2): 110647
      Unicellular eukaryotes have been suggested as undergoing self-inflicted destruction. However, molecular details are sparse compared with the mechanisms of programmed/regulated cell death known for human cells and animal models. Here, we report a molecular cell death pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leading to vacuole/lysosome membrane permeabilization. Following a transient cell death stimulus, yeast cells die slowly over several hours, consistent with an ongoing molecular dying process. A genome-wide screen for death-promoting factors identified all subunits of the AP-3 complex, a vesicle trafficking adapter known to transport and install newly synthesized proteins on the vacuole/lysosome membrane. To promote cell death, AP-3 requires its Arf1-GTPase-dependent vesicle trafficking function and the kinase Yck3, which is selectively transported to the vacuole membrane by AP-3. Video microscopy revealed a sequence of events where vacuole permeability precedes the loss of plasma membrane integrity. AP-3-dependent death appears to be conserved in the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans.
    Keywords:  AP-3; CP: Cell biology; Yck3; cryptococcus; lysosome; programmed cell death; regulated cell death; vacuolar membrane permeabilization; vacuole; vesicle trafficking; yeast
  4. Chem Commun (Camb). 2022 Apr 14.
      The ability to modulate the cell surface structure provides a powerful tool to understand fundamental processes and also to elicit desired cellular responses. Here we report the development of a new class of 'clickable labels' to reengineer the cell surface charges of live cells. The method relies on the use of metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) combined with chemo selective labeling of cell surface azido-containing sialic acids with dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) ionic-probes. Using this strategy, we demonstrate that reducing the negative charge induced by the overexpression of cell surface sialic acids in cancer cells leads to a reduction in cell migration without affecting drug supceptibility.
  5. Cells. 2022 Apr 01. pii: 1190. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
      Plasma membrane protein channels provide a passageway for ions to access the intracellular milieu. Rapid entry of calcium ions into cells is controlled mostly by ion channels, while Ca2+-ATPases and Ca2+ exchangers ensure that cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]cyt) are maintained at low (~100 nM) concentrations. Some channels, such as the Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (CACNAs), are highly Ca2+-selective, while others, including the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin (TRPM) family, have broader selectivity and are mostly permeable to monovalent and divalent cations. Activation of CRAC channels involves the coupling between ORAI1-3 channels with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) located Ca2+ store sensor, Stromal Interaction Molecules 1-2 (STIM1/2), a pathway also termed store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). The TRPM family is formed by 8 members (TRPM1-8) permeable to Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+ and Na+ cations, and is activated by multiple stimuli. Recent studies indicated that SOCE and TRPM structure-function are interlinked in some instances, although the molecular details of this interaction are only emerging. Here we review the role of TRPM and SOCE in Ca2+ handling and highlight the available evidence for this interaction.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ signaling; ORAI channels; SOCE; TRPM channels
  6. Cancer Sci. 2022 Apr 09.
      Conventional imaging techniques are available for clinical identification of tumor sites. However, detecting metastatic tumor cells that are spreading from primary tumor sites using conventional imaging techniques remains difficult. In contrast, fluorescence-based labeling systems are useful tools for detecting tumor cells at the single-cell level in cancer research. The ability to detect fluorescent-labeled tumor cells enables investigations of the biodistribution of tumor cells for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. For example, the presence of fluorescent tumor cells in the peripheral blood of cancer patients is a predictive biomarker for early diagnosis of distant metastasis. The elimination of fluorescent tumor cells without damaging normal tissues is ideal for minimally invasive treatment of cancer. To capture fluorescent tumor cells within normal tissues, however, tumor-specific activated target molecules are needed. This review focuses on recent advances in tumor-targeted fluorescence labeling systems, in which indirect reporter labeling using tumor-specific promoters is applied to fluorescence labeling of tumor cells for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Telomerase promoter-dependent fluorescence labeling using replication-competent viral vectors produces fluorescent proteins that can be used to detect and eliminate telomerase-positive tumor cells. Tissue-specific promoter-dependent fluorescence labeling enables identification of specific tumor cells. Vimentin promoter-dependent fluorescence labeling is a useful tool for identifying tumor cells that undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The evaluation of tumor cells undergoing EMT is important for accurately assessing metastatic potential. Thus, tumor-targeted fluorescence labeling systems represent novel platforms that enable the capture of tumor cells for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
    Keywords:  EMT; adenovirus; survivin; telomerase; vimentin
  7. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 ;10 833663
      The biosynthetic transport route that constitutes the secretory pathway plays a fundamental role in the cell, providing to the synthesis and transport of around one third of human proteins and most lipids. Signaling molecules within autoregulatory circuits on the intracellular membranes of the secretory pathway regulate these processes, especially at the level of the Golgi complex. Indeed, cancer cells can hijack several of these signaling molecules, and therefore also the underlying regulated processes, to bolster their growth or gain more aggressive phenotypes. Here, we review the most important autoregulatory circuits acting on the Golgi, emphasizing the role of specific signaling molecules in cancer. In fact, we propose to draw awareness to highlight the Golgi-localized regulatory systems as potential targets in cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  Golgi; cancer; control system; protein transport; secretion; secretory pathway; signaling