bims-iorami Biomed News
on Ionising Radiation and Mitochondria
Issue of 2023‒12‒03
four papers selected by
Chenxiao Yu, Soochow University

  1. Cell Death Dis. 2023 Dec 01. 14(12): 788
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is important in various chronic degenerative disorders, and aberrant immune responses elicited by cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may be related. Here, we developed mtDNA-targeted MTERF1-FokI and TFAM-FokI endonuclease systems to induce mitochondrial DNA double-strand breaks (mtDSBs). In these cells, the mtDNA copy number was significantly reduced upon mtDSB induction. Interestingly, in cGAS knockout cells, synthesis of interferon β1 and interferon-stimulated gene was increased upon mtDSB induction. We found that mtDSBs activated DNA-PKcs and HSPA8 in a VDAC1-dependent manner. Importantly, the mitochondrial E3 ligase MARCH5 bound active DNA-PKcs in cells with mtDSBs and reduced the type І interferon response through the degradation of DNA-PKcs. Likewise, mitochondrial damage caused by LPS treatment in RAW264.7 macrophage cells increased phospho-HSPA8 levels and the synthesis of mIFNB1 mRNA in a DNA-PKcs-dependent manner. Accordingly, in March5 knockout macrophages, phospho-HSPA8 levels and the synthesis of mIFNB1 mRNA were prolonged after LPS stimulation. Together, cytoplasmic mtDNA elicits a cellular immune response through DNA-PKcs, and mitochondrial MARCH5 may be a safeguard to prevent persistent inflammatory reactions.
  2. Exp Mol Med. 2023 Dec 01.
      Mitochondria participate in a wide range of cellular processes. One essential function of mitochondria is to be a platform for antiviral signaling proteins during the innate immune response to viral infection. Recently, studies have revealed that mitochondrion-derived DNAs and RNAs are recognized as non-self molecules and act as immunogenic ligands. More importantly, the cytosolic release of these mitochondrial nucleic acids (mt-NAs) is closely associated with the pathogenesis of human diseases accompanying aberrant immune activation. The release of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) via BAX/BAK activation and/or VDAC1 oligomerization activates the innate immune response and inflammasome assembly. In addition, mitochondrial double-stranded RNAs (mt-dsRNAs) are sensed by pattern recognition receptors in the cytosol to induce type I interferon expression and initiate apoptotic programs. Notably, these cytosolic mt-NAs also mediate adipocyte differentiation and contribute to mitogenesis and mitochondrial thermogenesis. In this review, we summarize recent studies of innate immune signaling pathways regulated by mt-NAs, human diseases associated with mt-NAs, and the emerging physiological roles of mt-NAs.
  3. Immunity. 2023 Nov 15. pii: S1074-7613(23)00458-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Extensive studies demonstrate the importance of the STING1 (also known as STING) protein as a signaling hub that coordinates immune and autophagic responses to ectopic DNA in the cytoplasm. Here, we report a nuclear function of STING1 in driving the activation of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to control gut microbiota composition and homeostasis. This function was independent of DNA sensing and autophagy and showed competitive inhibition with cytoplasmic cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-AMP synthase (CGAS)-STING1 signaling. Structurally, the cyclic dinucleotide binding domain of STING1 interacted with the AHR N-terminal domain. Proteomic analyses revealed that STING1-mediated transcriptional activation of AHR required additional nuclear partners, including positive and negative regulatory proteins. Although AHR ligands could rescue colitis pathology and dysbiosis in wild-type mice, this protection was abrogated by mutational inactivation of STING1. These findings establish a key framework for understanding the nuclear molecular crosstalk between the microbiota and the immune system.
    Keywords:  AHR; STING1; gut microbiota; inflammatory bowel disease; innate immunity
  4. Aging Cell. 2023 Dec 01. e14054
      Skin aging is characterized by changes in its structural, cellular, and molecular components in both the epidermis and dermis. Dermal aging is distinguished by reduced dermal thickness, increased wrinkles, and a sagging appearance. Due to intrinsic or extrinsic factors, accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggers a series of aging events, including imbalanced extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis, accumulation of senescent fibroblasts, loss of cell identity, and chronic inflammation mediated by senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These events are regulated by signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Senescent fibroblasts can induce and accelerate age-related dysfunction of other skin cells and may even cause systemic inflammation. In this review, we summarize the role of dermal fibroblasts in cutaneous aging and inflammation. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms by which dermal fibroblasts influence cutaneous aging and inflammation are also discussed.
    Keywords:  ECM; dermis; fibroblast; inflammation; senescence