bims-iorami Biomed News
on Ionising Radiation and Mitochondria
Issue of 2024‒03‒17
two papers selected by
Chenxiao Yu, Soochow University

  1. Int J Biol Sci. 2024 ;20(5): 1927-1946
      The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia is critical for neuroinflammation during postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) induced by sevoflurane. However, the molecular mechanism by which sevoflurane activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia remains unclear. The cGAS-STING pathway is an evolutionarily conserved inflammatory defense mechanism. The role of the cGAS-STING pathway in sevoflurane-induced NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent neuroinflammation and the underlying mechanisms require further investigation. We found that prolonged anesthesia with sevoflurane induced cognitive dysfunction and triggered the neuroinflammation characterized by the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Interestingly, the cGAS-STING pathway was activated in the hippocampus of mice receiving sevoflurane. While the blockade of cGAS with RU.521 attenuated cognitive dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mice. In vitro, we found that sevoflurane treatment significantly activated the cGAS-STING pathway in microglia, while RU.521 pre-treatment robustly inhibited sevoflurane-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, sevoflurane-induced mitochondrial fission in microglia and released mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytoplasm, which could be abolished with Mdivi-1. Blocking the mtDNA release via the mPTP-VDAC channel inhibitor attenuated sevoflurane-induced mtDNA cytosolic escape and reduced cGAS-STING pathway activation in microglia, finally inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Therefore, regulating neuroinflammation by targeting the cGAS-STING pathway may provide a novel therapeutic target for POCD.
    Keywords:  NLRP3 inflammasome.; cGAS-STING; mitochondrial fission; neuroinflammation; postoperative cognitive dysfunction
  2. J Radiat Res. 2024 Mar 08. pii: rrae005. [Epub ahead of print]
      Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) are primarily repaired by non-homologous end joining or homologous recombination (HR) in human cells. DSB repair requires adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) for protein kinase activities in the multiple steps of DSB repair, such as DNA ligation, chromatin remodeling, and DNA damage signaling via protein kinase and ATPase activities. To investigate whether low ATP culture conditions affect the recruitment of repair proteins at DSB sites, IR-induced foci were examined in the presence of ATP synthesis inhibitors. We found that p53 binding protein 1 foci formation was modestly reduced under low ATP conditions after IR, although phosphorylated histone H2AX and mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 foci formation were not impaired. Next, we examined the foci formation of breast cancer susceptibility gene I (BRCA1), replication protein A (RPA) and radiation 51 (RAD51), which are HR factors, in G2 phase cells following IR. Interestingly, BRCA1 and RPA foci in the G2 phase were significantly reduced under low ATP conditions compared to that under normal culture conditions. Notably, RAD51 foci were drastically impaired under low ATP conditions. These results suggest that HR does not effectively progress under low ATP conditions; in particular, ATP shortages impair downstream steps in HR, such as RAD51 loading. Taken together, these results suggest that the maintenance of cellular ATP levels is critical for DNA damage response and HR progression after IR.
    Keywords:  ATP shortage; DSB repair; foci formation; homologous recombination; ionizing radiation