bims-lycede Biomed News
on Lysosome-dependent cell death
Issue of 2024‒06‒16
six papers selected by
Sofía Peralta, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo

  1. Cancer Lett. 2024 Jun 11. pii: S0304-3835(24)00418-X. [Epub ahead of print] 217024
      Lysosomes are single membrane bounded group of acidic organelles that can be involved in a process called lysosomal exocytosis which leads to the extracellular release of their content. Lysosomal exocytosis is required for plasma membrane repair or remodeling events such as bone resorption, antigen presentation or mitosis, and for protection against toxic agents such as heavy metals. Recently, it has been showed that to fulfill this protective role, lysosomal exocytosis needs some autophagic proteins, in an autophagy-independent manner. In addition to these crucial physiological roles, lysosomal exocytosis plays a major protumoral role in various cancers. This effect is exerted through tumor microenvironment modifications, including extracellular matrix remodeling, acidosis, oncogenic and profibrogenic signals. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the different elements released in the microenvironment during lysosomal exocytosis, i.e. proteases, exosomes, and protons, and their effects in the context of tumor development and treatment.
  2. Front Mol Biosci. 2024 ;11 1378656
      Autophagy mediates the degradation of intracellular macromolecules and organelles within lysosomes. There are three types of autophagy: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy. Heat shock protein 70.1 (Hsp70.1) exhibits dual functions as a chaperone protein and a lysosomal membrane stabilizer. Since chaperone-mediated autophagy participates in the recycling of ∼30% cytosolic proteins, its disorder causes cell susceptibility to stress conditions. Cargo proteins destined for degradation such as amyloid precursor protein and tau protein are trafficked by Hsp70.1 from the cytosol into lysosomes. Hsp70.1 is composed of an N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and a C-terminal domain that binds to cargo proteins, termed the substrate-binding domain (SBD). The NBD and SBD are connected by the interdomain linker LL1, which modulates the allosteric structure of Hsp70.1 in response to ADP/ATP binding. After the passage of the Hsp70.1-cargo complex through the lysosomal limiting membrane, high-affinity binding of the positive-charged SBD with negative-charged bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) at the internal vesicular membranes activates acid sphingomyelinase to generate ceramide for stabilizing lysosomal membranes. As the integrity of the lysosomal limiting membrane is critical to ensure cargo protein degradation within the acidic lumen, the disintegration of the lysosomal limiting membrane is lethal to cells. After the intake of high-fat diets, however, β-oxidation of fatty acids in the mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, which enhance the oxidation of membrane linoleic acids to produce 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). In addition, 4-HNE is produced during the heating of linoleic acid-rich vegetable oils and incorporated into the body via deep-fried foods. This endogenous and exogenous 4-HNE synergically causes an increase in its serum and organ levels to induce carbonylation of Hsp70.1 at Arg469, which facilitates its conformational change and access of activated μ-calpain to LL1. Therefore, the cleavage of Hsp70.1 occurs prior to its influx into the lysosomal lumen, which leads to lysosomal membrane permeabilization/rupture. The resultant leakage of cathepsins is responsible for lysosomal cell death, which would be one of the causative factors of lifestyle-related diseases.
    Keywords:  ALDH2; Hsp70.1; LAMP2A; calpain–cathepsin hypothesis; chaperone-mediated autophagy; hydroxynonenal; lifestyle-related disease; lysosomal cell death
  3. STAR Protoc. 2024 Jun 07. pii: S2666-1667(24)00286-7. [Epub ahead of print]5(2): 103121
      Lysosomes are critical for the sustenance of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) properties. We present a protocol to enrich and purify lysosomes from patient-derived GSCs in culture. We describe the steps required to stably express a tagged lysosomal protein in GSCs, mechanically lyse cells, magnetically immunopurify lysosomes, and qualitatively assess these organelles. We then detail the procedure for retrieving intact and purified lysosomes from GSCs. We also specify cell culture conditions, storage procedures, and sample preparation for immunoblotting. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Maghe et al.1.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Cell Biology; Cell culture; Cell separation/fractionation; Molecular/Chemical Probes; Protein Biochemistry; Stem Cells
  4. J Cell Biochem. 2024 Jun 11. e30610
      17β-estradiol is a hormone that plays a vital role in human physiology. It acts through estrogen receptors, specifically estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β, and its action is determined by the pulsatile secretion in the bloodstream. 17β-estradiol affects cell proliferation, and dysregulation of 17β-estradiol:estrogen receptor α signaling contribute to the development of breast cancer. Previous research on 17β-estradiol:estrogen receptor α signaling has primarily used two-dimensional cell cultures, which do not fully recapitulate the complexity of tumors that exist in a three-dimensional environment and do not consider the pulsatile nature of this hormone. To address these limitations, we studied 17β-estradiol:estrogen receptor α signaling in cell proliferation using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional breast cancer cell culture models under continuous and pulsatile stimulation conditions. Results revealed that breast cancer cells grown in an alginate-based three-dimensional matrix exhibited similar responsiveness to 17β-estradiol compared with cells grown in conventional two-dimensional culture plates. 17β-estradiol induced the expression of proteins containing estrogen response element in the three-dimensional model. The efficacy of the antiestrogen drugs fulvestrant (ICI182,280) and 4OH-tamoxifen was also demonstrated in the three-dimensional model. These results support the use of the three-dimensional culture model for studying tumor response to drugs and provide a more realistic microenvironment for such studies. Furthermore, the study revealed that a brief 5-min exposure to 17β-estradiol triggered a physiological response comparable with continuous hormone exposure, suggesting that the cellular response to 17β-estradiol is more important than the continuous presence of the hormone. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that the alginate-based three-dimensional culture model is suitable for studying the effects of 17β-estradiol and antiestrogen drugs on breast cancer cells, offering a more realistic representation of tumor-microenvironment interactions. The results also highlight the importance of considering the physiological importance of the temporal dynamics in studying 17β-estradiol signaling and cellular responses.
    Keywords:  17β‐estradiol; alginate spheres; breast cancer; estrogen receptor; three‐dimensional cell cultures
  5. Cell Death Dis. 2024 Jun 11. 15(6): 409
      Low glucose is a common microenvironment for rapidly growing solid tumors, which has developed multiple approaches to survive under glucose deprivation. However, the specific regulatory mechanism remains largely elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that glucose deprivation, while not amino acid or serum starvation, transactivates the expression of DCAF1. This enhances the K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of Rheb, inhibits mTORC1 activity, induces autophagy, and facilitates cancer cell survival under glucose deprivation conditions. This study identified DCAF1 as a new cellular glucose sensor and uncovered new insights into mechanism of DCAF1-mediated inactivation of Rheb-mTORC1 pathway for promoting cancer cell survival in response to glucose deprivation.
  6. Phytomedicine. 2024 May 28. pii: S0944-7113(24)00444-6. [Epub ahead of print]131 155786
      BACKGROUND: Although AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been extensively studied in cellular processes, the understanding of its substrates, downstream functions, contributions to cell fate and colorectal cancer (CRC) progression remains incomplete.PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of naringenin on CRC.
    METHODS: The biological and cellular properties of naringenin and its anticancer activity were evaluated in CRC. In addition, the effect of combined treatment with naringenin and 5-fluorouracil on tumor growth in vitro and in vivo was evaluated.
    RESULTS: The present study found that naringenin inhibits the proliferation of CRC and promote its apoptosis. Compared with the naringenin group, naringenin combined with 5-fluorouracil had significant effect on inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting its apoptosis. It is showed that naringenin activates AMPK phosphorylation and mitochondrial fusion in CRC. Naringenin combined with 5-fluorouracil significantly reduces cardiotoxicity and liver damage induced by 5-fluorouracil in nude mice bearing subcutaneous CRC tumors, and attenuates colorectal injuries in azoxymethane/DSS dextran sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced CRC. The combination of these two drugs alters mitochondrial function by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), thereby stimulating AMPK/mTOR signaling. Mitochondrial dynamics are thereby regulated by activating the AMPK/p-AMPK pathway, and mitochondrial homeostasis is coordinated through increased mitochondrial fusion and reduced fission to activate apoptosis in cancer cells.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that naringenin is important for inhibiting CRC proliferation, possibly through the AMPK pathway, to regulate mitochondrial function and induce apoptosis in CRC.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Apoptosis; Colorectal cancer; Mitochondria; Mouse model; Naringenin