bims-imicid Biomed News
on Immunometabolism of infection, cancer and immune-mediated disease
Issue of 2023‒10‒29
34 papers selected by
Dylan Ryan, University of Cambridge

  1. Immunity. 2023 Oct 20. pii: S1074-7613(23)00441-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lipid metabolism has been associated with the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-AMP synthase (cGAS) stimulator of interferon genes (STING) DNA-sensing pathway, but our understanding of how these signals are integrated into a cohesive immunometabolic program is lacking. Here, we have identified liver X receptor (LXR) agonists as potent inhibitors of STING signaling. We show that stimulation of lipid metabolism by LXR agonists specifically suppressed cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP)-STING signaling. Moreover, we developed cyclic dinucleotide-conjugated beads to biochemically isolate host effectors for cGAMP inhibition, and we found that LXR ligands stimulated the expression of sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3A (SMPDL3A), which is a 2'3'-cGAMP-degrading enzyme. Results of crystal structures suggest that cGAMP analog induces dimerization of SMPDL3A, and the dimerization is critical for cGAMP degradation. Additionally, we have provided evidence that SMPDL3A cleaves cGAMP to restrict STING signaling in cell culture and mouse models. Our results reveal SMPDL3A as a cGAMP-specific nuclease and demonstrate a mechanism for how LXR-associated lipid metabolism modulates STING-mediated innate immunity.
    Keywords:  LXR lipid metabolism; SMPDL3A; cGAMP; cGAS-STING signaling; immunometabolism; innate immunity
  2. J Thromb Haemost. 2023 Oct 19. pii: S1538-7836(23)00774-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Myeloid cell metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of inflammatory disease, however, its role in inflammation-induced hypercoagulability is poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: /Methods: Using novel myeloid cell-based global haemostasis assays and murine models of immunometabolic disease, we evaluated the role of inflammation-associated metabolic reprogramming in regulating blood coagulation.
    RESULTS: Glycolysis was essential for enhanced activated myeloid cell tissue factor expression and decryption, driving increased cell-dependent thrombin generation in response to inflammatory challenge. Similarly, inhibition of glycolysis enhanced activated macrophage fibrinolytic activity via reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)-activity. Macrophage polarisation or activation markedly increased endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) expression on monocytes and macrophages, leading to increased myeloid cell-dependent protein C activation. Importantly, inflammation-dependent EPCR expression on tissue-resident macrophages was also observed in vivo. Adipose tissue macrophages from obese mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited significantly enhanced EPCR expression and APC generation compared to macrophages isolated from the adipose tissue of healthy mice. Similarly, the induction of colitis in mice prompted infiltration of EPCR+ innate myeloid cells within inflamed colonic tissue that were absent from the intestinal tissue of healthy mice.
    CONCLUSION: Collectively, this study identifies immunometabolic regulation of myeloid cell hypercoagulability, opening new therapeutic possibilities for targeted mitigation of thrombo-inflammatory disease.
    Keywords:  coagulation; fibrinolysis; inflammation; macrophages; protein C
  3. Cell Rep. 2023 Oct 20. pii: S2211-1247(23)01318-9. [Epub ahead of print]42(10): 113306
      Regulatory T (Treg) cells exhibit immunosuppressive phenotypes and particular metabolic patterns with certain degrees of plasticity. Previous studies of the effects of the co-stimulatory molecule CD226 on Treg cells are controversial. Here, we show that CD226 primarily maintains the Treg cell stability and metabolism phenotype under inflammatory conditions. Conditional deletion of CD226 within Foxp3+ cells exacerbates symptoms in murine graft versus host disease models. Treg cell-specific deletion of CD226 increases the Treg cell percentage in immune organs but weakens their immunosuppressive function with a T helper 1-like phenotype conversion under inflammation. CD226-deficient Treg cells exhibit reduced oxidative phosphorylation and increased glycolysis rates, which are regulated by the adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/myelocytomatosis oncogene (Myc) pathway, and inhibition of Myc signaling restores the impaired functions of CD226-deficient Treg cells in an inflammatory disease model of colitis. This study reveals an Myc-mediated CD226 regulation of Treg cell phenotypic stability and metabolism, providing potential therapeutic strategies for targeted interventions of Treg cell-specific CD226 in inflammatory diseases.
    Keywords:  CD226; CP: Immunology; Treg cells; inflammatory diseases; metabolism
  4. Nat Metab. 2023 Oct 26.
      T cell activation is associated with a profound and rapid metabolic response to meet increased energy demands for cell division, differentiation and development of effector function. Glucose uptake and engagement of the glycolytic pathway are major checkpoints for this event. Here we show that the low-affinity, concentration-dependent glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) regulates the development of CD8+ T cell effector responses in mice by promoting glucose uptake, glycolysis and glucose storage. Expression of Glut2 is modulated by environmental factors including glucose and oxygen availability and extracellular acidification. Glut2 is highly expressed by circulating, recently primed T cells, allowing efficient glucose uptake and storage. In glucose-deprived inflammatory environments, Glut2 becomes downregulated, thus preventing passive loss of intracellular glucose. Mechanistically, Glut2 expression is regulated by a combination of molecular interactions involving hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha, galectin-9 and stomatin. Finally, we show that human T cells also rely on this glucose transporter, thus providing a potential target for therapeutic immunomodulation.
  5. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2023 Oct 26. e2302910
      Tumor immunotherapy offers a new paradigm to treat cancer; however, the existing regimens are accompanied by the dilemma of insufficient therapeutic outcomes and off-target adverse effects. The intestinal immune system contains a bulk of immune cells, which can be important contributors to the maintenance of systemic immune homeostasis. However, manipulating intestinal immunity to achieve systemic anti-tumor immunity is extremely challenging. Here, an oral immunotherapy strategy is reported using immune-enhancing fullerenes (IEF) that can reinvigorate anti-tumor immunity via immune cell-metabolic reprogramming of intestinal immune cells. Findings show that IEF can remodel anti-inflammatory macrophages into tumor-killing macrophages by regulating the energy metabolism pathway from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis. Consequently, IEF can reprogram the immunosuppressive intestinal immunity and enhance sys temic immunity in vivo, thereby boosting anti-tumor immunity and converting "cold" tumors into "hot" tumors. Oral immunotherapy strategy, modulating autoimmune cells in the intestine and achieving systemic anti-tumor immunity, can ensure safe and efficient tumor immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  cellular metabolism; immune-enhancing fullerenes; intestinal immunosuppression; proteomics; tumor immunotherapy
  6. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1257596
      Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its inflammatory and often progressive subtype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), have emerged as significant contributors to hepatic morbidity worldwide. The pathophysiology of NAFLD/NASH is multifaceted, variable, and remains incompletely understood. The pivotal role of liver-resident and recruited macrophages in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH is widely acknowledged as a crucial factor in innate immunity. The remarkable plasticity of macrophages enables them to assume diverse activation and polarization states, dictated by their immunometabolism microenvironment and functional requirements. Recent studies in the field of immunometabolism have elucidated that alterations in the metabolic profile of macrophages can profoundly influence their activation state and functionality, thereby influencing various pathological processes. This review primarily focuses on elucidating the polarization and activation states of macrophages, highlighting the correlation between their metabolic characteristics and the transition from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Additionally, we explore the potential of targeting macrophage metabolism as a promising therapeutic approach for the management of NAFLD/NASH.
    Keywords:  activation; immunometabolism; macrophage; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; polarization; therapeutic target
  7. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2023 Oct 26.
      Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common opportunistic infections and is a leading cause of mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV infection causes serious defects in the host immune system and increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). TB infection promotes HIV replication and aggravates host damage in patients with HIV/AIDS. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are essential immune cells during TB and HIV infections. AMs undergo a shift in mitochondrial metabolism during TB or HIV infection, that is, metabolic reprogramming, allowing them to act in the form of classical activated macrophages (M1) and alternative activated macrophages (M2) at different stages of infection. We reviewed the alterations in the mitochondrial energy metabolism of AMs in patients with HIV, TB, and HIV/TB to provide ideas for further research on the role of metabolic reprogramming by AMs in the pathogeneses of HIV, TB, and HIV/TB co-infection.
  8. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1171834
      Sepsis is a major life-threatening syndrome of organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response due to infection. Dysregulated immunometabolism is fundamental to the onset of sepsis. Particularly, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are gut microbes derived metabolites serving to drive the communication between gut microbes and the immune system, thereby exerting a profound influence on the pathophysiology of sepsis. Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have emerged as key players in shaping protein function, offering novel insights into the intricate connections between metabolism and phenotype regulation that characterize sepsis. Accumulating evidence from recent studies suggests that SCFAs can mediate various PTM-dependent mechanisms, modulating protein activity and influencing cellular signaling events in sepsis. This comprehensive review discusses the roles of SCFAs metabolism in sepsis associated inflammatory and immunosuppressive disorders while highlights recent advancements in SCFAs-mediated lysine acylation modifications, such as substrate supplement and enzyme regulation, which may provide new pharmacological targets for the treatment of sepsis.
    Keywords:  immunity; inflammation; protein post-translational modifications (PTMs); sepsis; short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
  9. Helicobacter. 2023 Oct 23. e13030
      The microbiota actively and extensively participates in the regulation of human metabolism, playing a crucial role in the development of metabolic diseases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), when colonizing gastric epithelial cells, not only induces local tissue inflammation or malignant transformation but also leads to systemic and partial changes in host metabolism. These shifts can be mediated through direct contact, toxic components, or indirect immune responses. Consequently, they influence various molecular metabolic events that impact nutritional status and iron absorption in the host. Unraveling the intricate and diverse molecular interaction links between H. pylori and human metabolism modulation is essential for understanding pathogenesis mechanisms and developing targeted treatments for related diseases. However, significant challenges persist in comprehensively understanding the complex association networks among H. pylori itself, the infected host's status, the host microbiome, and the immune response. Previous metabolomics research has indicated that H. pylori infection and eradication may selectively shape the metabolite and microbial profiles of gastric lesions. Yet, it remains largely unknown how these diverse metabolic pathways, including isovaleric acid, cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids, specifically modulate gastric carcinogenesis or affect the host's serum metabolism, consequently leading to the development of metabolic-associated diseases. The direct contribution of H. pylori to metabolisms still lacks conclusive evidence. In this review, we summarize recent advances in clinical evidence highlighting associations between chronic H. pylori infection and metabolic diseases, as well as its potential molecular regulatory patterns.
    Keywords:   Helicobacter pylori ; insulin resistance; metabolism; metabolites; microbiota; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  10. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2023 Oct 23.
      The signals and structure of the tissues in which leukocytes reside critically mould leukocyte function and development and have challenged our fundamental understanding of how to define and categorize tissue-resident immune cells. One specialized tissue niche that has a powerful effect on immune cell function is adipose tissue. The field of adipose tissue leukocyte biology has expanded dramatically and has revealed how tissue niches can shape immune cell function and reshape them in a setting of metabolic stress, such as obesity. Most notably, adipose tissue macrophages and T cells are under intense investigation due to their contributions to adipose tissue in the lean and obese states. Both adipose tissue macrophages and T cells have features associated with the metabolic function of adipose tissue that are distinct from features of macrophages and T cells that are classically characterized in other tissues. This Review provides state-of-the-art understanding of adipose tissue macrophages and T cells and discusses how their unique niche can help us to better understand diversity in leukocyte responses.
  11. J Immunother Cancer. 2023 Oct;pii: e007349. [Epub ahead of print]11(10):
      BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intratumoral lactate accumulation and acidosis impair T-cell function and antitumor immunity. Interestingly, expression of the lactate transporter monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 4, but not MCT1, turned out to be prognostic for the survival of patients with rectal cancer, indicating that single MCT4 blockade might be a promising strategy to overcome glycolysis-related therapy resistance.METHODS: To determine whether blockade of MCT4 alone is sufficient to improve the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy, we examined the effects of the selective MCT1 inhibitor AZD3965 and a novel MCT4 inhibitor in a colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumor spheroid model co-cultured with blood leukocytes in vitro and the MC38 murine CRC model in vivo in combination with an antibody against programmed cell death ligand-1(PD-L1).
    RESULTS: Inhibition of MCT4 was sufficient to reduce lactate efflux in three-dimensional (3D) CRC spheroids but not in two-dimensional cell-cultures. Co-administration of the MCT4 inhibitor and ICB augmented immune cell infiltration, T-cell function and decreased CRC spheroid viability in a 3D co-culture model of human CRC spheroids with blood leukocytes. Accordingly, combination of MCT4 and ICB increased intratumoral pH, improved leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation, delayed tumor growth, and prolonged survival in vivo. MCT1 inhibition exerted no further beneficial impact.
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that single MCT4 inhibition represents a novel therapeutic approach to reverse lactic-acid driven immunosuppression and might be suitable to improve ICB efficacy.
    Keywords:  Drug Therapy, Combination; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Immunologic Surveillance; Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating; Metabolism; Tumor Microenvironment
  12. PLoS One. 2023 ;18(10): e0293450
      Route of exposure to pathogens can inform divergent disease pathogenesis and mortality rates. However, the features that contribute to these differences are not well established. Host metabolism has emerged as a critical element governing susceptibility and the metabolism of tissue exposure sites are unique. Therefore, specific metabolic niches may contribute to the course and outcome of infection depending on route of infection. In the current study, we utilized a combination of imaging and systems metabolomics to map the spatiotemporal dynamics of the host response to intranasal (i.n.) or intradermal (i.d.) infection of mice using the bacterium Francisella tularensis subsp tularensis (FTT). FTT causes lethal disease through these infection routes with similar inoculation doses and replication kinetics, which allowed for isolation of host outcomes independent of bacterial burden. We observed metabolic modifications that were both route dependent and independent. Specifically, i.d. infection resulted in early metabolic reprogramming at the site of infection and draining lymph nodes, whereas the lungs and associated draining lymph nodes were refractory to metabolic reprogramming following i.n. infection. Irrespective of exposure route, FTT promoted metabolic changes in systemic organs prior to colonization, and caused massive dysregulation of host metabolism in these tissues prior to onset of morbidity. Preconditioning infection sites towards a more glycolytic and pro-inflammatory state prior to infection exacerbated FTT replication within the lungs but not intradermal tissue. This enhancement of replication in the lungs was associated with the ability of FTT to limit redox imbalance and alter the pentose phosphate pathway. Together, these studies identify central metabolic features of the lung and dermal compartments that contribute to disease progression and identify potential tissue specific targets that may be exploited for novel therapeutic approaches.
  13. FASEB J. 2023 11;37(11): e23267
      In multiple sclerosis (MS), the bone marrow hematopoietic system supplies immune cells to orchestrate central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and autoimmunity. Understanding the metabolic processes within the bone marrow is essential for unraveling the phenotype and function of immune cells. However, a comprehensive exploration of the metabolic landscape and its association with systemic immune response in MS at the single-cell level has yet to be elucidated. Herein, we conducted an analysis of 70 289 bone marrow cells obtained from seven patients with MS and seven health controls (referenced as HRA001783) to address this question. Our focus was primarily on investigating the metabolic preferences of diverse immune cell populations and delineating their metabolic manifestations in the bone marrow microenvironment of MS. Through our analysis, we observed the activation of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways in the bone marrow cells of MS patients. Notably, we discovered significant metabolic alterations in cell-cell communication within the plasma cell population in the MS bone marrow. These findings shed light on the complex metabolic landscape within the bone marrow niche during MS and highlight the distinctive metabolic characteristics of plasma cells in this context, which may provoke novel understanding of MS pathogenesis and promote future design of immune therapies.
    Keywords:  bone marrow; metabolism; multiple sclerosis; single-cell sequencing
  14. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Sep 22. pii: 1790. [Epub ahead of print]12(10):
      Macrophage polarization is highly involved in autoimmunity. M1 polarized macrophages drive inflammation and undergo metabolic reprogramming, involving downregulation of mitochondrial energy production and acceleration of glycolysis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an enigmatic tautomerase (ketonase and enolase), was discovered to regulate M1 polarization. Here, we reveal that KRP-6, a potent and highly selective MIF ketonase inhibitor, reduces MIF-induced human blood eosinophil and neutrophil migration similarly to ISO-1, the most investigated tautomerase inhibitor. We equally discovered that KRP-6 prevents M1 macrophage polarization and reduces ROS production in IFN-γ-treated cells. During metabolic reprogramming, KRP-6 improved mitochondrial bioenergetics by ameliorating basal respiration, ATP production, coupling efficiency and maximal respiration in LPS+IFN-γ-treated cells. KRP-6 also reduced glycolytic flux in M1 macrophages. Moreover, the selective MIF ketonase inhibitor attenuated LPS+IFN-γ-induced downregulation of PARP-1 and PARP-2 mRNA expression. We conclude that KRP-6 represents a promising novel therapeutic compound for autoimmune diseases, which strongly involves M1 macrophage polarization.
    Keywords:  MIF; MIF inhibitor; PARP; glycolysis; macrophage polarization; metabolic reprogramming; oxidative phosphorylation
  15. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2023 ;pii: S0100-879X2023000100673. [Epub ahead of print]56 e12830
      Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical respiratory syndrome with limited effective interventions. Lung macrophages play a critical role in the pathogenesis of abnormal inflammatory response in the syndrome. Recently, impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO), one of the key lipid metabolic signalings, was found to participate in the onset and development of various lung diseases, including ALI/ARDS. Lipid/fatty acid contents within mouse lungs were quantified using the Oil Red O staining. The protective effect of FAO activator L-carnitine (Lca, 50, 500, or 5 mg/mL) was evaluated by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assay, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), ELISA, immunoblotting, fluorescence imaging, and fluorescence plate reader detection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/mL)-stimulated THP-1-derived macrophages. The in vivo efficacy of Lca (300 mg/kg) was determined in a 10 mg/kg LPS-induced ALI mouse model. We found for the first time that lipid accumulation in pulmonary macrophages was significantly increased in a classical ALI murine model, which indicated disrupted FAO induced by LPS. Lca showed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on THP-1 derived macrophages upon LPS stimulation. Mechanistically, Lca was able to maintain FAO, mitochondrial activity, and ameliorate mitochondrial dynamics. In the LPS-induced ALI mouse model, we further discovered that Lca inhibited neutrophilic inflammation and decreased diffuse damage, which might be due to the preservation of mitochondrial homeostasis. These results broadened our understanding of ALI/ARDS pathogenesis and provided a promising drug candidate for this syndrome.
  16. Genes (Basel). 2023 Oct 17. pii: 1953. [Epub ahead of print]14(10):
      Metabolism and the immunological state are intimately intertwined, as defense responses are bioenergetically expensive. Metabolic homeostasis is a key requirement for the proper function of immune cell subsets, and the perturbation of the immune-metabolic balance is a recurrent event in many human diseases, including cancer, due to nutrient fluctuation, hypoxia and additional metabolic changes occurring in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Although much remains to be understood in the field of immunometabolism, here, we report the current knowledge on both physiological and cancer-associated metabolic profiles of immune cells, and the main molecular circuits involved in their regulation, highlighting similarities and differences, and emphasizing immune metabolic liabilities that could be exploited in cancer therapy to overcome immune resistance.
    Keywords:  AMPK; NF-κB; PI3K/Akt/mTOR; cancer; immunometabolism; immunosuppressive TME
  17. FASEB J. 2023 11;37(11): e23261
      Fatty acids are metabolized by β-oxidation within the "mitochondrial ketogenic pathway" (MKP) to generate β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), a ketone body. BHB can be generated by most cells but largely by hepatocytes following exercise, fasting, or ketogenic diet consumption. BHB has been shown to modulate systemic and brain inflammation; however, its direct effects on microglia have been little studied. We investigated the impact of BHB on Aβ oligomer (AβO)-stimulated human iPS-derived microglia (hiMG), a model relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). HiMG responded to AβO with proinflammatory activation, which was mitigated by BHB at physiological concentrations of 0.1-2 mM. AβO stimulated glycolytic transcripts, suppressed genes in the β-oxidation pathway, and induced over-expression of AD-relevant p46Shc, an endogenous inhibitor of thiolase, actions that are expected to suppress MKP. AβO also triggered mitochondrial Ca2+ increase, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. BHB potently ameliorated all the above mitochondrial changes and rectified the MKP, resulting in reduced inflammasome activation and recovery of the phagocytotic function impaired by AβO. These results indicate that microglia MKP can be induced to modulate microglia immunometabolism, and that BHB can remedy "keto-deficiency" resulting from MKP suppression and shift microglia away from proinflammatory mitochondrial metabolism. These effects of BHB may contribute to the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet intervention in aged mice and in human subjects with mild AD.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's; amyloid; inflammation; ketone; microglia; mitochondria; phagocytosis
  18. bioRxiv. 2023 Oct 10. pii: 2023.10.10.561739. [Epub ahead of print]
      Chronic, systemic inflammation is a pathophysiological manifestation of metabolic disorders. Inflammatory signaling leads to elevated glycolytic flux and a metabolic shift towards aerobic glycolysis and lactate generation. This rise in lactate corresponds with increased generation of lactoylLys modifications on histones, mediating transcriptional responses to inflammatory stimuli. Lactoylation is also generated through a non-enzymatic S-to-N acyltransfer from the glyoxalase cycle intermediate, lactoylglutathione (LGSH). Here, we report a regulatory role for LGSH in inflammatory signaling. In the absence of the primary LGSH hydrolase, glyoxalase 2 (GLO2), RAW264.7 macrophages display significant elevations in LGSH, while demonstrating a potentiated inflammatory response when exposed to lipopolysaccharides, corresponding with a rise in histone lactoylation. Interestingly, our data demonstrate that lactoylation is associated with more compacted chromatin than acetylation in an unstimulated state, however, upon stimulation, regions of the genome associated with lactoylation become markedly more accessible. Lastly, we demonstrate a spontaneous S-to-S acyltransfer of lactate from LGSH to CoA, yielding lactoyl-CoA. This represents the first known mechanism for the generation of this metabolite. Collectively, these data suggest that LGSH, and not intracellular lactate, is a primary contributing factor facilitating the inflammatory response.
  19. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1277281
      Introduction: Metabolic reprogramming potentiates host protection against antibiotic-sensitive or -resistant bacteria. However, it remains unclear whether a single reprogramming metabolite is effective enough to combat both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria. This knowledge is key for implementing an antibiotic-free approach.Methods: The reprogramming metabolome approach was adopted to characterize the metabolic state of zebrafish infected with tetracycline-sensitive and -resistant Edwardsiella tarda and to identify overlapping depressed metabolite in dying zebrafish as a reprogramming metabolite.
    Results: Aspartate was identify overlapping depressed metabolite in dying zebrafish as a reprogramming metabolite. Exogenous aspartate protects zebrafish against infection caused by tetracycline-sensitive and -resistant E. tarda. Mechanistically, exogenous aspartate promotes nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. NO is a well-documented factor of promoting innate immunity against bacteria, but whether it can play a role in eliminating both tetracycline-sensitive and -resistant E. tarda is unknown. Thus, in this study, aspartate was replaced with sodium nitroprusside to provide NO, which led to similar aspartate-induced protection against tetracycline-sensitive and -resistant E. tarda.
    Discussion: These findings support the conclusion that aspartate plays an important protective role through NO against both types of E. tarda. Importantly, we found that tetracycline-sensitive and -resistant E. tarda are sensitive to NO. Therefore, aspartate is an effective reprogramming metabolite that allows implementation of an antibiotic-free approach against bacterial pathogens.
    Keywords:  Edwardsiella tarda; antibiotic-free approach; aspartate; nitric oxide; reprogramming metabolome; sodium nitroprusside; zebrafish
  20. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1277102
      The gut is colonized by many commensal microorganisms, and the diversity and metabolic patterns of microorganisms profoundly influence the intestinal health. These microbial imbalances can lead to disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Microorganisms produce byproducts that act as signaling molecules, triggering the immune system in the gut mucosa and controlling inflammation. For example, metabolites like short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secondary bile acids can release inflammatory-mediated signals by binding to specific receptors. These metabolites indirectly affect host health and intestinal immunity by interacting with the intestinal epithelial and mucosal immune cells. Moreover, Tryptophan-derived metabolites also play a role in governing the immune response by binding to aromatic hydrocarbon receptors (AHR) located on the intestinal mucosa, enhancing the intestinal epithelial barrier. Dietary-derived indoles, which are synthetic precursors of AHR ligands, work together with SCFA and secondary bile acids to reduce stress on the intestinal epithelium and regulate inflammation. This review highlights the interaction between gut microbial metabolites and the intestinal immune system, as well as the crosstalk of dietary fiber intake in improving the host microbial metabolism and its beneficial effects on the organism.
    Keywords:  AHR; dietary fibre; intestinal microorganisms; short-chain fatty acids; tryptophan
  21. Sci Rep. 2023 Oct 21. 13(1): 17999
      Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are major gut metabolites that are involved in the regulation of dysfunction in immune responses, such as autoimmunity and cytokine storm. Numerous studies have reported a protective action of SCFAs against infectious diseases. This study investigated whether SCFAs have protective effect for immunity during fowl adenovirus-4 (FAdV-4) infection. We examined whether SCFA mixture (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) administration could protect against intramuscular challenge of a virulent viral strain. SCFA treatment promoted MHCII-expressing monocytes, the active form of T cells, and effector molecules in both peripheral and lymphoid tissues. It also boosted the production of immune molecules involved in pathogen elimination by intraepithelial lymphocytes and changed the intestinal microbial composition. We suggest that gut metabolites influence the gut microbial environment, and these changes stimulate macrophages and T cells to fight against the intramuscular challenge of FAdV-4.
  22. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1278560
      Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3) is crucial for the development and suppressive function of human regulatory T cells (Tregs). There are two predominant FOXP3 splicing isoforms in healthy humans, the full-length isoform and the isoform lacking exon 2, with different functions and regulation mechanisms. FOXP3 splicing isoforms show distinct abilities in the cofactor interaction and the nuclear translocation, resulting in different effects on the differentiation, cytokine secretion, suppressive function, linage stability, and environmental adaptation of Tregs. The balance of FOXP3 splicing isoforms is related to autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, and cancers. In response to environmental challenges, FOXP3 transcription and splicing can be finely regulated by T cell antigen receptor stimulation, glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and reactive oxygen species, with various signaling pathways involved. Strategies targeting energy metabolism and FOXP3 splicing isoforms in Tregs may provide potential new approaches for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, and cancers. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries about the FOXP3 splicing isoforms and address the metabolic regulation and specific functions of FOXP3 splicing isoforms in Tregs.
    Keywords:  autoimmune diseases; fatty acid oxidation; forkhead box P3; glycolysis; metabolic regulation; regulatory T cells; splicing isoforms; suppressive function
  23. Cell Rep. 2023 Oct 20. pii: S2211-1247(23)01281-0. [Epub ahead of print]42(10): 113269
      Emerging evidence suggests that immune receptors may participate in many aging-related processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cognitive decline. CD300f, a TREM2-like lipid-sensing immune receptor, is an exceptional receptor as it integrates activating and inhibitory cell-signaling pathways that modulate inflammation, efferocytosis, and microglial metabolic fitness. We hypothesize that CD300f can regulate systemic aging-related processes and ultimately healthy lifespan. We closely followed several cohorts of two strains of CD300f-/- and WT mice of both sexes for 30 months and observed an important reduction in lifespan and healthspan in knockout mice. This was associated with systemic inflammaging, increased cognitive decline, reduced brain glucose uptake observed by 18FDG PET scans, enrichment in microglial aging/neurodegeneration phenotypes, proteostasis alterations, senescence, increased frailty, and sex-dependent systemic metabolic changes. Moreover, the absence of CD300f altered macrophage immunometabolic phenotype. Taken together, we provide strong evidence suggesting that myeloid cell CD300f immune receptor contributes to healthy aging.
    Keywords:  CP: Immunology; CP: Metabolism; DAM; aging; cognitive decline; dementia; glucose metabolism; healthspan; immunometabolism; inflammaging; lifespan; macrophage; microglia; positron emmission tomography; sex differences
  24. Nat Commun. 2023 Oct 27. 14(1): 6858
      T cell exhaustion is a hallmark of cancer and persistent infections, marked by inhibitory receptor upregulation, diminished cytokine secretion, and impaired cytolytic activity. Terminally exhausted T cells are steadily replenished by a precursor population (Tpex), but the metabolic principles governing Tpex maintenance and the regulatory circuits that control their exhaustion remain incompletely understood. Using a combination of gene-deficient mice, single-cell transcriptomics, and metabolomic analyses, we show that mitochondrial insufficiency is a cell-intrinsic trigger that initiates the functional exhaustion of T cells. At the molecular level, we find that mitochondrial dysfunction causes redox stress, which inhibits the proteasomal degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and promotes the transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming of Tpex cells into terminally exhausted T cells. Our findings also bear clinical significance, as metabolic engineering of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells is a promising strategy to enhance the stemness and functionality of Tpex cells for cancer immunotherapy.
  25. Res Sq. 2023 Oct 05. pii: [Epub ahead of print]
      Abundant macrophage infiltration and altered tumor metabolism are two key hallmarks of glioblastoma. By screening a cluster of metabolic small-molecule compounds, we show that inhibiting glioblastoma cell glycolysis impairs macrophage migration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor stiripentol (an FDA-approved anti-seizure drug for Dravet Syndrome) emerges as the top hit. Combined profiling and functional studies demonstrate that LDHA-directed ERK pathway activates YAP1/STAT3 transcriptional co-activators in glioblastoma cells to upregulate CCL2 and CCL7, which recruit macrophages into the tumor microenvironment. Reciprocally, infiltrating macrophages produce LDHA-containing extracellular vesicles to promote glioblastoma cell glycolysis, proliferation, and survival. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of LDHA-mediated tumor-macrophage symbiosis markedly suppresses tumor progression and macrophage infiltration in glioblastoma mouse models. Analysis of tumor and plasma samples of glioblastoma patients confirms that LDHA and its downstream signals are potential biomarkers correlating positively with macrophage density. Thus, LDHA-mediated tumor-macrophage symbiosis provides therapeutic targets for glioblastoma.
  26. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2023 Dec;36 101558
      The monocytes are key components of innate immunity, as they can differentiate into phagocytic cells or macrophages with proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), two known neurotransmitters, are two environmental signals that contribute to the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and their subsequent polarization into proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Although monocytes and macrophages express proteins related to GABA and ATP-mediated response (GABAergic and purinergic systems, respectively), it is unknown whether changes in their expression occur during monocyte activation or their differentiation and polarization into macrophages. Therefore, we evaluated the expression levels of GABAergic and purinergic signaling components in the THP-1 monocyte cell line and their changes during monocyte activation, differentiation, and polarization to M1 proinflammatory macrophages. Our results showed that activated monocytes are characterized by increased expression of two GABAergic components, the GABA transporter 2 (GAT-2) and the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-67, an enzyme involved in GABA synthesis. Also, monocytes showed a pronounced expression of the purinergic receptors P2X4 and P2X7. Interestingly, during differentiation, monocytes increased the expression of the β2 subunit of GABA A-type receptor (GABA-AR), while the purinergic receptors P2X1 and P2X1del were reduced. In contrast, proinflammatory M1 macrophages showed a reduced expression in the α4 subunit of GABA-AR and GAD67, while P2X4 and P2X7 were overexpressed. These results indicate that dynamical changes in the GABAergic and purinergic components occur during the transition from monocytes to macrophages. Since GABA and ATP are two neurotransmitters, our results suggest that monocytes and macrophages respond to neurotransmitter-induced stimulation and may represent a path of interaction between the nervous and immune systems during peripheral inflammation and neuroinflammation development.
    Keywords:  GABA; GABA-AR; GAD67; M1 macrophages; P2X1; P2X1del; P2X4
  27. PLoS Pathog. 2023 Oct 23. 19(10): e1011731
      Cholesterol derived from the host milieu forms a critical factor for mycobacterial pathogenesis. However, the molecular circuitry co-opted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to accumulate cholesterol in host cells remains obscure. Here, we report that the coordinated action of WNT-responsive histone modifiers G9a (H3K9 methyltransferase) and SIRT6 (H3K9 deacetylase) orchestrate cholesterol build-up in in vitro and in vivo mouse models of Mtb infection. Mechanistically, G9a, along with SREBP2, drives the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake genes; while SIRT6 along with G9a represses the genes involved in cholesterol efflux. The accumulated cholesterol in Mtb infected macrophages promotes the expression of antioxidant genes leading to reduced oxidative stress, thereby supporting Mtb survival. In corroboration, loss-of-function of G9a in vitro and pharmacological inhibition in vivo; or utilization of BMDMs derived from Sirt6-/- mice or in vivo infection in haplo-insufficient Sirt6-/+ mice; hampered host cholesterol accumulation and restricted Mtb burden. These findings shed light on the novel roles of G9a and SIRT6 during Mtb infection and highlight the previously unknown contribution of host cholesterol in potentiating anti-oxidative responses for aiding Mtb survival.
  28. JHEP Rep. 2023 Nov;5(11): 100877
      Background & Aims: Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a common complication of obesity with a hallmark feature of hepatic steatosis. Recent data from animal models of MAFLD have demonstrated substantial changes in macrophage composition in the fatty liver. In humans, the relationship between liver macrophage heterogeneity and liver steatosis is less clear.Methods: Liver tissue from 21 participants was collected at time of bariatric surgery and analysed using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and H&E microscopy. Single-cell RNA sequencing was also conducted on a subset of samples (n = 3). Intrahepatic triglyceride content was assessed via MRI and tissue histology. Mouse models of hepatic steatosis were used to investigate observations made from human liver tissue.
    Results: We observed variable degrees of liver steatosis with minimal fibrosis in our participants. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed four macrophage clusters that exist in the human fatty liver encompassing Kupffer cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MdMs). The genes expressed in these macrophage subsets were similar to those observed in mouse models of MAFLD. Hepatic CD14+ monocyte/macrophage number correlated with the degree of steatosis. Using mouse models of early liver steatosis, we demonstrate that recruitment of MdMs precedes Kupffer cell loss and liver damage. Electron microscopy of isolated macrophages revealed increased lipid accumulation in MdMs, and ex vivo lipid transfer experiments suggested that MdMs may serve a distinct role in lipid uptake during MAFLD.
    Conclusions: The human liver in MAFLD contains macrophage subsets that align well with those that appear in mouse models of fatty liver disease. Recruited myeloid cells correlate well with the degree of liver steatosis in humans. MdMs appear to participate in lipid uptake during early stages of MALFD.
    Impact and implications: Metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is extremely common; however, the early inflammatory responses that occur in human disease are not well understood. In this study, we investigated macrophage heterogeneity in human livers during early MAFLD and demonstrated that similar shifts in macrophage subsets occur in human disease that are similar to those seen in preclinical models. These findings are important as they establish a translational link between mouse and human models of disease, which is important for the development and testing of new therapeutic approaches for MAFLD.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; Kupffer cells; Liver steatosis; Obesity
  29. Cancer Sci. 2023 Oct 25.
      We previously reported that the inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) enhances the antitumor function of CD8+ T cells indirectly via restoring production of DC recruiting chemokines by cancer cells and subsequent induction of antitumor CD8+ T cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of direct enhancing effects of SCD1 inhibitors on CD8+ T cells. In vitro treatment of CD8+ T cells with SCD1 inhibitors enhanced IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity of T cells along with decreased oleic acid and esterified cholesterol, which is generated by cholesterol esterase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), in CD8+ T cells. The addition of oleic acid or cholesteryl oleate reversed the enhanced functions of CD8+ T cells treated with SCD1 inhibitors. Systemic administration of SCD1 inhibitor to MCA205 tumor-bearing mice enhanced IFN-γ production of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, in which oleic acid and esterified cholesterol, but not cholesterol, were decreased. These results indicated that SCD1 suppressed effector functions of CD8+ T cells through the increased esterified cholesterol in an ACAT1-dependent manner, and SCD1 inhibition enhanced T cell activity directly through decreased esterified cholesterol. Finally, SCD1 inhibitors or ACAT1 inhibitors synergistically enhanced the antitumor effects of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy or CAR-T cell therapy in mouse tumor models. Therefore, the SCD1-ACAT1 axis is regulating effector functions of CD8+ T cells, and SCD1 inhibitors, and ACAT1 inhibitors are attractive drugs for cancer immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  CD8+ T cell; acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1); esterified cholesterol; oleic acid; stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1)
  30. Nat Commun. 2023 Oct 25. 14(1): 6772
      Antigen cognate dendritic cell (DC)-T cell synaptic interactions drive activation of T cells and instruct DCs. Upon receiving CD4+ T cell help, post-synaptic DCs (psDCs) are licensed to generate CD8+ T cell responses. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that enable psDCs licensing remain unclear. Here, we describe that antigen presentation induces an upregulation of MHC-I protein molecules and increased lipid peroxidation on psDCs in vitro and in vivo. We also show that these events mediate DC licensing. In addition, psDC adoptive transfer enhances pathogen-specific CD8+ T responses and protects mice from infection in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. Conversely, depletion of psDCs in vivo abrogates antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses during immunization. Together, our data show that psDCs enable CD8+ T cell responses in vivo during vaccination and reveal crucial molecular events underlying psDC licensing.
  31. Metabolites. 2023 Sep 27. pii: 1039. [Epub ahead of print]13(10):
      Though antibiotics are the mainstay treatment for Clostridioides difficile, a large population of individuals infected will experience recurrence. In turn, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a promising treatment for recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI). Mechanistically, by providing a healthy, diverse flora to the infected individual, FMT "resets" the underlying gut microbiome dysbiosis associated with rCDI. A proposed mechanism through which this occurs is via microbiome metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs); however, this has not been previously studied in pediatric patients. Using mass spectroscopy, we quantified pre- and post-transplant levels of acetate, isovalerate, butyrate, formate, and propionate in pediatric patients diagnosed with rCDI (n = 9). We compared pre- and post-transplant levels within the rCDI cohort at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-transplant and correlated these levels with healthy controls (n = 19). We witnessed a significant difference in the combined SCFA levels and the individual levels of acetate, butyrate, isovalerate, and propionate in the pre-treatment rCDI cohort compared to the healthy controls. In addition, there was a significant increase in combined SCFA levels at 12 months post-transplant within the rCDI group compared to that of their pre-transplant levels, and, more specifically, acetate, propionate, and isovalerate increased from pre-transplant to 12 months post-transplant. The longitudinal aspect of this study allowed us to identify mechanisms that contribute to the durability of responses to FMT, as well as characterize the unique patterns of short-chain fatty acid level recovery in rCDI pediatric patients.
    Keywords:  C. difficile; Clostridium difficile; FMT; SCFA; isovalerate; pediatric; propionate; short-chain fatty acids
  32. J Proteome Res. 2023 Oct 26.
      Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune condition that causes joint and surrounding tissue inflammation. Lipid mediators are involved in inflammation and deterioration of the joints. Despite attempts to discover effective drug targets to intervene with lipid metabolism in the disease, progress has been limited. In this study, precise lipidomic technology was employed to quantify a broad range of serum ceramides and sphingomyelin (SM) in a large cohort, revealing an association between the accumulation of circulating ceramides and disturbed ceramide/SM cycles during the progression of RA. In our investigation, we discovered that eight ceramides exhibited a positive correlation with the activity of RA, thereby enhancing the accuracy of RA diagnosis, particularly in patients with serum antibody-negative RA. Furthermore, the enzyme SM phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3) was found to disrupt the circulating SM cycle and accelerate the progression of RA. The activity of SMPD3 can be inhibited by methotrexate, resulting in decreased metabolic conversion of SM to ceramide. These findings suggest that targeting the SM cycle may provide a new therapeutic option for RA.
    Keywords:  ceramide; lipidomics; rheumatoid arthritis; sphingomyelin
  33. Cancer Res. 2023 Oct 24.
      Expanding the utility of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells in solid tumors requires improving their efficacy and safety. Hypoxia is a feature of most solid tumors that could be used to help CAR-T cells discriminate tumors from normal tissues. In this study, we developed hypoxia-responsive CAR-T cells by engineering the CAR to be under regulation of hypoxia responsive elements and selected the optimal structure (5H1P-CEA CAR), which can be activated in the tumor hypoxic microenvironment to induce CAR-T cells with high polyfunctionality. Hypoxia-responsive CAR-T cells were in a "resting" state with low CAR expression under normoxic conditions. Compared to conventional CAR-T cells, hypoxia-responsive CAR-T cells maintained lower differentiation and displayed enhanced oxidative metabolism and proliferation during cultivation, and they sowed a capacity to alleviate the negative effects of hypoxia on T cell proliferation and metabolism. Furthermore, 5H1P-CEA CAR-T cells exhibited decreased T cell exhaustion and improved T cell phenotype in vivo. In patient-derived xenograft models, hypoxia-responsive CAR-T cells induced more durable antitumor activity than their conventional counterparts. Overall, this study provides an approach to limit CAR expression to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment that could help to enhance CAR-T cell efficacy and safety in solid tumors.