bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2023‒09‒24
twenty-one papers selected by
Thomas Krichel, Open Library Society

  1. J Educ Health Promot. 2023 ;12 244
      Nowadays, professions with stronger theoretical background usually have a better standing among other academic fields. The field of Medical Library and Information Science (MLIS) also requires developments in theoretical issues to increase its ranking and provide more effective support services and higher quality research. The aim of this study was to conduct a scoping review of publications in MLIS in Scopus and Web of Sciences databases to identify the underlying theoretical issues in this field. The research method was a scoping review conducted in February 2022. Articles published in the field of MLIS for which the main theme or research outcomes were based on theoretical foundations, patterns, frameworks, theories and models, and without limitation on time were retrieved from Web of Science and Scopus databases. The retrieved articles were analyzed after necessary screening and evaluation. Based on the determined criteria, 49 articles were eventually analyzed. Patterns, theories, frameworks, and models used in the articles have been categorized into six general groups: (1) information (general) and information literacy; (2) models of evaluation and support services in libraries and information centers; (3) clinical, embedded librarianship, and professional librarianship; (4) scientometrics, selection and evaluation of articles, journals, and serials; (5) open access content; and (6) psychological and sociological models. The results indicate that published articles in the field of MLIS have used a considerable range of models, theories, and frameworks as the most important elements of theoretical concepts. These models, theories, and frameworks have been categorized into six main groups, a number of which have been involving collection development, organization of material, and most have been overseeing the distribution of information and support services in libraries and information centers. Whereas MLIS is an interdisciplinary field with specific applications for access to and distribution of information, it still has considerable potential for presenting models, frameworks, and theories.
    Keywords:  Conceptual framework; medical library and information science (MLIS); models; patterns; theories
  2. Syst Rev. 2023 Sep 23. 12(1): 172
      We demonstrate the performance and workload impact of incorporating a natural language model, pretrained on citations of biomedical literature, on a workflow of abstract screening for studies on prognostic factors in end-stage lung disease. The model was optimized on one-third of the abstracts, and model performance on the remaining abstracts was reported. Performance of the model, in terms of sensitivity, precision, F1 and inter-rater agreement, was moderate in comparison with other published models. However, incorporating it into the screening workflow, with the second reviewer screening only abstracts with conflicting decisions, translated into a 65% reduction in the number of abstracts screened by the second reviewer. Subsequent work will look at incorporating the pre-trained BERT model into screening workflows for other studies prospectively, as well as improving model performance.
    Keywords:  Abstract; Classification; Semi-automation
  3. Chiropr Man Therap. 2023 Sep 20. 31(1): 38
      Systematic reviews (SRs) provide a solution to handle information overload for busy clinicians by summarising and synthesizing studies on a specific issue. However, because SRs are complicated and often boring to read, the busy or reluctant reader may make do with the abstract. When, as it has been shown, many authors overstate efficacy or understate harm in their abstracts, not consulting the underlying article could be misleading. This means that the prudent reader must have the ability to identify the 'tender points' of SRs to avoid falling for 'spin'. To this end we briefly review the method of SRs and ways to relatively quickly determine trustworthiness.
    Keywords:  Evaluation studies; Evidence-based medicine; Health personnel; Information literacy; Systematic review
  4. Dermatology. 2023 Sep 18.
      Patients with alopecia areata (AA) may access a wide range of sources for information about AA, including the recently developed ChatGPT. Assessing the quality of health information provided by these sources is crucial, as patients are utilizing them in increasing numbers. This study aimed to evaluate appropriateness and accuracy of responses to common patient questions about AA generated by ChatGPT. Responses generated by ChatGPT 3.5 and ChatGPT 4.0 to 25 questions addressing common patient concerns were assessed by multiple attending dermatologists in an academic center for appropriateness and accuracy. Appropriateness of responses by both models for use in two hypothetical contexts: 1) for patient-facing general information websites, and 2) for electronic health record (EHR) message drafts were measured. This study found the accuracy across all responses was 4.41 out of 5. Accuracy scores of responses ChatGPT 3.5 responses had a mean of 4.29, whereas those generated by ChatGPT 4.0 had mean accuracy score of 4.53. Assessments ranged from 100% of responses rated as appropriate for the general question category to 79% questions about management for an EHR message draft. Raters largely preferred responses generated by ChatGPT 4.0 vs. ChatGPT 3.5. Reviewer agreement was found to be moderate across all questions, with a 53.7% agreement and Fleiss' κ co-efficient of 0.522 (p-value < 0.001). The large language model ChatGPT outputted mostly appropriate information for common patient concerns. While not all responses were accurate, the trend toward improvement with newer iterations suggests potential future utility for patients and dermatologists.
  5. JAAD Int. 2023 Dec;13 83-90
      Background: Patients facing a cutaneous lymphoma diagnosis frequently turn to the internet for information but finding patient-accessible education may be a challenge.Objective: To investigate accessibility and readability of patient-oriented online education on cutaneous lymphomas, including cutaneous T-cell and B-cell lymphoma subtypes.
    Methods: This study queried a search engine for 11 cutaneous lymphoma terms, resulting in 1083 webpages. Webpages were screened using defined inclusion/exclusion criteria; literature directed to physicians and scientists was excluded. Webpages were stratified by academic/nonacademic and dermatology/nondermatology hosts and assessed by order of appearance. Readability, including text complexity, was analyzed for grade level understanding using 5 established calculators. Overall readability was assessed by Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease.
    Results: Academic webpages had earlier order of appearance. There was a dearth in dermatology-hosted webpages. Rarer cutaneous lymphomas yielded fewer patient-accessible results. Search term readability significantly exceeded the American Medical Association-recommended sixth grade level (P < .001∗), with higher grade levels for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma subtype webpages than cutaneous B-cell lymphoma subtypes.
    Limitations: Webpage quality, accuracy, and language were not assessed.
    Conclusion: Current online education for cutaneous lymphomas exceeds the American Medical Association's maximum readability recommendation. There is a need for more patient-accessible education amidst predominance of scientific literature, greater dermatology host websites, and enhanced readability of existing online education.
    Keywords:  accessibility; cutaneous B-cell lymphoma; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; cutaneous lymphoma; digital health; patient education; readability
  6. JSES Int. 2023 Sep;7(5): 877-880
      Hypothesis: Lateral epicondylitis (LE), also known as "tennis elbow," is a common orthopedic tendinosis of the elbow that affects between 1% and 3% of the overall population. LE occurs due to overuse of the extensor mechanism or muscles of supination in the forearm. The National Institute of Health and the Center for Disease Control suggest that patient education materials (PEMs) be written at a 6th or 8th grade reading level, respectively; however, PEMs are often written far beyond these recommended reading levels. The goal of this study was to assess the readability level of PEMs published by some of the top orthopedic institutions throughout the United States.Methods: A list of the top 25 ranking orthopedic hospitals in the country was compiled using the 2022 U.S. News and World Report Best Hospitals Specialty Ranking. PEMs related to LE were cataloged from each institution's website, and readability levels for each PEM were measured using the website. This software analyzes readability using the formulas listed in Table 1. While the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) Reading Ease Score formula outputs a number from 0 to 100, in which larger numbers indicate easier reading, the remaining formulas demonstrate a text's readability through assigning a grade-appropriate reading level. A Spearman regression was used to evaluate correlation between institutional ranking and FK Reading Ease Scores.
    Results: Of the 25 PEM texts analyzed during this study, none were written at or below the sixth grade reading level, as recommended by the National Institutes of Health. These results suggest that the most prestigious orthopedic hospitals provide online informational resources that are unable to be read or understood by a large portion of the institution's intended audience. Additionally, there was no correlation found between institutional ranking and FK Reading Ease Score.
    Conclusion: Internet-based health information has conveniently allowed patients to educate themselves on their health care. In accordance with National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, orthopedic institutions should strive to publish PEMs at or below an eighth grade reading level.
    Keywords:  Health literacy; Lateral epicondylitis; Online resources; Orthopedic surgery; Patient education materials; Readability; Tennis elbow
  7. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2023 Sep 19. 1-16
      BACKGROUND: Stroke education materials are crucial for the recovery of stroke patients, but their effectiveness depends on their readability. The American Medical Association (AMA) recommends patient education materials be written at a sixth-grade level. Studies show existing paper and online materials exceed patients' reading levels and undermine their health literacy. Low health literacy among stroke patients is associated with worse health outcomes and decreased efficacy of stroke rehabilitation.OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the readability of paper (i.e brochures, factsheets, posters) and online (i.e American Stroke Association, Google, Yahoo!) stroke patient education materials, reading level of stroke patients, accessibility of online health information, patients' perceptions on gaps in stroke information, and provided recommendations for improving readability.
    METHOD: A PRISMA-guided systematic literature review was conducted using PUBMED, Google Scholar, and EbscoHost databases and "stroke", "readability of stroke patient education", and "stroke readability" search terms to discover English-language articles. A total of 12 articles were reviewed.
    RESULTS: SMOG scores for paper and online material ranged from 11.0 - 12.0 grade level and 7.8 - 13.95 grade level respectively. Reading level of stroke patients ranged from 3rd grade to 9th grade level or above. Accessibility of online stroke information was high. Structured patient interviews illustrated gaps in patient education materials and difficulty with comprehension.
    CONCLUSION: Paper and online patient education materials exceed the reading level of stroke patients and the AMA recommended 6th grade level. Due to limitations in readability, stroke patients are not being adequately educated about their condition.
    Keywords:  Readability; online health information; patient education material; quality; stroke
  8. Cureus. 2023 Aug;15(8): e43704
      Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) encompasses a group of heterogeneous, chronic, and non-communicable diseases characterized by an increase in blood glucose levels. As it has become easily accessible for patients to know about their symptoms and treatment of diseases, it is of utmost importance that reliable information is conveyed on the internet. If not managed appropriately, it may result in the dissemination of false information, leading to risky practices and incorrect treatment, further resulting in detrimental consequences. Aim To assess the quality and reliability of information related to DM on YouTube. Methodology A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in April 2023, wherein top YouTube videos related to 'diabetes' were analyzed for baseline characteristics, type of uploader, as well as quality and reliability using Global Quality Score (GQS) and Reliability Score (DISCEN), respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results A total of 87 videos were evaluated in the study. Unfortunately, only 21% of those were uploaded by doctors. The median Video Power Index (VPI) for videos uploaded by other sources was the highest (184.7), and the lowest was for videos uploaded by hospitals (12.6), and this was statistically significant (p = 0.038). The median GQS was highest for videos uploaded by doctors (4) and lowest for videos uploaded by others (3.5). The reliability score was higher in videos uploaded by healthcare organizations (4), which was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions Videos uploaded by physicians and healthcare organizations contained reliable information with a high global quality score. Videos uploaded by sources other than doctors and healthcare professionals should consult physicians, as self-diagnosis or self-treatment can lead to potential harm to patients.
    Keywords:  diabetes mellitus; digital health; global quality score; healthcare information; reliability score; youtube videos
  9. Int J Dent Hyg. 2023 Sep 18.
      OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of mechanical tooth cleaning, which plays a crucial role in biofilm control, depends on the type of brush and technique. Parents can refer to websites such as YouTube™ for guidance on the selection and use of electric toothbrushes. The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness, quality and accuracy of the information on YouTube™ videos about electric toothbrushes for children.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search was performed on YouTube™ for English language videos using the terms 'electric toothbrush for kids' and 'kids' electric toothbrush'. From the first 100 results, 64 videos were selected for further analysis. The videos were analysed for views, likes/dislikes, number of comments, upload source, duration and time since video upload. The usefulness and the quality of the selected videos were also measured.
    RESULTS: The majority of the videos mentioned toothbrush design (71.9%, n = 46) and toothbrush heads (62.5%, n = 40). The videos were generally determined to be moderately useful (46.9%), whereas very useful videos were found less frequently (12.5%). Slightly useful videos were mostly uploaded by laypeople. Very useful videos had significantly higher video durations than moderately and slightly useful videos (p = 0.029 and p = 0.002, respectively).
    CONCLUSIONS: YouTube™ can be an important source of information for parents to learn about electric toothbrushes for their children. However, watching videos based on upload source and length of time may provide more accurate information on this topic. Also, dental healthcare professionals could be included more often to improve the usefulness and quality of the videos.
    Keywords:  YouTube; electric toothbrush; social media; video analysis
  10. Pediatr Int. 2023 Jan-Dec;65(1):65(1): e15624
      BACKGROUND: YouTube is increasingly used by patients and parents as a source of information in the field of health. The aim of the study was to measure the quality and reliability levels of the videos published in English on infantile colic (IC) uploaded on YouTube.METHODS: A YouTube search was achieved by two authors using the key words "infantile colic," "baby", "colic", "children" and "treatment". Along with the general features of the videos, their quality and reliability were evaluated according to the global quality score (GQS), modified DISCERN (mDISCERN) score.
    RESULTS: Among the 55 videos included in the study, 25 (55.6%) were high quality, 19 (42.2%) medium quality and 11 (2.2%) low quality. The mDISCERN and GQS scores of the videos in the useful group were higher than those in the misleading group (p < 0.001). Videos uploaded by academic institutes and physicians had higher mDISCERN and GQS scores than other groups (p = 0.045, p = 0.005) and positive correlation detected between mDISCERN and GQS scores (p < 0.001).
    CONCLUSION: IC videos broadcasted on YouTube, whose usage rates are increasing with the COVID-19 pandemic, are a useful data source for patients/parents. Digital video resources provided by academic institutions, universities and healthcare professionals can assist physicians and parents in IC pathophysiology and treatment.
    Keywords:  YouTube; baby; children; colic; infantile colic
  11. J Pediatr Surg. 2023 Aug 25. pii: S0022-3468(23)00508-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the quality and reliability of YouTube videos about bowel management in children.METHODS: On April 6th, 2023, the search results for "bowel management in children" on YouTube were rated independently by two authors. JAMA Benchmark Criteria (score 0-4) and a modified DISCERN tool (score 16-80) used for quality and reliability assessment. Data was analyzed by Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
    RESULTS: Out of 48 videos included, 15 (31.2%) videos were intended for professionals and 33 (68.8%) for the public. The mean number of views was 144.806 and duration was 22 ± 28.4 min. The respective mean duration of videos for professionals 57.7 ± 21.4 min and median number of views was 404.5 (17-8.840) and those for public was 5.7 ± 10.7 min and 8400 (8-5.175.975) (both, p < 0.005). The respective mean DISCERN and JAMA scores of the videos for the public was 45.30 ± 13.18 and 2.93 ± 1.07, and for professionals 75.73 ± 6.52 and 3.8 ± 1.06 (both, p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Although the reliability of the videos uploaded for the professionals about pediatric bowel management was higher than for public, duration of the videos was longer and the viewing rates were lower. Shorter but comprehensive and easy-to-understand guidance videos for the public may be of help.
    TYPE OF STUDY: Descriptive study.
    Keywords:  Bowel management; Children; Education; Video; YouTube
  12. JMIR Cancer. 2023 Sep 19.
      BACKGROUND: Young women with metastatic breast cancer (YWMBC) are part of a digitally connected generation yet are underserved in terms of information needs. YouTube is widely used to find and identify health information. The accessibility of health-related content on social media, paired with the rare and marginalized experience of YWMBC, as well as the digital media practices of younger generations, implies a considerable likelihood that YWMBC will seek information and community online.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the content quality of MBC YouTube videos and to identify themes in YWMBC experiences based on YouTube videos.
    METHODS: A systematic assessment of MBC YouTube videos with search terms "metastatic breast cancer young" was conducted in 08/2021. The search was performed in an incognito browser and with no associated YouTube or Google account. Search results were placed in order from most to least number of views. Title, date uploaded, length, poster identity, number of likes and comments were collected. Understandability, actionability were assessed using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT); information reliability/quality was assessed with DISCERN. Themes, sponsorships, healthcare professionals' and patients' narratives were reported.
    RESULTS: A total of 101 videos were identified. Of these, 78.2% (79/101) included sponsorships. Mean PEMAT score was 78.8% (SD 15.3) and 43.1% (SD 45.2) for understandability and actionability, respectively. Mean DISCERN score was 2.44/5 (SD 0.7). Identified themes include treatment (66.3%; 67/101), family relationship (45.5%; 46/101), motherhood (37.6%; 38/101).
    CONCLUSIONS: YouTube videos about YWMBC are highly understandable but demonstrate moderate rates of actionability, with low reliability and quality scores. Many have a commercial bias. While online materials have limitations, their potential to provide patient support is not fully developed. By acknowledging their patients' media habits, healthcare professionals can 1) further develop a trusting bond with their patients, 2) provide a space for open and honest discussions of online materials, and 3) avoid any potential instances of confusion caused by misleading, inaccurate, or false online materials.
  13. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2023 Sep 07. pii: S0303-8467(23)00381-5. [Epub ahead of print]233 107965
      OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the shortcomings and quality content of YouTube videos and its effectiveness as a source of patient information on pudendal neuralgia treatment.METHODS: A search was conducted on YouTube using the words "pudendal neuralgia physical therapy," "medications for pudendal neuralgia," "pudendal nerve block," "pudendal neuralgia surgery," and "alternative treatments for pudendal neuralgia." The results were analyzed based on the source, general descriptive statistics, the intended audience, and five content areas. The DISCERN scoring system was used to evaluate the quality of videos.
    RESULTS: After the search, 73 videos met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. The majority of these videos (61.64%) were intended to target the general population, whereas a smaller percentage were identified as professional (41.10%) or targeted for physicians (35.62%). From the videos included, 10 (13.70%) described treatment options in a balanced and evidence-based manner. The higher DISCERN score positively correlated with the presence of this last content criterion. With a total DISCERN mean score of 35.42, a significant proportion of the videos (41.10%) were rated very poor. The remaining videos were classified as poor (23.29%), fair (19.18%), good (8.22%), and excellent (8.22%).
    CONCLUSION: The quality of the information included in YouTube videos regarding pudendal neuralgia treatment was considered generally poor. Healthcare providers must recognize the potential influence of this platform on patients' understanding of pudendal neuralgia treatment. There is a need for additional research and randomized studies regarding YouTube content about this condition.
    Keywords:  DISCERN; Patient education; Pudendal neuralgia; Treatment; YouTube
  14. J Surg Res. 2023 Sep 19. pii: S0022-4804(23)00388-8. [Epub ahead of print]293 95-101
      INTRODUCTION: In 2021, the National Academy of Medicine began collaborating with YouTube to highlight high-quality channels for patients seeking medical information. This study evaluates whether YouTube videos from accredited publishers are useful for patients searching for information regarding liver transplantation.METHODS: After searching "Liver Transplant" on YouTube, the first 100 results under 10 min long with English text or audio were transcribed. The Flesch-Kincaid grade level was used to quantify reading grade level. Viewership metrics and the accreditation status of the video publisher were identified. The DISCERN score was used to grade the quality of medical information. We adapted an informed consent curriculum for surgical interns to create an eight-point content metric that we coined the "Anderson-Lau score". Higher scores indicated higher content quality. Statistical significance was calculated using Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-squared tests with a significance level of P = 0.05.
    RESULTS: Of the 100 videos assessed, 37 met the average American reading level (8th grade) and none met the reading level of the average Medicare patient (5th grade). The median Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 9th grade. The median content ("Anderson-Lau") and quality (DISCERN) scores were 2/8 and 1/5, respectively. While 56% of videos mentioned operative indications and benefits, under 25% mentioned operative steps, risks, alternatives, and postoperative expectations. A total of 75 videos were from accredited publishers, and there was no significant difference between the quality of videos from accredited and unaccredited publishers.
    CONCLUSIONS: Videos made by accredited sources regarding liver transplantation were not of higher educational quality or content. More informative educational materials are needed to advise patients about liver transplantation, help them understand the procedure, and to supplement discussions with their transplant team.
    Keywords:  Liver transplantation; National Academy of Medicine; Patient education; YouTube
  15. BMC Public Health. 2023 09 20. 23(1): 1831
      BACKGROUND: Given a prolonged course of Cervical spondylosis (CS) could cause irreversible neurological deficits, it is crucial to disseminate CS-related health information to the public to promote early diagnosis and treatment. YouTube has been widely used to search for medical information. However, the reliability and quality of videos on YouTube vary greatly. Thus, this study aimed to assess the reliability and educational quality of YouTube videos concerning CS and further explore strategies for optimization of patient education.METHODS: We searched YouTube online library for the keywords "cervical spondylosis", "cervical radiculopathy" and "cervical myelopathy" on January 15, 2023. Ranked by "relevance", the first 50 videos of each string were recorded. After exclusions, a total of 108 videos were included. All videos were extracted for characteristics and classified based on different sources or contents. Two raters independently evaluated the videos using Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria, Modified DISCERN (mDISCERN) tool, Global Quality Scale (GQS) and Cervical-Spondylosis-Specific Scale (CSSS), followed by statistical analyses. All continuous data were described as median (interquartile range).
    RESULTS: All videos had median values for JAMA, mDISCERN, GQS and CSSS scores of were 3.00 (1.00), 3.00 (2.00), 2.00 (1.00) and 7.00 (8.88), respectively. There were significant differences in VPI (P = 0.009) and JAMA (P = 0.001), mDISCERN (P < 0.001), GQS (P < 0.001) and CSSS (P < 0.001) scores among different sources. Videos from academic source had advantages in reliability and quality scores than other sources. VPI (P < 0.001), mDISCERN (P = 0.001), GQS (P < 0.001) and CSSS (P = 0.001) scores also significantly differed among videos of various contents. Spearman correlation analysis indicated VPI was not correlated with either reliability or quality. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a longer duration and an academic source were independent predictors of higher reliability and quality, while a clinical source also led to the higher video quality.
    CONCLUSIONS: The reliability and educational quality of current CS-related videos on YouTube are unsatisfactory. Users face a high risk of encountering inaccurate and misleading information when searching for CS on YouTube. Longer duration, source of academic or clinician were closely correlated to higher video reliability and quality. Improving the holistic reliability and quality of online information requires the concerted effort from multiple parties, including uploaders, the platform and viewers.
    Keywords:  Cervical spondylosis; Online videos; Patient education; Quality; Reliability; YouTube
  16. World J Urol. 2023 Sep 20.
      BACKGROUND: With an increasing reliance on online sources for medical information, we studied the quality and completeness of health literacy videos on TikTok regarding BPH.METHODS: A cross-sectional systematic evaluation of TikTok videos using the search term "Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia" was performed on 14th April 2023, and included 49 patient information and educational videos. The videos were then analysed by two reviewers and scored using two instruments: the DISCERN instrument and a completeness analysis.
    RESULTS: Of the 49 videos, 38 were created by healthcare professionals (HCPs). The average length of each video was 62.7 ± 59.3 s, with a large average number of total views (24,990.1 ± 109,534.9 views). The DISCERN score trended higher in every category in videos published by HCPs compared to non-HCPs, with HCPs providing a statistically significant increase in reliability (19.0,14.6, p < 0.05) and total score (29.4,23, p < 0.05). Majority of videos were deemed as poor or worse (91.8%) in quality. The completeness of the videos' content was also evaluated across five categories with an average score of 2.53 ± 2.1 out of the maximum 12. The DISCERN scores did not correlate with the degree of completeness of the videos (r = 0.226).
    CONCLUSION: BPH videos on TikTok have a wide reach, but the videos are mostly of low quality and completeness. Future videos should be made with quality and completeness in mind given the large viewership and more can be done to evaluate the extent of BPH misinformation and its impact on patients.
    Keywords:  #SoMe; BPH; Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia; Social Media; TikTok
  17. BMJ Glob Health. 2023 Sep;pii: e013231. [Epub ahead of print]8(9):
      INTRODUCTION: Heatwave is a major global health concern. Many countries including China suffered a record-breaking heatwave during the summer of 2022, which may have a significant effect on population health or health information-seeking behaviours but is yet to be examined.METHODS: We derived health information-seeking data from the Baidu search engine (similar to Google search engine). The data included city-specific daily search queries (also referred to Baidu Search Index) for heat-sensitive diseases from 2021 to 2022, including heatstroke, hospital visits, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, respiratory diseases, mental health and urological diseases. For each city, the record-breaking heatwave days in 2022 were matched to days in the same calendar month in 2021.
    RESULTS: The 2022 record-breaking heatwave hit most cities (83.64%) in Mainland China. The average heatwave duration was 13 days and the maximum temperature was 3.60°C higher than that in 2021 (p<0.05). We observed increased population behaviours of seeking information on respiratory diseases (RR=1.014, 95% CI: 1.008 to 1.020), urological diseases (RR=1.011, 95% CI: 1.006 to 1.016) and heatstroke (RR=1.026, 95% CI: 1.016 to 1.036) associated with the heatwave intensity in 2022 (per 1°C increase). The heatwave duration in 2022 (per 1 day increase) was also associated with an increase in seeking information on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes (RR=1.003, 95% CI: 1.002 to 1.004), urological diseases (RR=1.005, 95% CI: 1.002 to 1.008), mental health (RR=1.009, 95% CI: 1.006 to 1.012) and heatstroke (RR=1.038, 95% CI: 1.032 to 1.043). However, there were substantial geographical variations in the effect of the 2022 heatwave intensity and duration on health information-seeking behaviours.
    CONCLUSION: This infodemiology study suggests that the 2022 summer unprecedented heatwave in Mainland China has significantly increased population demand for health-related information, especially for heatstroke, urological diseases and mental health. Population-based research of real-time disease data is urgently needed to estimate the negative health impact of the exceptional heatwave in Mainland China and elsewhere.
    Keywords:  epidemiology; geographic information systems; public health
  18. PLoS One. 2023 ;18(9): e0285869
      OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the content of frequently asked questions about the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the internet in Japan and to evaluate the quality of websites related to the questions.METHODS: We searched terms on the treatment of RA on Google and extracted frequently asked questions generated by the Google "people also ask" function. The website that answered each question was also obtained. We categorized the questions based on the content. The quality of the websites was evaluated using the brief DISCERN, Journal of American Medical Association benchmark criteria, and Clear Communication Index.
    RESULTS: Our search yielded 83 questions and the corresponding websites. The most frequently asked questions were regarding the timeline of treatment (n = 17, 23%) and those on the timeline of the clinical course (n = 13, 16%). The median score of brief DISCERN was 11 points, with only 7 (8%) websites having sufficient quality. Websites having sufficient quality based on the Journal of American Medical Association benchmark criteria and Clear Communication Index were absent.
    CONCLUSIONS: The questions were most frequently related to the timeline of treatment and clinical course. Physicians should provide such information to patients with RA in the counseling and education materials.
  19. Community Health Equity Res Policy. 2023 Oct;44(1): 77-87
      Background: Maternal health literacy (MHL) and health information-seeking behavior (HISB) could impact maternal health and pregnancy outcomes.Purpose and Research Design: This cross-sectional study investigated MHL, HISBs, and pregnancy outcomes in Iranian pregnant women. This study was also aimed to determine the predictors of MHL and pregnancy outcomes.Study smple and Data Collection: In this study, 337 randomly selected postpartum women completed three questionnaires, including a demographics form, an obstetrics history checklist, and the Maternal Health Literacy and Pregnancy Outcome Questionnaire (MHLAPQ).Results: The mean MHL and pregnancy outcome scores were 60.80 ± 9.91 and 49.88 ± 5.69, respectively. Of the participants, 56% adopted both formal and informal HISB. Education and internet HISB was associated with the odds of being in the group with higher MHL. Participants with high MHL had more than twice higher odds for better pregnancy outcomes (OR = 2.25, p < 0.004).Conclusions: Continued efforts are required to make health information sources more accessible to pregnant women to improve their health literacy and pregnancy outcomes.
    Keywords:  health literacy; information-seeking behavior; pregnancy outcomes
  20. Health Commun. 2023 Sep 21. 1-15
      Health information-seeking behavior can be understood as an active and purposeful acquisition of information from selected information sources. It supports patients to cope with medical and health-related uncertainties and enables them to engage in informed decision-making. To obtain health information, patients can turn to a variety of sources, such as going to a physician, exchanging information with their family, or using different Internet sources. Research showed that patients typically use multiple sources to meet their health-related information needs. To attain a holistic and differentiated picture of patients' actual health information behavior, the current study draws on the repertoire approach. We conducted an online survey with 1,105 implant patients and performed a cluster analysis to explore their health information repertoires. To gain a deeper understanding of the practical meaning behind the repertoires, we also considered health-related information motives and socio-structural factors, as well as the implant type (dental, orthopedic, cochlear), to characterize the repertoires. The study revealed seven different health information repertoires of implant patients, varying in their combination of multiple sources used. In addition, group comparisons showed that the repertoires differ significantly regarding socio-structural factors, such as gender, age, and education, as well as implant type. Furthermore, information motives contribute significantly to the differentiation of the repertoires. The results are of high theoretical potential for communication science as well as practical use for strategic health communication.