bims-lycede Biomed News
on Lysosome-dependent cell death
Issue of 2024‒05‒26
six papers selected by
Sofía Peralta, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo

  1. Biophys Rep. 2024 Apr 30. 10(2): 111-120
      Lysosomes are the degradation centers and signaling hubs in the cell. Lysosomes undergo adaptation to maintain cell homeostasis in response to a wide variety of cues. Dysfunction of lysosomes leads to aging and severe diseases including lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. To understand the complexity of lysosome biology, many research approaches and tools have been developed to investigate lysosomal functions and regulatory mechanisms in diverse experimental systems. This review summarizes the current approaches and tools adopted for studying lysosomes, and aims to provide a methodological overview of lysosomal research and related fields.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; Cultured cell; Lysosome; Method; Mice
  2. Autophagy. 2024 May 18. 1-17
      Bleomycin exhibits effective chemotherapeutic activity against multiple types of tumors, and also induces various side effects, such as pulmonary fibrosis and neuronal defects, which limit the clinical application of this drug. Macroautophagy/autophagy has been recently reported to be involved in the functions of bleomycin, and yet the mechanisms of their crosstalk remain insufficiently understood. Here, we demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during bleomycin activation hampered autophagy flux by inducing lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and obstructing lysosomal degradation. Exhaustion of ROS with N-acetylcysteine relieved LMP and autophagy defects. Notably, we observed that LMP and autophagy blockage preceded the emergence of cellular senescence during bleomycin treatment. In addition, promoting or inhibiting autophagy-lysosome degradation alleviated or exacerbated the phenotypes of senescence, respectively. This suggests the alternation of autophagy activity is more a regulatory mechanism than a consequence of bleomycin-induced cellular senescence. Taken together, we reveal a specific role of bleomycin-induced ROS in mediating defects of autophagic degradation and further regulating cellular senescence in vitro and in vivo. Our findings, conversely, indicate the autophagy-lysosome degradation pathway as a target for modulating the functions of bleomycin. These provide a new perspective for optimizing bleomycin as a clinically applicable chemotherapeutics devoid of severe side-effects.Abbreviations: AT2 cells: type II alveolar epithelial cells; ATG7: autophagy related 7; bEnd.3: mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells; BNIP3L: BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3-like; CCL2: C-C motif chemokine ligand 2; CDKN1A: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; CDKN2A: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A; FTH1: ferritin heavy polypeptide 1; γ-H2AX: phosphorylated H2A.X variant histone; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HUVEC: human umbilical vein endothelial cells; HT22: hippocampal neuronal cell lines; Il: interleukin; LAMP: lysosomal-associated membrane protein; LMP: lysosome membrane permeabilization; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; NAC: N-acetylcysteine; NCOA4: nuclear receptor coactivator 4; PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RPS6KB/S6K: ribosomal protein S6 kinase; SA-GLB1/β-gal: senescence-associated galactosidase, beta 1; SAHF: senescence-associated heterochromatic foci; SASP: senescence-associated secretory phenotype; SEC62: SEC62 homolog, preprotein translocation; SEP: superecliptic pHluorin; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TFEB: transcription factor EB.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; ROS; bleomycin; cellular senescence; lysosomal membrane permeabilization
  3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 May 28. 121(22): e2318412121
      Lysosomes are central players in cellular catabolism, signaling, and metabolic regulation. Cellular and environmental stresses that damage lysosomal membranes can compromise their function and release toxic content into the cytoplasm. Here, we examine how cells respond to osmotic stress within lysosomes. Using sensitive assays of lysosomal leakage and rupture, we examine acute effects of the osmotic disruptant glycyl-L-phenylalanine 2-naphthylamide (GPN). Our findings reveal that low concentrations of GPN rupture a small fraction of lysosomes, but surprisingly trigger Ca2+ release from nearly all. Chelating cytoplasmic Ca2+ makes lysosomes more sensitive to GPN-induced rupture, suggesting a role for Ca2+ in lysosomal membrane resilience. GPN-elicited Ca2+ release causes the Ca2+-sensor Apoptosis Linked Gene-2 (ALG-2), along with Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) proteins it interacts with, to redistribute onto lysosomes. Functionally, ALG-2, but not its ESCRT binding-disabled ΔGF122 splice variant, increases lysosomal resilience to osmotic stress. Importantly, elevating juxta-lysosomal Ca2+ without membrane damage by activating TRPML1 also recruits ALG-2 and ESCRTs, protecting lysosomes from subsequent osmotic rupture. These findings reveal that Ca2+, through ALG-2, helps bring ESCRTs to lysosomes to enhance their resilience and maintain organelle integrity in the face of osmotic stress.
    Keywords:  ALG-2; ESCRTs; lysosome; membrane resilience; osmotic stress
  4. Neural Regen Res. 2025 Jan 01. 20(1): 139-158
      Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease with movement disorders associated with the intracytoplasmic deposition of aggregate proteins such as α-synuclein in neurons. As one of the major intracellular degradation pathways, the autophagy-lysosome pathway plays an important role in eliminating these proteins. Accumulating evidence has shown that upregulation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway may contribute to the clearance of α-synuclein aggregates and protect against degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Moreover, multiple genes associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease are intimately linked to alterations in the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Thus, this pathway appears to be a promising therapeutic target for treatment of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we briefly introduce the machinery of autophagy. Then, we provide a description of the effects of Parkinson's disease-related genes on the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Finally, we highlight the potential chemical and genetic therapeutic strategies targeting the autophagy-lysosome pathway and their applications in Parkinson's disease.
  5. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2024 May 22. 81(1): 227
      Proteins delivered by endocytosis or autophagy to lysosomes are degraded by exo- and endoproteases. In humans 15 lysosomal cathepsins (CTS) act as important physiological regulators. The cysteine proteases CTSB and CTSL and the aspartic protease CTSD are the most abundant and functional important lysosomal proteinases. Whereas their general functions in proteolysis in the lysosome, their individual substrate, cleavage specificity, and their possible sequential action on substrate proteins have been previously studied, their functional redundancy is still poorly understood. To address a possible common role of highly expressed and functional important CTS proteases, we generated CTSB-, CTSD-, CTSL-, and CTSBDL-triple deficient (KO) human neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells and CTSB-, CTSD-, CTSL-, CTSZ and CTSBDLZ-quadruple deficient (KO) HeLa cells. These cells with a combined cathepsin deficiency exhibited enlarged lysosomes and accumulated lipofuscin-like storage material. The lack of the three (SH-SY5Y) or four (HeLa) major CTSs caused an impaired autophagic flux and reduced degradation of endocytosed albumin. Proteome analyses of parental and CTS-depleted cells revealed an enrichment of cleaved peptides, lysosome/autophagy-associated proteins, and potentially endocytosed membrane proteins like the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which can be subject to endocytic degradation. Amino- and carboxyterminal APP fragments accumulated in the multiple CTS-deficient cells, suggesting that multiple CTS-mediated cleavage events regularly process APP. In summary, our analyses support the idea that different lysosomal cathepsins act in concert, have at least partially and functionally redundant substrates, regulate protein degradation in autophagy, and control cellular proteostasis, as exemplified by their involvement in the degradation of APP fragments.
    Keywords:  Amyloid precursor protein; Autophagy; Bulk proteolysis; Cathepsins; Lysosome; Protease network; Proteolysis; Proteomics
  6. Breast Cancer. 2024 May 23.
      BACKGROUND: Resveratrol, a natural compound, may be an alternative to improving conventional breast cancer therapy. Thus, we assessed the capability of resveratrol at a low dose to enhance the in vitro effect of conventional theray in estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer cells.METHODS: Cell viability of breast cancer cells was measured with neutral red uptake assay. Apoptosis, autophagy, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation were detected through hypotonic fluorescent solution assay, formation of acidic vesicular organelles, flow cytometry, and bromodeoxyuridine assay, respectively. Western blotting was performed to study the expression of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and autophagic proteins, and estrogen receptors.
    RESULTS: Resveratrol combined with tamoxifen metabolites or trastuzumab reduced cell viability of ER- and HER2-positive breast cancer cells, respectively. This effect was mainly associated with induction of apoptosis due to a greater formation of hypodiploid nuclei, reduced protein expression of procaspase-7, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and PARP; and increased expression of cleaved PARP. Resveratrol decreased the expression of ERα and increased that of ERβ, contributing to the reduced viability on breast cancer cells. Combined treatments induced autophagy, evidenced by increased levels of acidic vesicular organelles and degradation of p62/SQSTM1 protein. Nevertheless, on inhibiting autophagy with 3-methyladenine, cell viability was further reduced and apoptosis was induced, suggesting a pro-survival role of autophagy, impairing apoptosis.
    CONCLUSIONS: Resveratrol increasead the in vitro cytotoxic effect of conventional therapy in breast cancer cells. However, it was necessary to block resveratrol-induced autophagy to improve the therapeutic response.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Breast Cancer; Resveratrol; Tamoxifen; Trastuzumab