bims-inflin Biomed News
on Inflammasome and infection
Issue of 2024‒06‒23
four papers selected by
Juliane Cristina Ribeiro Fernandes, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto

  1. Cancer Gene Ther. 2024 Jun 19.
      Activation of Gasdermin D (GSDMD) results in its cleavage, oligomerization, and subsequent formation of plasma membrane pores, leading to a form of inflammatory cell death denoted as pyroptosis. The roles of GSDMD in inflammation and immune responses to infection are well documented. However, whether GSDMD also plays a role in sporadic cancer development, especially that in the gut epithelium, remains unknown. Here, we show that GSDMD is activated in colorectal tumors of both human and mouse origins. Ablation of GSDMD in a mouse model of sporadic colorectal cancer resulted in reduced tumor formation in the colon and rectum, suggesting a tumor-promoting role of the protein in the gut. Both antibiotic-mediated depletion of gut microbiota and pharmacological inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome reduced the activation of GSDMD. Loss of GSDMD resulted in reduced infiltration of immature myeloid cells, and increased numbers of macrophages in colorectal tumors. Activation of GSDMD is also accompanied by the aggregation of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) membrane repair proteins on the membrane of colorectal tumor cells, suggesting that active membrane repairment may prevent pyroptosis induced by the formation of GSDMD pore in tumor cells. Our results show that gut microbiota/NLRP3-mediated activation of GSDMD promotes the development of colorectal tumors, and supports the use of NLRP3 inhibitors to treat colon cancer.
  2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Jun 18. 121(25): e2316551121
      The NLRP3 inflammasome, a pivotal component of innate immunity, has been implicated in various inflammatory disorders. The ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 is well known to regulate inflammation and maintain homeostasis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which A20 modulates the NLRP3 inflammasome remain poorly understood. Here, our study revealed that macrophages deficient in A20 exhibit increased protein abundance and elevated mRNA level of NIMA-related kinase 7 (NEK7). Importantly, A20 directly binds with NEK7, mediating its K48-linked ubiquitination, thereby targeting NEK7 for proteasomal degradation. Our results demonstrate that A20 enhances the ubiquitination of NEK7 at K189 and K293 ubiquitinated sites, with K189 playing a crucial role in the binding of NEK7 to A20, albeit not significantly influencing the interaction between NEK7 and NLRP3. Furthermore, A20 disrupts the association of NEK7 with the NLRP3 complex, potentially through the OTU domain and/or synergistic effect of ZnF4 and ZnF7 motifs. Significantly, NEK7 deletion markedly attenuates the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in A20-deficient conditions, both in vitro and in vivo. This study uncovers a mechanism by which A20 inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome.
    Keywords:  NEK7; NLRP3; TNFAIP3; ubiquitination
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2024 May 22. pii: 5616. [Epub ahead of print]25(11):
      Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that causes fatal neurological disease, raising serious public health issues and attracting extensive attention in society. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of RABV-induced neuronal damage, we used hematoxylin-eosin staining, transmission electron microscopy, transcriptomics analysis, and immune response factor testing to investigate RABV-infected neurons. We successfully isolated the neurons from murine brains. The specificity of the isolated neurons was identified by a monoclonal antibody, and the viability of the neurons was 83.53-95.0%. We confirmed that RABV infection induced serious damage to the neurons according to histochemistry and transmission electron microscope (TEM) scanning. In addition, the transcriptomics analysis suggested that multiple genes related to the pyroptosis pathway were significantly upregulated, including gasdermin D (Gsdmd), Nlrp3, caspase-1, and IL-1β, as well as the chemokine genes Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, Ccl7, Ccl12, and Cxcl10. We next verified this finding in the brains of mice infected with the rRC-HL, GX074, and challenge virus standard strain-24 (CVS-24) strains of RABV. Importantly, we found that the expression level of the Gsdmd protein was significantly upregulated in the neurons infected with different RABV strains and ranged from 691.1 to 5764.96 pg/mL, while the basal level of mock-infected neurons was less than 100 pg/mL. Taken together, our findings suggest that Gsdmd-induced pyroptosis is involved in the neuron damage caused by RABV infection.
    Keywords:  Gsdmd; neuronal cell; pyroptosis; rabies virus (RABV); transcriptomics profile
  4. Elife. 2024 Jun 18. pii: e95980. [Epub ahead of print]13
      Tuberculosis is a major global health problem and is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. There is a pressing need for new treatments that circumvent emerging antibiotic resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis parasitises macrophages, reprogramming them to establish a niche in which to proliferate, therefore macrophage manipulation is a potential host-directed therapy if druggable molecular targets could be identified. The pseudokinase Tribbles1 (Trib1) regulates multiple innate immune processes and inflammatory profiles making it a potential drug target in infections. Trib1 controls macrophage function, cytokine production, and macrophage polarisation. Despite wide-ranging effects on leukocyte biology, data exploring the roles of Tribbles in infection in vivo are limited. Here, we identify that human Tribbles1 is expressed in monocytes and is upregulated at the transcript level after stimulation with mycobacterial antigen. To investigate the mechanistic roles of Tribbles in the host response to mycobacteria in vivo, we used a zebrafish Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) infection tuberculosis model. Zebrafish Tribbles family members were characterised and shown to have substantial mRNA and protein sequence homology to their human orthologues. trib1 overexpression was host-protective against Mm infection, reducing burden by approximately 50%. Conversely, trib1 knockdown/knockout exhibited increased infection. Mechanistically, trib1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of proinflammatory factors il-1β and nitric oxide. The host-protective effect of trib1 was found to be dependent on the E3 ubiquitin kinase Cop1. These findings highlight the importance of Trib1 and Cop1 as immune regulators during infection in vivo and suggest that enhancing macrophage TRIB1 levels may provide a tractable therapeutic intervention to improve bacterial infection outcomes in tuberculosis.
    Keywords:  human; immunology; infectious disease; inflammation; innate immunity; macrophage; microbiology; neutrophil; tribbles; tuberculosis; zebrafish