bims-instec Biomed News
on Intestinal stem cells and chemoresistance in colon cancer and intestinal regeneration
Issue of 2022‒10‒23
sixteen papers selected by
Maria-Virginia Giolito
Free University of Brussels

  1. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Oct 20. 13(10): 882
      Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) modulates intestinal barrier integrity and intestinal homeostasis as an antioxidant enzyme. Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by the intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, whether and how SOD1 regulates ISCs is unknown. In this study, we established intestinal organoids from tamoxifen-inducible intestinal epithelial cell-specific Sod1 knockout (Sod1f/f; Vil-creERT2) mice. We found that loss of Sod1 in organoids suppressed the proliferation and survival of cells and Lgr5 gene expression. SOD1 is known for nearly half a century for its canonical role as an antioxidant enzyme. We identified its enzyme-independent function in ISC: inhibition of SOD1 enzymatic activity had no impact on organoid growth, and enzymatically inactive Sod1 mutants could completely rescue the growth defects of Sod1 deficient organoids, suggesting that SOD1-mediated ISC growth is independent of its enzymatic activity. Moreover, Sod1 deficiency did not affect the ROS levels of the organoid, but induced the elevated WNT signaling and excessive Paneth cell differentiation, which mediates the occurrence of growth defects in Sod1 deficient organoids. In vivo, epithelial Sod1 loss induced a higher incidence of apoptosis in the stem cell regions and increased Paneth cell numbers, accompanied by enhanced expression of EGFR ligand Epiregulin (EREG) in the stromal tissue, which may compensate for Sod1 loss and maintain intestinal structure in vivo. Totally, our results show a novel enzyme-independent function of SOD1 in ISC growth under homeostasis.
  2. Nat Commun. 2022 Oct 21. 13(1): 6266
      Genetic variants in the DNA methyltransferase 3 A (DNMT3A) locus have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DNMT3A is part of the epigenetic machinery physiologically involved in DNA methylation. We show that DNMT3A plays a critical role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and gut barrier function. DNMT3A expression is downregulated in intestinal epithelial cells from IBD patients and upon tumor necrosis factor treatment in murine intestinal organoids. Ablation of DNMT3A in Caco-2 cells results in global DNA hypomethylation, which is linked to impaired regenerative capacity, transepithelial resistance and intercellular junction formation. Genetic deletion of Dnmt3a in intestinal epithelial cells (Dnmt3aΔIEC) in mice confirms the phenotype of an altered epithelial ultrastructure with shortened apical-junctional complexes, reduced Goblet cell numbers and increased intestinal permeability in the colon in vivo. Dnmt3aΔIEC mice suffer from increased susceptibility to experimental colitis, characterized by reduced epithelial regeneration. These data demonstrate a critical role for DNMT3A in orchestrating intestinal epithelial homeostasis and response to tissue damage and suggest an involvement of impaired epithelial DNMT3A function in the etiology of IBD.
  3. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Oct 20. 13(10): 884
      Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are responsible for intestinal tissue homeostasis and are important for the regeneration of the damaged intestinal epithelia. Through the establishment of ionizing radiation (IR) induced intestinal injury model, we found that a TLR2 agonist, Zymosan-A, promoted the regeneration of ISCs in vivo and in vitro. Zymosan-A improved the survival of abdominal irradiated mice (81.82% of mice in the treated group vs. 30% of mice in the PBS group), inhibited the radiation damage of intestinal tissue, increased the survival rate of intestinal crypts and the number of ISCs after lethal IR in vivo. Through organoid experiments, we found that Zymosan-A promoted the proliferation and differentiation of ISCs after IR. Remarkably, the results of RNA sequencing and Western Blot (WB) showed that Zymosan-A reduced IR-induced intestinal injury via TLR2 signaling pathway and Wnt signaling pathway and Zymosan-A had no radioprotection on TLR2 KO mice, suggesting that Zymosan-A may play a radioprotective role by targeting TLR2. Moreover, our results revealed that Zymosan-A increased ASCL2, a transcription factor of ISCs, playing a core role in the process of Zymosan-A against IR-induced intestinal injury and likely contributing to the survival of intestinal organoids post-radiation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Zymosan-A promotes the regeneration of ISCs by upregulating ASCL2.
  4. Nat Protoc. 2022 Oct 19.
      Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that combines stem cells and matrices to form functional constructs that can be used to repair damaged tissues or regenerate whole organs. Tissue stem cells can be expanded and functionally differentiated to form 'mini-organs' resembling native tissue architecture and function. The choice of the scaffold is also pivotal to successful tissue reconstruction. Scaffolds may be broadly classified into synthetic or biological depending upon the purpose of the engineered organ. Bioengineered intestinal grafts represent a potential source of transplantable tissue for patients with intestinal failure, a condition resulting from extensive anatomical and functional loss of small intestine and therefore digestive and absorptive capacity. Prior strategies in intestinal bioengineering have predominantly used either murine or pluripotent cells and synthetic or decellularized rodent scaffolds, thus limiting their translation. Microscale models of human intestinal epithelium on shaped hydrogels and synthetic scaffolds are more physiological, but their regenerative potential is limited by scale. Here we present a protocol for bioengineering human intestinal grafts using patient-derived materials in a bioreactor culture system. This includes the isolation, expansion and biobanking of patient-derived intestinal organoids and fibroblasts, the generation of decellularized human intestinal scaffolds from native human tissue and providing a system for recellularization to form transplantable grafts. The duration of this protocol is 12 weeks, and it can be completed by scientists with prior experience of organoid culture. The resulting engineered mucosal grafts comprise physiological intestinal epithelium, matrix and surrounding niche, offering a valuable tool for both regenerative medicine and the study of human gastrointestinal diseases.
  5. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 987302
      Colorectal cancer is a common malignant tumor that ranks third in incidence and second in mortality worldwide, and surgery in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy remains the most common treatment option. As a result of radiotherapy's severe side effects and dismal survival rates, it is anticipated that more alternatives may emerge. Immunotherapy, a breakthrough treatment, has made significant strides in colorectal cancer over the past few years, overcoming specialized therapy, which has more selectivity and a higher survival prognosis than chemoradiotherapy. Among these, immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has emerged as the primary immunotherapy for colorectal cancer nowadays. Nonetheless, as the use of immune checkpoint inhibitor has expanded, resistance has arisen inevitably. Immune escape is the primary cause of non-response and resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors. That is the development of primary and secondary drug resistance. In this article, we cover the immune therapy-related colorectal cancer staging, the specific immune checkpoint inhibitors treatment mechanism, and the tumor microenvironment and immune escape routes of immunosuppressive cells that may be associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors resistance reversal. The objective is to provide better therapeutic concepts for clinical results and to increase the number of individuals who can benefit from colorectal cancer immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  ICI; colorectal cancer; immune escape; overcome resistance; resistance
  6. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 999626
      ARID1A is frequently mutated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Loss of ARID1A function compromises DNA damage repair and increases the reliance of tumor cells on ATR-dependent DNA repair pathways. Here, we investigated the effect of ionizing radiation (IR), in combination with ATR inhibitors (ATRi) in CRC cell lines with proficient and deficient ARID1A. The concept of selective vulnerability of ARID1A deficient CRC cells to ATRi was further tested in an ex vivo system by using the ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA) in cells from untreated CRC patients, with and without ARID1A expression. We found selective sensitization upon ATRi treatment as well as after combined treatment with IR (P<0.001), especially in ARID1A deficient CRC cells (P <0.01). Knock-down of ARID1B further increased the selective radiosensitivity effect of ATRi in ARID1A negative cells (P<0.01). Mechanistically, ATRi abrogates the G2 checkpoint (P<0.01) and homologous recombination repair (P<0.01) in ARID1A deficient cells. Most importantly, ex-vivo experiments showed that ATRi had the highest radiosensitizing effect in ARID1A negative cells from CRC patients. Collectively, our results generate pre-clinical and clinical mechanistic rationale for assessing ARID1A defects as a biomarker for ATR inhibitor response as a single agent, or in a synthetic lethal approach in combination with IR.
    Keywords:  ARID1A; ATR; SWI/SNF; colorectal cancer; synthetic lethality
  7. Gut. 2022 Oct 19. pii: gutjnl-2022-327323. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: Psen1 was previously characterised as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Little, if any, is known about its function in the gut. Here, we uncovered an unexpected functional role of Psen1 in gut epithelial cells during intestinal tumourigenesis.DESIGN: Human colorectal cancer (CRC) and control samples were investigated for PSEN1 and proteins of theγ-secretase complex. Tumour formation was analysed in the AOM-DSS and Apc min/+ mouse models using newly generated epithelial-specific Psen1 deficient mice. Psen1 deficient human CRC cells were studied in a xenograft tumour model. Tumour-derived organoids were analysed for growth and RNA-Seq was performed to identify Psen1-regulated pathways. Tumouroids were generated to study EGFR activation and evaluation of the influence of prostanoids.
    RESULTS: PSEN1 is expressed in the intestinal epithelium and its level is increased in human CRC. Psen1-deficient mice developed only small tumours and human cancer cell lines deficient in Psen1 had a reduced tumourigenicity. Tumouroids derived from Psen1-deficient Apc min/+ mice exhibited stunted growth and reduced cell proliferation. On a molecular level, PSEN1 potentiated tumour cell proliferation via enhanced EGFR signalling and COX-2 production. Exogenous administration of PGE2 reversed the slow growth of PSEN1 deficient tumour cells via PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4) receptor signalling.
    CONCLUSIONS: Psen1 drives tumour development by increasing EGFR signalling via NOTCH1 processing, and by activating the COX-2-PGE2 pathway. PSEN1 inhibition could be a useful strategy in treatment of CRC.
    Keywords:  arachidonic and metabolism; colorectal adenomas; colorectal cancer
  8. Nat Commun. 2022 Oct 17. 13(1): 6041
      Tumors exhibit enhancer reprogramming compared to normal tissue. The etiology is largely attributed to cell-intrinsic genomic alterations. Here, using freshly resected primary CRC tumors and patient-matched adjacent normal colon, we find divergent epigenetic landscapes between CRC tumors and cell lines. Intriguingly, this phenomenon extends to highly recurrent aberrant super-enhancers gained in CRC over normal. We find one such super-enhancer activated in epithelial cancer cells due to surrounding inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. We restore this super-enhancer and its expressed gene, PDZK1IP1, following treatment with cytokines or xenotransplantation into nude mice, thus demonstrating cell-extrinsic etiology. We demonstrate mechanistically that PDZK1IP1 enhances the reductive capacity CRC cancer cells via the pentose phosphate pathway. We show this activation enables efficient growth under oxidative conditions, challenging the previous notion that PDZK1IP1 acts as a tumor suppressor in CRC. Collectively, these observations highlight the significance of epigenomic profiling on primary specimens.
  9. Oncotarget. 2022 Oct 19. 13 1140-1152
      Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling, besides other growth factor-mediated signaling pathways like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), seems to play a crucial role in tumor development and progression. We have recently provided evidence for upregulation of PDGF expression in UICC stage I-IV primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and demonstrated PDGF-mediated induction of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in CRC cell lines. The present study sought to follow up on our previous findings and explore the alternative receptor cross-binding potential of PDGF in CRC. Our analysis of primary human colon tumor samples demonstrated upregulation of the PDGFRβ, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 genes in UICC stage I-III tumors. Immunohistological analysis revealed co-expression of PDGF and its putative cross-binding partners, VEGFR2 and EGFR. We then analyzed several CRC cell lines for PDGFRα, PDGFRβ, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 protein expression and found these receptors to be variably expressed amongst the investigated cell lines. Interestingly, whereas Caco-2 and SW480 cells showed expression of all analyzed receptors, HT29 cells expressed only VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. However, stimulation of HT29 cells with PDGF resulted in upregulation of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression despite the absence of PDGFR expression and mimicked the effect of VEGF stimulation. Moreover, PDGF recovered HT29 cell proliferation under simultaneous treatment with a VEGFR or EGFR inhibitor. Our results provide some of the first evidence for PDGF cross-signaling through alternative receptors in colorectal cancer and support anti-PDGF therapy as a combination strategy alongside VEGF and EGF targeting even in tumors lacking PDGFR expression.
    Keywords:  EGFR; PDGF; VEGFR; bypassed signaling; colorectal cancer
  10. Elife. 2022 Oct 21. pii: e72836. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Mechanisms communicating changes in tissue stiffness and size are particularly relevant in the intestine because it is subject to constant mechanical stresses caused by peristalsis of its variable content. Using the Drosophila intestinal epithelium, we investigate the role of vinculin, one of the best characterised mechanoeffectors, which functions in both cadherin and integrin adhesion complexes. We discovered that vinculin regulates cell fate decisions, by preventing precocious activation and differentiation of intestinal progenitors into absorptive cells. It achieves this in concert with α-catenin at sites of cadherin adhesion, rather than as part of integrin function. Following asymmetric division of the stem cell into a stem cell and an enteroblast (EB), the two cells initially remain connected by adherens junctions, where vinculin is required, only on the EB side, to maintain the EB in a quiescent state and inhibit further divisions of the stem cell. By manipulating cell tension, we show that vinculin recruitment to adherens junction regulates EB activation and numbers. Consequently, removing vinculin results in an enlarged gut with improved resistance to starvation. Thus, mechanical regulation at the contact between stem cells and their progeny is used to control tissue cell number.
    Keywords:  D. melanogaster; developmental biology; differentiation; intestinal homeostasis; mechanotransduction; regenerative medicine; stem cell; stem cells; vinculin
  11. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 1006501
      Background: Macrophage infiltration is crucial for colorectal cancer (CRC) immunotherapy. Detailed classification of macrophage subsets will facilitate the selection of patients suitable for immunotherapy. However, the classification of macrophages in CRC is not currently detailed.Methods: In this study, we combined single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and bulk-seq to analyze patients with colorectal cancer. scRNA-seq data were used to study cell-cell communication and to differentiate immune-infiltrating cells and macrophage subsets. Bulk-seq data were used to further analyze immune infiltration, clinical features, tumor mutational burden, and expression of immune checkpoint molecules in patients with CRC having different macrophage subsets.
    Results: Seven macrophage subpopulations were identified, among which indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) macrophages had the most significant difference in the degree of infiltration among normal, microsatellite-unstable, and microsatellite-stable populations. We then performed gene set variation analysis using 12 marker genes of IDO1 macrophages and divided the patients into two clusters: high-IDO1 macrophages (H-IDO1M) and low-IDO1 macrophages (L-IDO1M). H-IDO1M showed higher infiltration of immune cells, higher expression of immune checkpoints, and less advanced pathological stages than L-IDO1M (p < 0.05).
    Conclusions: This study elucidated that IDO1-macrophage-based molecular subtypes can predict the response to immunotherapy in patients with CRC. The results provide new insights into tumor immunity and help in clinical decisions regarding designing effective immunotherapy for these patients.
    Keywords:  IDO1; colorectal cancer (CRC); immunotherapy; macrophage; single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq); tumor immunity
  12. JCI Insight. 2022 Oct 18. pii: e158060. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: A patient-derived organoid (PDO) platform may serve as a promising tool for translational cancer research. In this study, we evaluated PDO's ability to predict clinical response to gastrointestinal (GI) cancers.METHODS: We generated PDOs from primary and metastatic lesions of patients with GI cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. We compared PDO response with the observed clinical response for donor patients to the same treatments.
    RESULTS: We reported an approximately 80% concordance rate between PDO and donor tumor response. Importantly, we found a profound influence of culture media on PDO phenotype, where we showed significant difference in response to standard of care chemotherapies, distinct morphologies, and transcriptomes between media within the same PDOs cultures.
    CONCLUSION: While we demonstrate a high concordance rate between donor tumor and PDO, these studies also showed the important role of culture media when using PDOs to inform treatment selection and predict response across a spectrum of GI cancers.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.
    FUNDING: This work was supported by the Joan F. & Richard A. Abdoo Family Fund in Colorectal Cancer Research, CA265050, GI Cancer program of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Mayo Clinic SPORE in Pancreatic Cancer, Center of Individualized Medicine (Mayo Clinic), Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (Mayo Clinic), Incyte Pharmaceuticals and Mayo Clinic Hepatobiliary SPORE, a University of Minnesota-Mayo Clinic Partnership grant, and the Early Therapeutic program (Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic).
    Keywords:  Colorectal cancer; Drug therapy; Liver cancer; Oncology; Therapeutics
  13. BMC Gastroenterol. 2022 Oct 17. 22(1): 437
      BACKGROUND: Selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1), a member of the selenium-containing protein family, plays an important role in malignant tumorigenesis and progression. However, it is currently lacking research about relationship between SELENBP1 and immunotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC).METHODS: We first analyzed the expression levels of SELENBP1 based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Oncomine andUALCAN. Chisq.test, Fisher.test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression were used to analyze the relationship of clinical characteristics with SELENBP1 expression. Then Gene ontology/ Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (GO/KEGG), Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) enrichment analysis to clarify bio-processes and signaling pathways. The cBioPortal was used to perform analysis of mutation sites, types, etc. of SELENBP1. In addition, the correlation of SELENBP1 gene with tumor immune infiltration and prognosis was analyzed using ssGSEA, ESTIMATE, tumor immune dysfunction and rejection (TIDE) algorithm and Kaplan-Meier (KM) Plotter database. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting (WB) were used to validate the expression of SELENBP1 in CRC samples and matched normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was further performed to detect the expression of SELENBP1 in CRC samples and matched normal tissues.
    RESULTS: We found that SELENBP1 expression was lower in CRC compared to normal colorectal tissue and was associated with poor prognosis. The aggressiveness of CRC increased with decreased SELENBP1 expression. Enrichment analysis showed that the SELENBP1 gene was significantly enriched in several pathways, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling, signaling by interleukins, TCR signaling, collagen degradation, costimulation by the CD28 family. Decreased expression of SELENBP1 was associated with DNA methylation and mutation. Immune infiltration analysis identified that SELENBP1 expression was closely related to various immune cells and immune chemokines/receptors. With increasing SELENBP1 expression, immune and stromal components in the tumor microenvironment were significantly decreased. SELENBP1 expression in CRC patients affects patient prognosis by influencing tumor immune infiltration. Beside this, SELENBP1 expression is closely related to the sensitivity of chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
    CONCLUSIONS: Survival analysis as well as enrichment and immunoassay results suggest that SELENBP1 can be considered as a promising prognostic biomarker for CRC. SELENBP1 expression is closely associated with immune infiltration and immunotherapy. Collectively, our study provided useful information on the oncogenic role of SELENBP1, contributing to further exploring the underlying mechanisms.
    Keywords:  Chemotherapy; Colorectal cancer; Immune infiltration; Immunotherapy; Prognosis; SELENBP1
  14. Clin Immunol. 2022 Oct 13. pii: S1521-6616(22)00238-8. [Epub ahead of print] 109157
      For locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by total mesorectal excision or complete mesocolic excision is the standard therapeutic strategy, which is key to patient survival. Involvement of the tumor immune microenvironment is a factor that regulates tumor progression and sensitivity to nCRT in CRC. In this study, we aimed to identify the effect of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70)/toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) on mFOLFOX sensitization for CRC. A total of 22 patients with advanced CRC who had received neoadjuvant mFOLFOX were enrolled and classified into the mFOLFOX-insensitive or -sensitive group, according to the tumor regression grade. The abundance of immune infiltrates was significantly higher in the post-operative pathological specimens of the mFOLFOX-insensitive group, as compared to those of the mFOLFOX-sensitive group. After transcriptome sequencing, differentially expressed genes between the two groups were annotated to inflammatory and immune responses using Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, and the TLR signaling pathway was analyzed using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. Significantly higher expression levels of HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and TLR-2 in the mFOLFOX-insensitive group were detected using immunofluorescence assays. TIMER2.0 platform was introduced to further narrow the scope of HSP70 (HSPA6 or HSPA7) and TLR-2, which exhibited positive correlations with dendritic cells, Tregs, or CD4+ T cells and negative correlations with CD3+ or CD8+ T cells, implying that HSP70/TLR-2 activation mediates immunosuppressive cells to counteract CD8+ T cells, which may be a novel target of CRC treatment. A promising synergistic effect of mFOLFOX combined with a TLR-2 inhibitor was observed in vivo in mouse allograft models, which could be partly rescued by recombinant HSP70 protein. Immunohistochemical staining of allografts and immunofluorescence assays of clinical specimens corroborated the regulatory effects of the immune microenvironment. In summary, HSP70/TLR-2 activation can regulate the tumor immune microenvironment of CRC and further remodel its sensitivity to mFOLFOX. However, the specific mechanisms remain unclear and require further investigation. This study is expected to provide a new direction for the clinical treatment of CRC.
    Keywords:  Colorectal cancer; Heat shock protein-70; Immune microenvironment; Toll-like receptor-2; mFOLFOX
  15. J Clin Oncol. 2022 Oct 17. JCO2201690
      PURPOSE: To develop recommendations for treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).METHODS: ASCO convened an Expert Panel to conduct a systematic review of relevant studies and develop recommendations for clinical practice.
    RESULTS: Five systematic reviews and 10 randomized controlled trials met the systematic review inclusion criteria.
    RECOMMENDATIONS: Doublet chemotherapy should be offered, or triplet therapy may be offered to patients with previously untreated, initially unresectable mCRC, on the basis of included studies of chemotherapy in combination with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies. In the first-line setting, pembrolizumab is recommended for patients with mCRC and microsatellite instability-high or deficient mismatch repair tumors; chemotherapy and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy is recommended for microsatellite stable or proficient mismatch repair left-sided treatment-naive RAS wild-type mCRC; chemotherapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy is recommended for microsatellite stable or proficient mismatch repair RAS wild-type right-sided mCRC. Encorafenib plus cetuximab is recommended for patients with previously treated BRAF V600E-mutant mCRC that has progressed after at least one previous line of therapy. Cytoreductive surgery plus systemic chemotherapy may be recommended for selected patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases; however, the addition of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is not recommended. Stereotactic body radiation therapy may be recommended following systemic therapy for patients with oligometastases of the liver who are not considered candidates for resection. Selective internal radiation therapy is not routinely recommended for patients with unilobar or bilobar metastases of the liver. Perioperative chemotherapy or surgery alone should be offered to patients with mCRC who are candidates for potentially curative resection of liver metastases. Multidisciplinary team management and shared decision making are recommended. Qualifying statements with further details related to implementation of guideline recommendations are also included.Additional information is available at
  16. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 1007514
      Background: Treatment options for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) are mostly ineffective. We present new evidence that tumor tissue collagen type X alpha 1 (COL10A1) is a relevant candidate biomarker to improve this dilemma.Methods: Several public databases had been screened to observe COL10A1 expression in transcriptome levels with cell lines and tissues. Protein interactions and alignment to changes in clinical parameters and immune cell invasion were performed, too. We also used algorithms to build a novel COL10A1-related immunomodulator signature. Various wet-lab experiments were conducted to quantify COL10A1 protein and transcript expression levels in disease and control cell models.
    Results: COL10A1 mRNA levels in tumor material is clinical and molecular prognostic, featuring upregulation compared to non-cancer tissue, increase with histomorphological malignancy grading of the tumor, elevation in tumors that invade perineural areas, or lymph node invasion. Transcriptomic alignment noted a strong positive correlation of COL10A1 with transcriptomic signature of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and populations of the immune compartment, namely, B cells and macrophages. We verified those findings in functional assays showing that COL10A1 are decreased in CRC cells compared to fibroblasts, with strongest signal in the cell supernatant of the cells.
    Conclusion: COL10A1 abundance in CRC tissue predicts metastatic and immunogenic properties of the disease. COL10A1 transcription may mediate tumor cell interaction with its stromal microenvironment.
    Keywords:  biomarker; collagen type 10; colon cancer; prognosis; tumor microenvironment