bims-instec Biomed News
on Intestinal stem cells and chemoresistance in colon cancer and intestinal regeneration
Issue of 2022‒04‒24
eight papers selected by
Maria-Virginia Giolito

  1. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2022 ;2022 9369328
      The present study aimed to evaluate the synergic effects of combination therapy on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance-cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to treatment. Chemotherapy resistance is an important challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) eradication attention to the tumor microenvironment (TME) is very important. CAFs in the TME play an essential role in cancer chemoresistance and relapse. Additionally, many patients with advanced CRC show resistance to 5-FU therapy. Anti-tumorigenic activities of ZER, a chemopreventive compound derived from the rhizomes of the wild ginger, have been demonstrated. Synergistic and potentiating effects of combination therapy, using herbal and chemical drugs, can improve patients' response. At the first, CAFs were isolated from a CRC patient and sorted by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS), then, confirmed by flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry (ICC). The effect of 5-FU and ZER on the cell viability was investigated by MTT assay in a dose and time-dependent manner, after that, the expression of vimentin, β-catenin, and survivin was quantified. Apoptosis, cell cycle, and invasion were analyzed by flow cytometry and scratch test, respectively. ZER could significantly sensitize CAFs cells to 5-FU. A combination of 5-FU + ZER revealed a marked decrease in the marker of interest in both mRNA and protein levels compared to control groups, including 5-FU, ZER treated, and untreated cells. Functional evaluation of cells in different groups presented significant suppression in migration of CAFs and an apparent increase in cell arrest and apoptosis by 5-FU + ZER treatment.
  2. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2022 Jan-Dec;21:21 15330338221081219
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world that seriously affects human health. Activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological phenomenon during embryonic development that is essential for cell metastasis. EMT participates in various biological processes associated with trauma repair, organ fibrosis, migration, metastasis, and infiltration of tumor cells. EMT is a new therapeutic target for CRC; however, some patients with CRC develop resistance to some drugs due to EMT. This review focuses specifically on the status of treatments that target the EMT process and its role in the therapeutic resistance observed in patients with CRC.
    Keywords:  CRC; EMT; drug resistance; treatment
  3. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 808889
      Recent studies have identified that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) might affect the responses to anticancer drug treatment, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PVT1 and the chemotherapy response in metastatic colorectal cancer has yet to be clarified. In this study, the PVT1 rs2278176 CT/TT genotypes were found to be associated with an increased overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with the CC genotype. Furthermore, patients harboring the rs2278176 CT/TT genotypes had a greater chance of achieving clinical benefit from 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin combined with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). In vivo nude mice experiments demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 mediated rs2278176 C to T mutation significantly inhibited the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer cells treated with 5-Fu, but not control DMSO treated cells. Furthermore, the apoptotic rate was significantly enhanced by treatment with 5-Fu in the CRC cells carrying with the CT/TT genotypes. Functional studies demonstrated that the PVT1 rs2278176 C to T mutation altered the binding site for hsa-miR-297, and that hsa-miR-297 downregulated Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 2(GSTA2), a member of phase II detoxification enzyme, in an Argonaute 2(Ago2)-dependent manner. Moreover, GSTA2 levels were downregulated in the cancer tissues of patients carrying rs2278176 CT/TT genotypes. High GSTA2 expression predicted poor clinical outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer treated with FOLFOX. In conclusion, this study provided that PVT1 with rs2278176 T allele altered the binding affinity with hsa-miR-297, leading to decreased GSTA2 expression and sensitized CRC cells to FOLFOX chemotherapy, suggesting rs2278176 CT/TT genotypes might serve as a predictive biomarker to improve prognosis in patients with metastatic CRC treated with FOLFOX.
    Keywords:  PVT1; chemotherapy; colorectal cancer; polymorphism; survival
  4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Apr 26. 119(17): e2110557119
      SignificanceMany new cancer drugs fail at the clinical stage owing to poor efficacy and/or excessive toxicity, though whether this reflects shortcomings of the target or the drug is often unclear. To gain earlier insights into factors that can influence the therapeutic index of target inhibition in vivo, we combine inducible RNA interference and somatic engineering technologies to produce a cost-effective platform that enables systemic and inducible suppression of candidate target in normal tissues and tumor cells in the same mouse. By comparing the consequences of genetic and pharmacological CDK9 inhibition, we establish the utility of this platform to predict factors influencing the therapeutic index. Additionally, our studies provide support, and some cautionary notes, for the clinical development of CDK9 inhibitors.
    Keywords:  CDK9; hepatocellular carcinoma; mouse model; preclinical platform
  5. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2022 Mar 26. pii: S1533-0028(22)00038-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      Our understanding of the diagnostic and prognostic use of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) has broadly expanded over the past few years. The utilization of ctDNA to detect minimal residual disease is currently being employed across the continuum of cancer care. The lead-time of ctDNA positivity to radiographic recurrence in stage I to III CRC is up to 9 months on average, which provides a therapeutic window for a group of high-risk patients who will ultimately recur. There are several ongoing prospective clinical trials that investigate whether ctDNA can be used as an integral biomarker to risk stratify CRC patients and guide adjuvant treatment decisions. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the promise of ctDNA-defined MRD in CRC and highlight the current ctDNA guided adjuvant prospective clinical trials.
    Keywords:  Biomarkers; Circulating tumor DNA; Clinical trials; Colon cancer; Liquid biopsy
  6. Eur J Cancer. 2022 Apr 14. pii: S0959-8049(22)00155-1. [Epub ahead of print]168 34-40
      BACKGROUND: Encorafenib plus cetuximab is efficient in anti-EGFR-naïve patients with BRAFV600E mutated (BRAFm) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). No data are available concerning the efficacy of BRAF inhibitors associated with anti-EGFRs (B + E) in patients previously treated with an anti-EGFR agent.METHODS: We retrospectively collected a series of patients with BRAFm mCRC treated with B + E after previous anti-EGFR treatment, in 14 centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the start of treatment, and we reported objective response and disease control rates (ORR, DCR; RECIST V1.1).
    RESULTS: Twenty-five BRAFm mCRC patients were enrolled. Prior to B + E treatment, 4/10/11 patients were treated with 1/2/> 2 previous treatment lines. Ten patients received previous panitumumab, 14 cetuximab, 1 both. Immediate progression with previous anti-EGFR was reported for 7 patients. Anti-BRAF was encorafenib for 21 patients, dabrafenib for 4 patients, with cetuximab for 24 patients and panitumumab for 1 patient. ORR was 40% (10 patients) and DCR was 80% (20 patients). Median PFS and OS were 4.8 months (95% CI, 4.01-7.95) and 10.1 months (95% CI, 7.75-NR). DCR amongst patients with previous primary resistance to anti-EGFR (N = 7) was 100%. Two patients discontinued B + E due to drug-related adverse event.
    CONCLUSIONS: Though in a limited retrospective series of patients, these results show the efficacy of the combination of anti-BRAF and anti-EGFRs in BRAFm mCRC patients previously treated with an anti-EGFR. The use of this combination should thus not be ruled out in this population with limited therapeutic options.
    Keywords:  Anti-EGFRs; BRAF V600E mutation; BRAF inhibitors; Metastatic colon cancer
  7. Front Mol Biosci. 2022 ;9 870395
      Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) combined with chemotherapy in patients with RAS (rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) can alleviate and stabilize the disease, effectively prolong the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and improve the overall response rate (ORR), which is the first-line treatment standard scheme for RAS wild-type mCRC currently. However, whether anti-EGFR mAb can be used for the maintenance treatment after the first-line treatment of mCRC remains controversial. We reviewed the recent studies on anti-EGFR mAb. The contents include five parts, introduction, anti-EGFR mAb in mCRC and its status in first-line therapy, establishment of the maintenance treatment pattern after the standard first-line treatment for mCRC, research progress of anti-EGFR mAb in mCRC maintenance therapy, and conclusion. More studies support the maintenance treatment of anti-EGFR mAb, but some researchers raise the problems about high cost and drug resistance. Despite lack of the maintenance evidence of anti-EGFR mAb, especially lack of large-scale phase III prospective clinical trials, with the emergence of new evidence and more accurate screening of treatment-dominant groups, maintenance therapy with anti-EGFR mAb monotherapy or anti-EGFR mAb combined with fluorouracil-based schemes after first-line chemotherapy combined with anti-EGFR mAb therapy might strive for more treatment opportunities, optimize treatment strategies and prolong treatment continuity, and finally, lead to more survival benefit for suitable patients.
    Keywords:  EGFR; cetuximab; mCRC; maintenance therapy; monoclonal antibody; panitumumab
  8. BMC Cancer. 2022 Apr 20. 22(1): 428
      BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of regorafenib on soluble MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) (sMICA) level in vitro. In addition, we clinically examined whether its plasma levels were associated with regorafenib activity in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with CRC.METHODS: Human CRC cell line HCT116 and HT29 cells were treated with regorafenib and its pharmacologically active metabolites, M2 or M5 at the same concentrations as those in sera of patients. We also examined the sMICA levels and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of regorafenib, M2 and M5.
    RESULTS: Regorafenib, M2, and M5 significantly suppressed shedding of MICA in human CRC cells without toxicity. This resulted in the reduced production of sMICA. In the clinical examination, patients with CRC who showed long median PFS (3.7 months) had significantly lower sMICA levels than those with shorter median PFS (1.2 months) (p = 0.045).
    CONCLUSIONS: MICA is an attractive agent for manipulating the immunological control of CRC and baseline sMICA levels could be a predictive biomarker for the efficacy of regorafenib treatment.
    Keywords:  Colorectal Cancer; MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A; Natural killer cell; Regorafenib